sirka

vibhinn aakaar waali sirke ki botalein

sirka ya chukr (Vinagar) bhojan ka bhaag hai jo paashchaatya, Europeeya evam eshiyaayi deshon ke bhojan mein praacheen kaal se hi prayukt hota aaya hai.

kisi bhi sharkaraayukt vilyan ke madiraakaran ke anantar aiseetik (amleeya) kinvan (acetic fermentation) se sirka ya chukr (Vinegar, vinigr) praapt hota hai. iska mool bhaag aiseetik aml ka tanu vilyan hai par saath hi yeh jin padaarthon se banaaya jaata hai unke lavan tatha anya tatv bhi usamein rahate hain. praay: bhojan ke liye prayukt sirke mein 4% se 8% tak esetik aml hota hai. vishesh prakaar ka sirka uske naam se jaana jaata hai, jaise madira sirka (Wine Vinegar), mault (yavya ya yavaras) sirka (Malt Vinegar), angoor ka sirka, seb ka sirka (Cider Vinegar), jaamun ka sirka aur krutrim sirka ityaadi.

anukram

rasaayanik aur bhautik gun

sirke ka peeech maan (pH value) praay: 2.4 se 3.4 hota hai. bhojan mein prayukt sirke mein praay: 4% se 8% tak esetik aml hota hai.

sirka ka ghanatv lagbhag 0.96 g/mL hota hai. ghanatv ka star sirke ki amlata par nirbhar karta hai. khaana pakaane me istemaal hone wala sirke ka ghanatv 1.05 g/mL hota hai.

itihaas

iski utpatti bahut praacheen hai. aayurved ke granthon mein sirke ka ullekh aushadhi ke roop mein hai. baaibil mein bhi iska ullekh milta hai. 16veen shataabdi mein France mein madira sirka apne desh ke upabhog ke atirikt niryaat karne ke liye banaaya jaata tha.

sirke ke banane mein sharkara hi aadhaar hai kyonki sharkara hi pehle ainjaaimon se kinvit hokar madira banti hai aur baad mein upayukt jeevaanuon se esitik aml mein kinvit hoti hai. angoor, seb, santare, anannaas, jaamun tatha anya falon ke ras, jinmein sharkara paryaapt hai, sirka banaane ke liye bahut upayukt hain kyonki unamein jeevaanuon ke liye poshan padaarth paryaapt maatra mein hote hain. falasharkara aur draaksh-sharkara ka aiseetik aml mein raasaayanik parivartan nimnalikhit sootron se ankit kiya ja sakta hai:

ye donon hi kriyaaeain jeevaanuon (Bacteria) ke dvaara hoti hain. yeest (khmeer) kinvan mein ailkohaul ki utpatti kinvit sharkara ki pratishat ki aadhi hoti hai aur siddhaantat: aiseetik aml ki praapti ailkohaul se jyaada honi chaahiye, kyonki doosari kriya mein okseejan ka sanyog hota hai, lekin prayog mein iski praapti utani hi hoti hai kyonki kuchh ailkohaul jeevaanuon ke dvaara tatha kuchh vaashpan dvaara nasht ho jaate hain.

banaane ki vidhi

sirka banaane ki vidhiyon mein do vidhiyaaain kaafi prachalit hain:

  • (1) mand gati vidhi - is vidhi ke anusaar kinvanasheel padaarth ko jismein 5 se 10 pratishat ailkohaul hota hai, paudhon ya kadaahon mein rakh diya jaata hai. ye bartan teen chauthaai tak bhare jaate hain taaki hava ke sampark ke liye kaafi sthaan rahe. ismein thoda sa sirka jismein eseetik amleeya jeevaanu hote hain daal diya jaata hai aur kinvan kriya dheere-dheere aarambh ho jaati hai. is vidhi ke anusaar kinvan dheere-dheere hota hai aur iske poora hone mein 3 se 6 maah tak lag jaate hain. taap 30 0 sein. se 35 0 sein. iske liye upayukt hai.
  • (2) teevr gati vidhi - yeh audyogik vidhi hai aur iska prayog adhik maatra mein sirka banaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. bade-bade lakdi ke peepon ko lakdi ke buraade, jhaamak (Pumice), kok (Coke) ya anya upayukt padaarthon se bhar dete hain taaki jeevaanuon ko aalanban aur hava ke sampark ki suvidha praapt rahe. inke oopar aiseetik aur ailkohauleeya jeevaanuon ko dheere-dheere tapakaate hain aur fir jis ras se sirka banaana hai use oopar se giraate hain. ras ke dheere-dheere tapakane par hava peepe mein oopar ki or uthati hai aur aml teji se banane lagta hai. kriya tab tak kaaryaanvit ki jaati hai jab tak nishchit aml ka sirka naheen praapt ho jaata.

tarah-tarah ke sirke

maalt sirka (Malt Vinegar)

maalteekrut anaaj (Malted grains, praaya: jau) se madyashaala ya aasavani (Distillery) ki bhaaainti baash (Wash) praapt kiya jaata hai. fir aiseetik (amleeya) baikteeriya ke kinvan se sirka praapt hota hai. madira sirka (Wine Vinegar) uparyukt donon vidhiyon se sugamata se praapt hota hai.

seb ka sirka (Cider Vinegar)

saadhaaran prayog ke liye teekha sirka seb ya naasapaati ke chhilke se banaaya jaata hai. in chhilkon ko paani ke saath kisi bhi patthar ke martabaan mein rakh dete hain aur usamein kuchh sirka ya khatti madira daalkar garm sthaan mein rakh dete hain aur kuchh dinon baad usamein ichhaanusaar paani daalte hain ek-do hafte mein sirka taiyaar ho jaata hai. ek chaude munh wala bartan lein. ismein seb ke chhote-chhote tukade kaatkar daal dein. ab ise khula chhod de. kuchh samay baad seb ke tukade laal hone shuroo ho jaaenge. ab jaar ke munh tak paani bhar dein. ab ise aap kuchh din ke liye aise hi chhod dein. kuchh din baad jaar ke oopar sooti kapda baandhakar andhere sthaan par rakh dein. kuchh-kuchh din par iski dekhbhaal karte rahe. kareeb ek maheene baad aap sooti kapde ki madad se is mishran ko ek alag bartan mein chhaan lein. seb ke gale hue tukadon ko alag feink de. baaki bacha hua mishran seb ke sirka hoga.

kaashth sirka (Wood Vinegar)

kaashth ke bhanjan aasavan se aiseetik aml ki praapti hoti hai. yeh tanu aiseetik aml (3 ºaaÉaaä 5%) hai aur iski kairemel (Caramel) se ranjit kar dete hain. kabhi-kabhi ethil aiseetet se sugandhit bhi kiya jaata hai.

krutrim sirka (Synthetic Vinegar)

sirke ki vishesh aavashyakta par krutrim aiseetik aml ke tanu vilyan ko kairemel se ranjit karke prayog mein laaya jaata hai.

maanak tatha "vishleshan" (Standard and analysis)

adhikaansh sirkon ka maanak yeh hai ki nyoonatam aiseetik aml 4% hona chaahiye.

kuchh sirkon ka vishleshan bhi nimnalikhit hai-

 seb ka sirka madira sirka maalt sirka
vishisht gurutv 1.013 se 1.014 1.013 se 1.021 1.015 se 1.025
aiseetik aml % 4.84 6.55 4.23
kul thos % 2.49 1.93 2.70
raakh % 0.34 0.32 0.34
sharkara % 0.25 0.46 -

baahari kadiyaaain