skaindineviyaai bhaashaaeain

skaindineviyaai bhaashaaeain
mahaadveepeeya skaindineviyaai bhaashaaeain (Continental Scandinavian languages): █a█ dainish (Danish) █a█ naarvejiyn (Norwegian) █a█ sveedish (Swedish) dveepeeya skaindineviyaai bhaashaaeain (Insular Scandinavian languages): █a█ Faroese █a█ Icelandic

agar bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke baare mein yeh kaha jaata hai ki vah bhaaropeeya bhaashaaparivaar ke dakshinpoorvi bhaag mein utpann hui hai to naurdik ya skaindineviyaai bhaashaaon ke liye yeh kehna uchit hoga ki vah uske vipreet bhaag arthaat uttarapashchim se I hain. naurdik bhaashaaeain jarman bhaashaasamudaaya se sambandhit hain aur tadanusaar jarman umalaaut in bhaashaaon mein bhi paae jaate hain. pratham shataabdi mein naurdik bhaashaaon ne pruthak hokar apna naya samudaaya banaaya. puraane 24 aksharon ki varnamaala mein likhe hue shilaalekh, Finland aur laipalaind ki bhaashaaon mein udhaar liye gaye hue aur anek shataabdiyon tak bina parivartan ke rakshit shabd, seejar aur taikits jaise praacheen prasiddh lekhakon dvaara diye hue nirdesh aadi, in sabse yeh samjha jaata hai ki us vakt sampoorn naurdik kshetr mein, arthaat denmaark aur skaindineviya ke praayadveep mein ek hi bhaasha boli jaati thi. yeh bhaasha tab puraani jarman bhaasha ke samaan thi lekin chhathi shataabdi ke baad usamein bahut parivartan hua aur vah anshat: pashchim jarman tatha kuchh ansh tak poorvi jarman - jismein chauthi shataabdi mein likhe hue saahitya ki bhaasha gothik sabse pradhaan hai-bhaashaasamudaaya se alag hui. vaaiking logon ke samay mein (800-1000 E.) naurdik bhaasha ke do pradhaan vibhaag kiye gaye - pashchimi naardik (praacheen naurvejian aur praacheen aaisalaindik) tatha poorvi naurdik (praacheen sveedish aur praacheen denish). baarahaveen shataabdi mein likhe hue saahitya ke ansh (laitin aksharon mein likhe hue charmapatr) aaj praapt hain. kintu poorvi naurdik saahitya ke avashesh sau saal baad ke hain.

praacheen aaisalaindik bhaasha vah pashchimi naurdik bhaasha hai jise 870-930 E. ke madhya aaisalaind ke pehle basanevaale apne saath vahaaain le gaye. yeh bhaasha bahut maamooli parivartan ke baad aaj bhi aaisalaind ke prajaatantr raajya ke 1,80,000 logon ki raashtreeya bhaasha bani hui hai. iske baad pashchimi naurvejian praanteeya bhaasha aur faaro dweep ki bhaasha ka sthaan hai. pashchimi naurdik bhaasha pehle se shetalaind dweep, orkani dweep, aail ov main aur Ireland ke kuchh bhaagon mein boli jaati thi. usi prakaar se praacheen denish England ke daanalegaman bhaag mein aur nauramando mein tatha praacheen sveedish roos ke vaaiking logon mein boli jaati thi. vaaiking logon ki aur madhyuyag ki bhaasha aaj hamako hajaaron praapt shilaalekhon ke 76 aksharon ki varnalipi mein dekhne ko milti hai. praapt shilaalekh saadhaaranataya mrut sanbandhiyon ke smaarakachihn hain aur is kaaran ve kuchh ansh mein ek hi dhang ke hain. lekin ruve shilaalekh mein puraane kaavya hi surakshit hain. aadhunik naurdik bhaashaaeain baad mein madhyayug ki praacheen bhaashaaon se vistrut ki gain. aaj naurdik bhaashaasamudaaya mein uparyukt aaisalaindik aur faaro dweep ki bhaashaaon ke atirikt denish, sveedish aur naurvejian bhaashaaon ka samaavesh milta hai. naurvejian bhaasha ke 1929 E. se do vibhaag adhikaarapoorvak kiye gaye. ve hain likhne ki bhaasha (jisko pramaanabhaasha bhi kaha jaata hai), praantik aur nai naurvejian (arthaat praantik bhaasha).

anukram

denish bhaasha

madhyayug mein 1814 (?) tak naarve denmaark se sanyukt tha aur denish sheegra hi saahitya ki pradhaan bhaasha ban gayi. roopaantarit denish sushikshit logon ki, visheshakar Norway ke poorvi aur dakshini bhaag ke shaharon mein bolachaal ki bhaasha ban gayi. unneesaveen shataabdi mein raashtreeya aandolan ki lahar mein, visheshakar pashchimi praanteeya bhaashaaon par aadhaarit shuddh naurvejian bhaasha banaane ki kalpana ko prerana mili. ismein sabse pradhaan hai "ivaar aasen" ka 1848 ka likha hua shabdashaastr aur 1850 mein likha hua shabdakosh. aaj 35 lakh se adhik log naurvejian bhaasha bolte hain. denish bhaasha pehle rune denish, fir praacheen denish aur baad mein nai denish ban gayi. madhyayug aur uske baad ke samay mein denish bhaasha mein kuchh vishishtataaeain utpann ho gain jisse denish bhaasha sanaatani sveedish bhaasha se alag ho gayi. yillaand ki bhaasha, pradhaan dweep ki bhaasha (jispar likhne ki bhaasha pramukh roop se aadhaarit hai) aur poorvi denish (bornaholm aur skone vibhaag ki) in praanteeya bhaashaaon se milkar denish bhaasha bani hui hai. 1550 E. mein teesare kristiyaan ki likhi hui baaibil se denish bhaasha ke vyavahaar ko denmaark aur Norway mein bahut mahatva praapt hua. aaj jarman bhaasha ke sambandh mein seemaarekha flensaburg ke samudra ki chattaanon se ghire hue maarg se (fiord) vidos ke uttar mahaasaagar ke nikaas tak maanana uchit hoga. ab denish bhaasha 47 lakh logon mein boli jaati hai.

sveedish bhaasha

sveedish bhaasha 1225 E. tak rune sveedish, 1526 E. tak - jab baaibil ka naya testaameint prakaashit hua - praacheen sveedish aur uske baad nai sveedish mein maujood hai. praacheen samay se sveedish bhaasha aaj ke sveedan ke baahar bhi boli jaati hai, jaise olaand aur Finland ke kinaare par. aaj sveedish lagbhag 70 lakh log bolte hain. ismein se 3,00,000 log Finland mein hain. 1850 E. ke baad pratham mahaayuddh tak skaindineviya se uttar amareeka ko jo vishaal paradeshagaman hua, usaki vajah se aaj tak vahaaain kam se kam 10 lakh log angreji ke saath naurdik bhaashaaeain hi bolte hain.

aaisalaind ka saahitya

praacheen aaisalaindik saahitya anshat: kaavyamaya (bhaaton ka kaavya aur eda mahaakaavya) tatha anshat: gadyaroop (logon aur unke rishtedaaron ke vruttaant, kahaaniyaaain, pauraanik kathaaeain) hai. saamaanya chhand mein likhe hue anupraasayukt se 800 se 1200 E. ki avadhi mein praacheen eda mahaakaavya nirmit hua hai. terahaveen shataabdi ke praarambh ki iski hastalikhit prati praapt hai. eda mahaakaavya ka vishay anshat: praacheen naudik devataaon aur anshat: mahaaveeron se sambandhit hai. mahaaveeron se sambandhit kaal mein jarman aakramanakaal ke saahitya ke ansh bache hain. "haavaamaal" mein puraane paanditya ki raksha ki gayi hai. aaisalaind mein praaya: 1000 E. ke thode pehle likha hua "volupsa" tejasvi mahaakaavya hai. ismein pruthvi ke aarambh aur uske naash ka vishay varnit hai. praacheen eda mahaakaavya ka kuchh ansh Norway mein likha gaya aur kuchh greenalaind se praapt hai. bhaat log visheshat: raajadarabaar se sambandhit the aur unka kaavya mahaaraajaaon ke ranasangraam ke vishay mein hai. egil skaalaagrimsan naurdik saahitya ka pratham mukhya kavi (sonaatorek kaavya ki vajah se) samjha jaata hai. bhaaton ka kaavya anek kaavyamaya varnanon se yukt hone se bahut hi sundar lagta hai. yeh bahudha praacheen devataaon ki kathaaon ki or sanket karta hai. terahaveen shataabdi mein aaisalaind ke kristaani logon ko yeh kaavya samajhne ke liye pauraanik paathyapustakon ki aavashyakta padi. is tarah ki ek rachana hai "snore sturlusan" (178-1241) ka likha mahaakaavya jismein shaktimaan devata "tor" dvaara raakshason ke desh ki yaatraaon aur dhoort "loke" tatha khoobsoorat "freya" ka varnan utsaahapoorn shaili mein hai. snore praacheen aaisalaind ke gadya saahitya ka pramukh lekhak samjha jaata hai. usane naveen shataabdi se baarahaveen shataabdi tak ke mahaaraajaaon ki kathaaeain likhi hain. doosare logon aur rishtedaaron ke baare mein likhi hui kathaaon mein earabijya, laaksadoela aur nyaal ki katha, ityaadi ullekhaneeya hain. in kathaaon mein likhi hui ghatanaaeain 1000 E. ke aaspaas ki hain kintu unako likhit roop sau saal ke baad mila. inke aitihaasik moolya par abhi tak vaadavivaad chal raha hai. chaudahaveen shataabdi se aaisalaind ke saahitya ka ant hone laga. byaarni thoraarinsan aur yanaas haalaagrimsan jaise mahaan lekhak unneesaveen shataabdi ke poorvaardh mein hue. aaj aaisalaind ke pramukh saahityakaar hain haalador haaksanes (janm 1902, Nobel purastakaar 1955).

naurvejian saahitya

madhyayug ka naurvejian saahitya "kongaspayelet" naamak raajakumaaron ke liye likhi hui paathyapustak aur "draaumakvedet" naamak kristani dharmakaavya ityaadi se bana hai. iske baad ki shataabdi mein Norway ke saahitya ka bhaar pramukh roop se denmaark aur Norway mein utpann hue lekhakon par tha,-jaise "ludavig hol beriya" (1684-1754) aur "J. H. vesel" (1542-85) jo jeevan bhar denmaark mein kaarya karte rahe. French uchch koti ke saahitya (maaliyer) aur vruttaant (volter) ka sabse prasiddh pratinidhi hai ludavig holaberinya, jo apne "den daansake skueplaads" ke liye likhe aaj tak khele jaanevaale sukhaant naatakon (yepo po beryet, den politiske kaandestobar ityaadi) ke liye vishesh roop se prakhyaat hai. naarve ke denmaark se svatantr hone ke baad vahaaain pratham "velahaaven" aur vergelaand jaise kaavyon se raashtreeya saahitya ka praarambh hua. shataabdi ke madhya tak "aas byonansen" aur "bho" ne shuddh lokakathaasangrah "norske folke raarveintur" prastut kiya. unneesaveen shataabdi ke antim varshon ko naarve ke saahitya ka svarnayug kaha jaata hai, jismein "A. keelaand" aur "J. li" jaise gadya lekhak aur pramukh roop se "H. ibsen" (1828-1906) aur "bi. byornasan" (1832-1910, Nobel puraskaar 1903) jo lokakahaaniyon (foranelingar) ke bhi prasiddh lekhak hain - jaise naatakakaar aur kavi hue. ibsen ke naatak, visheshakar uske lalit, manovaigyaanik naatak, samaaj ki aalochna karanevaale samakaaleen naatakon (vildaande, heda gebalar, N folkafiraande) tatha anya Europeeya naatakon ke liye yathesht prabhaavakaari the. "noot haamasun" (Nobel puraskaar 1920) ke granth maulik jeevanapooja aur kalaapoorn chaitanya se bhare hui hain. madhyayug mein likha gaya "sigreed undasen" ka (Nobel puraskaar 1928) "kristeen laavaraans daattar" lalit tatha maanasashaastreeya anubhavon se bhara granth hai jismein stri jaati ka varnan hai. olaav doon aaranulf over laand, S, hoel, noradaal, greeg ityaadi Norway ke uttarakaal ke kavi hain.

Denmark ka saahitya

madhyayugeen denmaark ke sabse pradhaan saahitya granth hain denmaark ke veerarasakaavya, jo sveedan aur naarvein mein bhi prastut hue aur jinko paaainch sau saal baad adbhut saahityavichaar ke udaya ke samay bahut mahatva praapt hua. adbhut kaavya ke pratinidhi hain "A uhalenashlenagar" (allaadin," "haakon "maarl"), "grundaatvig" aur "J. L. haibarg". S. kirkegaard (enten elar), jisko Europe mein badi lokapriyta mili, satya ka drudh lekhak tha. bachchon ke liye likhi gayi kintu gambhir aur jeevan ke marmabhedi parijnyaaan se yukt H. si. aindarasan ki saahas kathaaeain (1835-1872) jagatprasiddh hain. aadhunik samaaj ki samaalochana karanevaale "George braadeins" (huved stramaningaar 1873), adbhut kathaalekhak "J. pi. yaakobasen" (neels lihne 1880) aur "haramaan baang" (haabalose slegnar 1889) aadi ke saahitya se hua. kavi H. draakamaan, upanyaas lekhak "H. ponteppidaan" (novel puraskaar 1917) "J. vi. yenasen" (Nobel puraskaar 1944), M. aindarasananeksho (sudhaarak samaaj samaalochak pele erebreren 1910) aadi anya saahityakaar hain. laghukatha lekhak hain "karen blikyen", naatakakaar "kaaya bhunk" aur lokakathaaon ka yathaarth varnan karanevaale "Martin A. haanasen".

sveedan ka saahitya

sveedan ke madhyakaaleen saahitya mein praacheen dhaara (eldre vestayona laagen, terahaveen shataabdi) itihaas, varnan (eriks kronikaan, 14veen shataabdi ke aarambh se), kaavya, veerakaavya aur dhaarmik saahitya ka samaavesh hota hai. saahitya ka pradhaan lekhak hai "pavitra bigintta" (14veen shataabdi) jiska likha "uppenabaarelser" pramukh roop se laitin bhaasha mein lapeta hua hai. gustaav vaasa ki 1541 mein likhi baaibil bhaasha aur saahitya donon ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hai. sveedish saahitya ko praacheen namoone par likha kalaapoorn kaavya "ji. stiyernahiyelm" ne (harkyulis 1648) pradaan kiya. "O. bi. dhaalin (aargas 1732) aur "J. H. meinkelagren" (mrutyu 1795) ke saahitya puraane French saahitya ki jhalak aur vruttaant abhivyakt hua. pakshapaataheen kalpanaapradhaan kavi the "si. L. belamaan" (1740-1795) jinhonne "fredamaans epistalaar" mein ek amar vilaasiyon ke samudaaya ka chitran kiya. naagrik satya aur teekshn saamaajik parihaasapoorn lekh likhe hain kaviytri "A. M. lenagren" ne. adbhut saahitya mein pramukh hain kavi "i. teinganer" (frityaufs saaga 1825), "i. ji. gaiyar", "pi. di. A. aattarabum" aur E. J. stogneliyus". "si. J. L. almakvist" ke (tornarosens book 1832-51) saahitya mein naagrik satyakatha tak hua gaman prastut hai. dhyeyavaad aur nootan shaastreeya paanditya ka varnan "bi. ridberiya" ne (1828-1895) kiya hai. praakrutik niyamon ke siddhaant ka pramukh pratinidhi hai "A. smindaberiya" 1849-1912 rada rumen, hemasoburna) jo naurdik saahitya mein sabse bada naatakakaar (mestar olof, N dramaspel, til damaaskas) hai. 1890 ke baad kavi "vi. va. hvaaidenastaam" (kaaroleenarna, naabel puraskaar 1909), "i. A. kaarlafelt" (Nobel puraskaar 1931)" aur sveedish saahitya ke sabse bade kaviyon mein se ek "ji fredig"-in jaise raashtreeya saahityakaaron ka udaya hua. baad ke saahityikon mein visheshakar "hyaalamaar beriymaan" "bi. shoberiya" (1924 mein "kreesar ok kraansar" likhkar sveedish kavita ko punarjanm pradaan karanevaale) "per laagarakvisn" (Nobel puraskaar 1951), "H maartinson" (aniyaara 1956), "hyaalamaar gulaberiya" ityaadi ka samaavesh kiya jaata hai. sveedish bhaasha mein likhnevaale Finland ke saahityikon mein pradhaan hain "J. L. runeberiya" (fenarik slols semar 1848-60). baad ke samay ke kavi "E. diknoniys" "ji. lyorlig" aur "idith sadaragraan" ityaadi hain.

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