snooker

snooker
Snooker player with rest.jpg
Snooker player playing a shot with a saaaincha:Glossary link
sarvochch niyantran nikaaya World Snooker Association
sabse pehle khela gaya 19th century
visheshataaeain
vargeekaran Cue sport
upakaran snooker balls
olanpik No

snooker ek dande wala khel hai jo ek bade hare banaat se dhke hue mej par khela jaata hai jiske pratyek chaar kone mein aur pratyek lambe lacheele kinaare ke beech mein pauket hote hain. ismein ek vidhivt (poorn aakaar ka) 12 fut × 6 fut (3.7 mi × 1.8 mi) mej hota hai. ise ek dande aur snooker geindon: ek safed saaaincha:Glossary link, 15 saaaincha:Glossary link jismein se pratyek ka maan ek ank hota hai aur saaaincha:Glossary link peele (2 ank), hare (3), bhoore (4), neele (5), gulaabi (6) aur kaale (7) rangon ki alag-alag chhah geindon ka prayog karke khela jaata hai.[1] dande waali geind ko saaaincha:Glossary link laal aur rangeen geindon ke saath prayog karte hue ek khilaadi (ya dal) apne pratidvandi ke viruddh adhik ank praapt kar snooker ka ek frem saaaincha:Glossary link (vyaktigat khel) jeetata hai. jab ek nishchit sankhya mein fremon ko jeet liya jaata hai to ek khilaadi match jeet jaata hai.

snooker, jise aam taur par Bhaarat mein british sena ke adhikaariyon dvaara aavishkaar kiya hua maana jaata hai, kai angreji bhaashi aur raashtramandal deshon mein lokapriya hai,[2] jismein sheersh peshevar khilaadi is khel se kairiyr ki kamaai bahu-million pound tak arjit karte hain.[3] yeh khel cheen mein vishesh roop se aur bahut hi lokapriya hain.[4]

anukram

itihaas

19veen sadi mein Tüabingen, Germany mein teen geind pauket biliyrds ke ek khel ke udaaharan

yeh aamtaur par sveekaar kiya jaata hai ki snooker ki utpatti 19 veen sadi ke uttaraarddh mein hui.[5] Bhaarat mein tainaat british sena ke adhikaariyon ke beech biliyrds ek lokapriya gatividhi raha tha aur adhik paramparaagat biliyrd khel mein badlaav ki yojana banaayi gayi. 1874[6] ya 1875[5] ke dauraan jabalapur ke adhikaariyon ke mes mein prakalpit ek badlaav piraamid pool aur life pool mein prayukt hone vaale laal aur kaale rang ke alaave rangeen geindon ko milaana tha.[7] snooker shabd ki utpatti bhi sainya mool ki hai, jiska prayog pratham varsh ke kaideton ya anubhavaheen karmiyon ke liye bol-chaal ki bhaasha ke roop mein kiya jaata tha.[5] pratiyogita ka ek roop yeh kehta hai ki jab devanashaayar rejimeint ke Colonel sar nevil chaimbarlan is nae khel ko khel rahe the, to unka pratidvandvi ek geind ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalne mein asafal raha aur chaimbarlan ne use ek snooker kaha.[7] is prakaar yeh naam biliyrds ke khel se jud gaya jismein anubhavaheen khilaadiyon ko snooker kaha jaata tha.[8]

snooker ka khel 19 veen sadi ke uttaraarddh aur 20 veen sadi ke aarambh mein badhta chala gaya aur 1927 tak jo Davis ke dvaara pratham vishv snooker pratiyogita[5] ka aayojan kiya ja chuka tha, jinhonne, ek peshevar angreji biliyrds aur snooker khilaadi ke roop mein, is khel ko ek manoranjan ki gatividhi se ek adhik peshevar kshetr mein parivrtit kiya.[9] sevaanivrutt hone ke poorv jo Davis ne 1946 tak pratyek vishv pratiyogita jeeti. 1950 aur 1960 ke dashakon ke dauraan khel mein giraavat aata gaya aur ise khelne vaale vyaktiyon ke alaave is khel mein bahut kam roochi kaayam rahi. 1959 mein, Davis ne do atirikt rangon ko milaakar khel ki lokapriyta mein sudhaar laane ka prayaas karne ke liye snooker plas naamak khel mein badlaav ki shuruaat ki. haalaanki, yeh kabhi lokapriya naheen hua. 1969 mein ek pramukh pragati hui, jab us samay BBC ke ek sheersh adhikaari David etenabauro ne rangeen television ki kshamata pradarshit karne ke liye snooker pratiyogita paut black ki shuruaat ki, jismein rangeen prasaaran ke laabhon ko pradarshit karne ke liye hare mej aur bahurangi geindon ka aadarsh roop mein prayog kiya gaya.[10][11] ti vi shrrunkhala moolyaankan mein ek safalta siddh hui aur ek samay BBC too par doosari sabse lokapriya sho thi.[12] khel mein ruchi badhti gayi aur 1978 ki vishv pratiyogita pratham pratiyogita thi jise poorn roop se television par dikhaaya gaya.[13][2] yeh khel sheegra hi yoo॰ake॰, Ireland aur raashtramandal ke adhikaansh deshon mein mukhyadhaara vishyak khel ban gaya[14] aur pichhle 30 varshon mein ise kaafi safalta mili hai, jismein se adhikaansh vareeyata waali pratiyogitaaon ko television par dikhaaya gaya. 1985 mein kul 1 karod 85 lakh darshakon ne denis Taylor aur Steve Davis ke beech vishv pratiyogita ke final ka samaapan frem dekha.[15] haal ke varshon mein tanbaakoo ke praayojan mein kami ne peshevar pratiyogitaaon ki sankhya mein kami utpann ki hai, haalaanki kuchh nae praayojakon ka pata chala hai,[16] aur sudoor poorv evam cheen mein liaang venabo jaisi ubharati hui pratibhaaon aur adhik susthaapit khilaadiyon jaise ki ding junhui aur Marco foo ke saath is khel ki lokapriyta duniya ke us hisse mein is khel ke bhavishya ke liye shubh lakshan soochit karta hai.[4][17]

khel

moolya us sthiti mein rakha geindon ke saath snooker table
aadhe aakaar mej par pragati mein khel. ek laal geind dibbaaband mein.

khel ka uddeshya ek poorvanirdhaarit kram mein saaaincha:Glossary link pratidvandvi ki tulana mein adhik geindon ko nishaana laga kar saaaincha:Glossary link pauket mein daalna hai. frem ke shuroo mein, dikhaae gaye tareeke se geindon ko upayukt sthaan par rakha jaata hai aur khilaadi baari-baari se dande ki geind se saaaincha:Glossary link ek hi prahaar mein nishaana lagaate hain, jismein unka lakshya kisi ek laal geind par nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalna aur ek ank praapt karna hota hai. yadi ve kam se kam ek laal geind ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalte hain, to vah pauket mein bana rahata hai aur unhein ek aur nishaana lagaane ki anumati di jaati hai - is baar lakshya kisi bhi ek rang ki geind ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalna hota hai. yadi ve safal hote hain, to ve nishaana laga kar pauket mein daale gaye rang ka maan praapt karte hain. yeh mej par apni sahi sthiti mein laut aata hai aur unhein ek aur laal rang ki geind par nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalne ki koshish karni chaahiye. yeh prakriya tab tak jaari rahati hai jab tak ve vaanchhit geind ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalne mein asafal rahate hain, jiske aadhaar par unka pratidvandi mej par doosra nishaana lagaane ke liye vaapas aa jaata hai. khel is tareeke se tab tak jaari rahata hai jab tak sabhi laal geindon ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein naheen daala jaata hai aur sirf 6 rangon ki geind mej par bache rah jaate hain; us samay lakshya tab rangon (geindon) ko peela, hara, bhoora, neela, gulaabi, kaale rang ke kramaanusaar nishaana laga kar pauket mein daalna hota hai. jab frem ke is charan mein kisi rang ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein daala jaata hai, to vah mej se baahar hi rahata hai. jab antim geind ko nishaana laga kar pauket mein daala jaata hai, sarvaadhik ank praapt karne wala khilaadi vijayi hota hai.[1]

jab kisi khilaadi ka pratidvandi khel ke niyamon ka ullanghan karta hai tab bhi ank praapt kiye ja sakte hain.saaaincha:Glossary link niyamon ka ullanghan vibhinn kaaranon se hota hai, jaise ki khilaadi dvaara laal rang ke geind ko nishaana lagaane ke samay kisi rang se takaraana, dande waali geind ko nishaana lagaana, ya ek sthiti se bachane mein asafal hona "saaaincha:Glossary link" (jahaan pichhle khilaadi ne apni baari samaapt kar dande waali geind ko us sthit mein chhod diya jahaan lakshya waali geind ko seedhe-seedhe nishaana naheen lagaaya ja sakta hai. niyamon ke ullanghan se praapt ank nyoonatam 4 ank se lekar adhiktam 7 ank tak ho sakta hai yadi ismein kaali geind bhi shaamil ho.[1]

ek saaaincha:Glossary link, antim geind ko nishaana lagaakar pauket mein daalne tak geindon ko aaranbhik sthiti mein rakhana, ek saaaincha:Glossary link kahalaata hai. ek saaaincha:Glossary link mein aamtaur par fremon ki ek poorvanirdhaarit sankhyaaen hoti hai aur jo khilaadi sabse adhik frem jeetata hai vah sampoorn match jeet jaata hai. adhikaansh peshevar maichon mein ek khilaadi ko paanch frem jeetne ki jaroorat hoti hai aur unhein "sarvashreshth nau" kaha jaata hai kyonki vah fremon ki adhiktam sambhav sankhya hai. aamtaur par pratiyogita ke final sarvashreshth 17 ya sarvashreshth 19 hote hain, jabki vishv pratiyogita mein lambe samay tak chalne vaale match hote hain - jismein kvaalifaai karne vaale maichon aur aur pehle daur mein sarvashreshth 19 maichon se lekar, lanbaai mein 35 frem tak hote hain (pratham se 18 tak) ke liye pratham) aur yeh do dinon tak khela jaata hai.[18]

peshevar aur pratispardhaatmak gair-peshevar (shaukiya) maichon mein ek referee aadhikaarik roop se kaam karta hai jo nishpaksh khel ke liye ekamaatr nirnaayak hota hai. referee mej par rangon ko pun: sthaapit karta hai aur khilaadi dvaara ek break ke dauraan praapt kiye gaye ankon ki ghoshana karta hai. aam taur par peshevar khilaadi referee dvaara chook kiye gaye niymollanghan ki ghoshana kar, apne pratidvandi ke achhe nishaanon (shauton) ki taareef kar, ya bhaagyashaali shot ke liye haath pakad kar maafi maang kar khel ko ek khel-bhaavana ke saath khelte hain.

ek vistaar [44], jo baadha daalne ke shot ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai [45] kyonki vah haathon ke shot ke liye bahut door hain

snooker mein prayukt hone waali anya shabdaavali mein khilaadi ka ek break shaamil hai saaaincha:Glossary link, jiska arth mej par jaakar ek khilaadi dvaara saaaincha:Glossary link lagaataar ikattha kiya gaya ank (niymollanghan ko chhodkar) hai. 15 ankon ka break praapt karne wala ek khilaadi, udaaharan ke liye, agale laal rang ki geind ko nishaana lagaakar pauket mein daalne mein asafal rahane ke pehle, ek laal fir ek kaala, tab ek laal fir ek gulaabi rang ki geind ko nishaana lagaakar pauket mein daal kar ise praapt kar sakta tha. snooker mein paaramparik adhiktam break sabhi laal rangon ko kaale se fir sabhi rangon ko nishaana lagaakar pauket mein daalna hai jisse 147 ank praapt hote hain; ise aksar "147" ya "adhiktam" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[19] ise bhi dekhein: uchchatam snooker break

snooker ke liye istemaal ki jaane waali sahaayak saamagriyon mein dande ke sire ke liye prayukt hone wala khadiya, vibhinn prakaar ke tech (jiski jarurat aksar bade aakaar waali mej ke kaaran hoti hai), laal rangon ko rakhane ke liye ek raik (tribhujaakaar upakaran) aur ek scoreboard shaamil hain bade aakaar ki mej par snooker khelne ka ek dosh kamre ka aakaar (22'X 16' ya lagbhag 5 mi X 7 mi) hai, jo dande ko kamre mein sabhi taraf suvidhaajanak roop se ghumaane ke liye nyoonatam roop se aavashyak hai.[20] yeh un sthaanon ki sankhya ko seemit kar deta hai jahaan khel ko aasaani se khela ja sakta hai. jabki pool table kai pabon ke saamaan hi aam hote hain, snooker ko ya to niji parivesh mein ya saarvajanik snooker haulon mein khela jaata hai. thode se laal geindon ka upayog kar is khel ko chhoti mejon par bhi khela ja sakta hai. mejon ke vibhinn aakaar hain: 10'x 5', 9'x 4.5', 8'x 4', 6'x3' (yathaarthavaadi khel ke liye sabse chhoti) aur 4'x 2'. chhote mej vibhinn kismon ke ho sakte hain, jaise ki mudne vaale ya khaane ki mej ke roop mein parivrtit hone vaale.

prashaasan aur pratigogitaaen

inhein bhi dekhein: List of snooker tournaments

saaaincha:Snooker tournaments

2007 mein masters tournament se ladaai

biliyrds ke peshevar khilaadiyon ke roop mein 1968 mein sthaapit vishv peshevar biliyrds aur snooker sangh[21] (WPBSA, jise vishv snooker ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai) peshevar khel ke liye ek shaasi nikaaya hai. Bristol, England mein sthit iski sahaayak sanstha, peshevar daure aayojit karta hai. varshon se WPBSA ki samiti (board) kai baar badal chuki hai, jiske baare mein kai log yeh tark dete hain ki yeh khel ke bheetar hone waali antarkalah ka ek sanket hai.[22][23][24] peshevar khel antarraashtreeya biliyrds aur snooker mahaasangh (IBSF) dvaara sanchaalit hota hai.[25]

peshevar snooker khilaadi vishv snooker ke mukhya daure par daure waali vareeyata mein khel sakte hain. pichhle do seejanon mein khilaadiyon dvaara apne pradarshanon ke maadhyam se arjit ank, vartamaan vishv vareeyata ko nirdhaarit karte hain.[26] ek khilaadi ki vareeyata yeh nirdhaarit karti hai ki vareeyata waali pratiyogita ke liye unhein kis star ki yogyata ki jarurat hain. peshevar snooker ke vishisht varg aamtaur par "sheersh 16" vareeyata vaale khilaadi maane jaate hain,[27] jinhein kisi bhi pratiyogita (tournament) ke liye poorv mein kvaalifaai karne ki jarurat naheen hoti hai.[28] daure mein 96 khilaadi shaamil hote hain - pichhle do seejanon mein se sheersh 64 khilaadi, 8 ek varsh mein sarvochch ank praapt karne vaale khilaadi jo sheersh 64 mein shaamil naheen hain, pichhle season ke pauntins international shॄnkhalaaon (PIOS) ke sheersh 8 khilaadi aur vibhinn kshetreeya, junior aur gair-peshevar vijeta.

peshevar snooker mein sabse mahatvapoorn aayojan vishv championship hai[29] jo 1927 se har varsh aayojit hota hai (sivaaya dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan aur 1958 aur 1963 ke beech ki avadhi mein). 1977 se yeh pratiyogita Sheffield (England) mein kroosibl rangamanch par aayojit ki ja chuki hai aur 1976 se 2005 tak ise dootaavaas dvaara praayojit kiya ja chuka hai.[16] 2005 se, United kingadam mein tanbaakoo companiyon ko khel ki pratoyogitaaon ko praayojit karne ki anumati pradaan naheen ki gayi hai aur vishv snooker championship ko ek nae praayojak ki talaash karni hai. January 2006 mein yeh ghoshana ki gayi ki 2006-2010 ki vishv pratiyogita online kaiseeno 888 dot com (online casino 888.com) dvaara praayojit ki jaayegi. 888.com dvaara teen varshon baad paanch varshon ki praayojakata ke samjhaute se baahar hone ke baad vartamaan mein championship betafred dot com (BetFred.com) dvaara praayojit ki jaati hai.[30] 15 April 2009 ko vishv snooker championship ki website ne yeh ghoshana ki ki agale chaar varshon ke liye betafred dot com (Betfred.com) vishv championship ka naya praayojak hoga.[31][32]

vishv championship jeetne ka darja mahaan hai aur peshevar snooker mein yeh,[33] vitteeya inaam (vijeta ke liye £ 250,000)[34] aur saath hi saath pratishtha, donon ki drushti se sarvaadhik moolya wala puraskaar hai. BBC[35] (BBC) dvaara Britain mein vishv championship ko television par bade paimaane par prasaarit kiya jaata hai aur ise Europe aur sudoor poorv mein yoorosport[36] par vyaapak coverage praapt hota hai.

mahattv ki drushti se iske baad aane vaale pratiyogitaaon ke samooh anya vareeyata waali pratiyogitaaen hain. in pratiyogitaaon mein khilaadi vishv vareeyata vaale ank praapt karte hain. ek uchch vareeyata (ranking) agale varsh ki pratiyogita ke liye yogyata, aamantran pratiyogitaaon ke liye aamantran aur pratiyogitaaon mein ek laabhadaayak draw sunishchit karta hai.[27] vishv pratiyogita ke baad inmein se sarvaadhik pratishthit Britain ki pratiyogita hai. teesare sthaan par aamantran pratiyogitaaen hain, jismein adhikaansh uchch vareeyata praapt khilaadiyon ko aamantrit kiya jaata hai. is shreni mein sabse mahatvapoorn pratiyogita dai masters hai,[37] jo adhikaansh khilaadiyon ke liye doosra ya teesara sarvaadhik maang wala puraskaar hai.[38]

un aalochanaaon ka uttar dene ke prayaas mein ki television par prasaarit hone vaale match dheeme ho sakte hain ya lambe suraksha sambandhi vaad-vivaad mein ulajh sakte hain aur ki lambe match vijnyaaapanadaataaon ke liye samasyaaon ka kaaran ban sakte hain,[39] maicharoom sport ke adhyaksh bairi harn ne samayabaddh pratiyogitaaon ki ek vaikalpik shrunkhalaaon ka aayojan kiya hai. kam samay vaale Premier league snooker ki buniyaad daali gayi, jismein saat khilaadiyon ko United kingadam ke aayojan sthalon par niyamit roop se pratisparddha karne ke liye aamantrit kiya gaya, jiska television par prasaaran skaai sports ke dvaara kiya gaya. pratyek nishaane (shot) ke liye khilaadiyon ko pachchees second diye jaate hain, jismein pratyek match mein pratyek khilaadi ko paanch baar vishraam diya jaata hai. haalaanki is praaroop ke dvaara kuchh safalta praapt hui hai, ise aam taur par vareeyata vaale niyamit pratiyogitaaon ki apeksha press ka saamaan aadar-satkaar naheen mil paata hai.

kuchh anya kam mahattv waali pratiyogitaaen bhi hain, jinhein vishv vareeyata-soochi mein koi ank praapt naheen hote hain aur unhein television par prasaarit bhi naheen kiya jaata hai. yeh ek varsh se doosare varsh ke aadhaar par badal sakte hain jo kaileindaron aur praayojakon par nirbhar karte hain.

upakaran

chaak
dande aur dande ki geind ke beech achhe sampark sunishchit karne ke liye dande (kyoo) ki nonk par 'khadiya'(chaak) lagaaya jaata hai.
kyoo
ek lakdi, jo lakdi ya faaibaraglaas se bani hoti hai, jiske nonk ka prayog dande ki geind par prahaar karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.
eksateinshan
ek chhoti si chhadi (baitan) jo dande (kyoo) ke pichhle sire par ise prabhaavakaari roop se lamba karte hue fit baithata hai, ya kas jaata hai. iska upayog nishaanon (shauton) ke liye kiya jaata hai jahaan dande (kyoo) waali geind khilaadi se ek lambi doori par rahati hai.
tech
X sheersh ki aakaar waali ek chhadi jiska prayog dande (kyoo) ko sahaara dene ke liye kiya jaata hai jab dande waali geind saamaanya eksateinshan ki pahunch se baahar hoti hai.
huk ka tech
saamaanya tech ke samaan hota hai, fir bhi ismein ek huk (kaanta) laga hua dhaatu ka sira hota hai. iska prayog tech ko doosari geind ke chaaron aur sthaapit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. huk (kaanta) wala tech snooker mein sabse haal ka aavishkaar hai.
spaaidar
yeh tech ke samaan hota hai lekin usaka sheersh vruttakhand ke aakaar ka hota hai; iska prayog dande ki nonk ko dande (kyoo) waali geind se uncha karne aur use sahaara dene ke liye kiya jaata hai.
svaan (ya svaan-nek spaaidar)
yeh upakaran, jismein ek ekal vistaarit gardan wala tech aur sire par do nonk wala ek kaanta hota hai, geindon ke samooh ke saath dande ko atirikt doori pradaan karne ke liye prayukt hota hai.
trikon/ raik
is upakaran ka upayog ek frem shuroo karne ke liye break ke liye aavashyak rachana mein laal geindon ko ikattha karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.
vistaarit tech
niyamit tech ke saamaan, lekin hatthe ke sire par ek yantr laga rahata hai jo iske tech ko teen feet tak vistaarit karna sambhav banaata hai.
vistaarit spaaidar
svaan aur spaaidar ka ek sankar. iska uddeshya laal geindon ke vishaal samooh ko kam karna hai. in dinon yeh peshevar snooker mein kam aam hai lekin un sthitiyon mein iska istemaal kiya ja sakta hai jahaan ek ya ek se adhik geindon ki sthiti spaaidar ko striker ke vaanchhit sthaan par jaane se rokata hai.
aadha hattha
aam taur par yeh mej ke neeche ki or sthit hota hai, aadha hattha mej ki lanbaai vaale tech aur geind ka ek sanyojan hota hai jiska prayog shaayad hi kabhi kiya jaata hai jab tak ki dande (kyoo) waali geind par is tarah se prahaar karne ki jarurat naheen hoti hai ki mej ki poori lanbaai vaastavik baadha naheen ban jaae.
geind chihnak (maarkar)
ek bahu-uddesheeya yantr jismein ek 'D' aakaar ka ek nishaan hota hai, jise ek referee (1) ek geind ke bagal mein rakh sakta hai, taaki iski sthiti ka chihnaankan kiya ja sake. ve tab geind ko saaf karne ke liye hata sakte hain; (2) is baat ka nirnaya karne ke liye upayog kar sakta hai ki kya geind kisi rang ko iske sthaan par rakhe jaane se rok raha hai;(3) is baat ka nirnaya karne ke liye upayog kar sakta hai ki kya free baul ki ghoshana kiye jaane par kyoo geind ek "geind" ke atyant kinaare par prahaar kar sakta hai (ise baadha daalne vaale sambhaavit geind ke saath-saath rakh kar).

prasiddh khilaadi

inhein bhi dekhein: List of snooker players with over 100 century breaks

peshevar yug mein ki 1930 ke dashak mein jo Davis ke saath shuroo hui aur aaj tak kaayam hai, sheersh star par apekshaakrut kam sankhya mein khilaadi safal hue hain.[40] snooker ke abhijaat varg ke beech pahunchana aur apna ek sthaan banaana ek kathin kaam hai, kyonki khel ka star aisa hai ki iske liye varshon ke samarpan aur prayaas aur saath hi saath svaabhaavik kshamata ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hai.[41]

kuchh khilaadi dashakon se is khel par apna varchasv kaayam rakhate aaye hain. saamaanya roop se 1970 ke dashak ke dauraan re riyrdan, 1980 ke dashak ke dauraan Steve Davis aur 1990 ke dashak ke dauraan Stefan hendri ko pramukh khilaadi maana jaata hai, jinhonne kramash: 6, 6 aur 7 vishv pratiyogita (championship) jeeti. 2000 ke dashak mein kisi ka barchasv naheen raha hai, jismein roni O sullivn (Ronnie O'Sullivan) ne teen avsaron par khitaab jeeta aur mark Williams aur John higins ne do baar khitaab praapt kiye; higins ko kul milaakar teen baar khitaab haasil hua, pichhli baar jise unhonne 1998 mein jeeta tha.[42]

bhinn roop

  • snooker plas, atirikt geindon ke saath ek bhinn roop
  • saainuka braajilera (Sinuca Brasileira), braajeel ka ek sanskaran jismein keval ek laal geind hota tha aur bhinn-bhinn niyam hote the.
  • vaulantiyr snooker, 1900 ke aaranbhik dashak se bhinn roop.
  • chhah laal snooker, ek bhinn roop jise keval chhah laal ke saath khela jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

No portals specified: please specify at least one portal
  • snooker season 2009/2010
  • snooker ki vishv vareeyata 2009/2010
  • adhiktam break
  • snooker soochi
  • snooker league

sandarbh

  1. a aa i "The Rules". World Snooker. http://www.worldsnooker.com/rules_of_snooker.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-03.
  2. a aa evartan, si. "tech snooker too the world", BBC support, 5 May 2002 (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  3. riyradan, aar. "vher daj ronni raink?", BBC support, 21 fravari 2005, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  4. a aa "China in ding's hainds", BBC sport, 22 January 2007, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt) sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "BeebDing2" defined multiple times with different content
  5. a aa i E maumein, si. "sporting varnaakular 11. snooker", the indeepeindeint, 26 April 1999, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  6. bedi, aar.[1]"opening meet faainds indiyaaj onali hant in the pink", the teleegraaf, 19 July 2004, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  7. a aa shamos, Mike (1993), the kampleet books of biliyrds . ISBN 0-517-20869-5
  8. agyaat lekhak "orijins of the game of snooker", taaitan sports, agyaat tithi, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  9. agyaat lekhak "snooker timeline" "jo Davis vil riinveint dis aaftar-dinr paastataaim aind bikm world champion", cuesnviews.co.uk, agyaat tithi, (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  10. "paut black returns", BBC sport, 27 October 2005, 24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt
  11. porter, H. "kyoo cheen, time maigajeen, 20 June 2008, (23 June 2008 ko pun:praapt)
  12. agyaat lekhak, "paut black rating" "sapraaijingli, the program resd too sekand place in the BBC2 retings", agyaat tithi, (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praap)(puraalekh sanskaran)
  13. agyaat lekhak "1978 - the world snooker championship", "baai 1977, thou, a niyu laaitaning system haid been divaaisd, alaaoing the pleyars too bi scene kleeyarali without problems aind the foloing iyar, obre singar agreed too kavar the world championship all the ve thruh vith ain ovar of highlights evareede for 16 dej", agyaat tithi, (24 fravari 2007), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  14. maikainnes, pi. 1144789,00.html "1144789,00.html "thaich of the de", the gaarjiyn, 10 fravari 2004, (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  15. "1985: the black baul final" BBC support
  16. a aa ainsatid, M. 1689597,00.html "1689597,00.html snooker faaind sponsar vith deep paukets", the gaarjiyn, 19 January 2006, (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (1689597,00.html puraalekh sanskaran)
  17. "kud ding bi snukars seviyr?", BBC support, 4 April 2005, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  18. "world title viktri dilaaits dot", BBC support, (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  19. "ding kampails maiksimm ait masters", BBC support, (24 fravari 2007)
  20. Peter itasvaart, "tharsatan snooker table mekars", rikaamanded room saaij for ful saaij table 22 ft x 16 ft, agyaat tithi, (25 fravari 2007), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  21. "WPBSA v TSN", BBC sport, 16 fravari 2001, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  22. "snooker bigest break", BBC support, 7 December 2000, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  23. "snooker authoritij sarvaaiv bid", BBC sport, 13 November 2002, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  24. "snooker ait the krosarods", BBC sport, 14 November 2002, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  25. "IBSF", (24 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  26. WPBSA "vyaavasaayik yaatra ke kram ank", world snooker, (25 January 2010 ko pun:praapt)
  27. a aa "svail mein sheersh sthaan lakshyeekaran 16", BBC support, 1 August 2006, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  28. "the seeds of sakses", BBC sport, 24 November 2000, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  29. "world title viktri dilaaits dot", BBC support, 2 May 2006 (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  30. "huge faainainshiyl blo hits snooker", BBC support, 6 August 2008, (6 August 2008 ko pun:praapt)
  31. "kroosibl iveints gate niyu sponsor", BBC sport, 15 January 2006, (25 fravari 2007 ko liya gaya), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  32. vishv snooker ki ghoshana:Betfred.com nemd title sponsar for the world snooker championship
  33. "doherti set out too rigen gretest praaij", the indeepeindeint, 20 April 2001, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  34. "duniya ke behatareen kroosibl ke liye taiyaar", BBC sport, 13 April 2006 (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  35. "snooker science five-iyar BBC deal", BBC sport, 26 October 2005, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt, (puraalekh sanskaran)
  36. 1762954,00.html "yurosport pauts TV snooker raaits", the gaarjiyn, 27 April 2006 (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt, panjeekaran ki aavashyakta BugMeNot ki aavashyakta naheen.)
  37. "snooker faainds niyu masters sponsar", BBC sport, 13 January 2006 (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt, (puraalekh sanskaran)
  38. hairis, N "ain imel kanvarseshan vith grem dot: 'vi need ain abraamovich too tech the game too a niyu leval" the indeepeindeint, 15 January 2007, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  39. rone, bi "1932634,00.html tu dal too miss", the gaarjiyn, 27 October 2006 (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  40. "O'sulivn in eksailated company" BBC sport, 10 May 2002, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt), (puraalekh sanskaran)
  41. hantar, pi. "puting in the practice", BBC support, 5 November 2004, (25 fravari 2007 ko pun:praapt)
  42. "world snooker championship - itihaas", world snooker aadhikaarik site, (26 sitmbar 2007 ko pun:praapt)

baahari link

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snooker ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.

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