smaarak

paarthenon ko praacheen grees aur atheeniyaan lokatantr ke ek sthaayi prateek ke roop mein maana jaata hai aur duniya ke sabse bade saanskrutik smaarakon mein se ek maana jaata hai.
India gate (yuddh smaarak)
Tajmahal, Bhaarat, mugal samraat shaahajahaaain dvaara nirmit, unki patni arjumand baano begam ke liye ek makabare ke roop mein.
almaada mein the kristo riye-almaada (kraaist raaja), Brazil mein duniya bhar ke sabse bade smaarakon mein se ek hai.
peris, France mein efil tauvar sabse prasiddh smaarak hai.
Kosciuszko maaund, kraako, Poland Tadeusz Kosciuszko ko shraddhaanjali deta hai
raashtreeya smaarak, Jakarta, Indonesia ki svatantrata ka utsav manaate hue

smaarak ek aisi sanrachana hai jo ya to khaas taur par kisi vyakti ya mahatvapoorn ghatna ki smruti mein banaai gayi hai, ya kisi saamaajik tabake ke liye uske puraane ateet ki yaad dilaane ke roop mein mahatvapoorn ban gayi hai.

anukram

upayog

praay: smaarakon ka istemaal kisi shahar ya sthaan ke svaroop ko behtar banaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. yojanaabaddh roop se basaae gaye shahar jaise Washington di. si., nai Delhi aur braajeeliya, aam taur par smaarakon ke ird-gird basaae gaye hain. George Washington se kisi tarah sambandhit hone se pehle Washington smaarak ki avasthiti (aur usaki lambavat jyaamiti, par usaka vaahya vivran naheen) ka chunaav shahar mein saarvajanik sthalon ko vyavasthit karne ke liye kiya gaya tha. puraane shaharon mein smaarak aise sthal par hain jo pehle se hi mahatvapoorn hain ya kabhi-kabhaar unhein use ubhaarane ke liye fir se dijaain kiya jaata hai. jaisa ki sheli ne apni prasiddh kavita "ojeemeindiys" ("luk on maai varks, ye maaiti, end despeyar !") mein sujhaaya tha, smaarak ka uddeshya aam taur par prabhaavit karna ya aashcharyachakit karna hota hai. angreji shabd "maunyumeintal" ka istemaal praay: kisi ativishaal ya atishktishaali vastu ke sandarbh mein hota hai. yeh shabd laitin shabd "monere" se aaya hai jiska arth hai 'yaad dilaana' ya 'chetaavani dena'.

apne yug, aakaar ya gauravapoorn ateet ke kaaran charchit kaamkaaji sanrachanaaen bhi smaarak ki tarah dekhi ja sakti hain. yeh mahaan yug ya aakaar ke kaaran ho sakta hai jaisa ki cheen ki deevaar ke maamale mein, ya kisi mahaan aayaat ki ghatna ke kaaran jaisa ki fraans ka oraador-sar-glen gaaainv. kai desh, sanrakshit sanrachanaaon ya puraataatvik sthalon, jo moolat: kabhi rihaaishi ghar ya anya prakaar ke bhavan rahe honge, unke aadhikaarik sanketan ke liye aitihaasik sthal ya usase milte julate padon ka istemaal karte hain.

raajanaitik ya aitihaasik jaankaari dene ke liye bhi praay: smaarak design kiye jaate hain. unka istemaal samakaaleen raajanaitik satta ke prabhutv ko aur sudrudh karne mein kiya ja sakta hai, jaise traajan stambh ya soviyt union mein lenin ki dhero moortiyaan. inka upayog janta ko ateet ki mahatvapoorn ghatnaaon aur aankado ke baare mein shikshit karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, udahaaran ke liye poorv post master general James faarale ke baad new yaark shahar ke puraane general post aafis ka naam badal kar James e॰ faarale bhavan (James faarale post aafis) rakh diya gaya.

kisi smaarak ke saamaajik maayanon ko tay aur nishchit karna mushkil hai, ve praay: vibhinn saamaajik samoohon mein vivaad ke vishay hote hain. masalan jahaaain ek taraf poorvi Germany ka puraana samaajavaadi raajya, barlin ki deevaar ko pashchim se aane waali vichaaradhaaraatmak ashuddhata se 'pratirksha' karne waali maanata tha, vaheen doosari or unase asahamat aur anya logon ka tark tha ki yeh saamaanyat: faanseevaad aur raajasatta ke vibhram ka prateek chinh hai. arthon ki yeh pratidvandvita hi aadhunik 'post prosesual' puraataattvik vimarsh ka keindreeya vishay hai.

smaarak hajaaron saalon ke liye banaaye jaate the aur ve saamaanyat: praacheen sabhyataaon ke sabse bharosemand aur prasiddh prateek hain. misr ke piraamid, grees ke paarthenan aur istar aailaind ke moe un sabhyataaon ke prateek ban gaye. aadhunik kaal mein staichoo of librti aur efil tower jaisi vishaal sanrachanaaen aadhunik raashtra-raajyon ke mahaan prateek ban gaye hain. angreji ka shabd monyumeintailiti, kisi smaarak ki prateekaatmak avastha aur unki bhautik upasthiti ko sambodhit karta hai.

haal tak yeh abhyaas dekha jaata raha hai ki, puraatatvavid vishaal smaarakon ka adhyayan karte the aur unako banaane vaale samaajon ki rojamarra ki jindagi ki or kam dhyaan dete the. puraataatvik rikaard ka nirmaan kaise hota hai, is baare mein nae vichaaron ne yeh khulaasa kiya ki kuchh vaidhaanik aur saiddhaantik pranaaliyaan, smaarak ki praarambhik paribhaasha par atyadhik kendrit hain. United kingadam ka anusoochit praacheen smaarak kaanoon iska ek udaaharan hai.

smaarakon ke prakaar

  • mahaan laindamaark ke roop mein banaaye gaye bhavan
  • mrutak ki kabr ke nikat use shraddhaanjali dene ke liye church dvaara banaaye gaye smaarak, jahaan praay: moortiyaan lagi hoti hain
  • aam taur par yuddhon mein mrut logon ko shraddhaanjali dene ke liye unki smruti aur yaad mein banaaye gaye dhaanche, jaise vimi rig smaarak aur India gate
  • stambh, jinke sheersh par moorti hoti hai, udaaharan ke liye landan ka nelsan mandela stambh
  • kabr ke patthar mrut vyakti ke liye chhote smaarak hote hain.
  • mrut shareer ko rakhane ke liye makabare aur gumbad, udaaharan ke liye great piraamid aur Tajmahal
  • dhaarmik ya smaran ke liye banaai gayi ekaashm imaaratein, jaise stonaheinj
  • mahaan netaaon ya ghatnaaon ki smruti mein banavaaye gaye smruti sthaapatya, jaise Kośaciuszko sthaapatya
  • mahaan netaaon ki smruti mein banavaaye gaye aamtaur par chatushkon stambh, udaaharan ke liye Washington smaarak, monaas
  • drushya bandh, shahari smaarakon ke liye le out dijaain
  • vijay toran, lagbhag hamesha sainya safalta ki smruti mein, udaaharan ke liye aark de traaiomf
  • yuddhakaaleen nrushansata ya charchit khooni yuddhon ki yaad mein smruti sthal ke roop mein samoocha kshetr, udaaharan ke liye oraador-sar-glen ya getisbarg, peinsilvaaniya aur borodino ke yuddh kshetr
  • kuchh avsaron par, vishesh praakrutik khoobsoorti vaale ilaakon ko bhi smaarak kaha jaata hai


sandarbh

baahya link