sinhali bhaasha

sinhali bhaasha Sri Lanka mein boli jaane waali sabse badi bhaasha hai. sinhali ke baad Sri Lanka mein sabse jyaada boli jaanevaali bhaasha tamil hai. praaya: aisa naheen hota ki kisi desh ka jo naam ho, vahi us dash mein basane waali jaati ka bhi ho aur vahi naam us jaati dvaara vyavahrut hone waali bhaasha ka bhi ho. sinhal dweep ki yeh visheshata hai ki usamein basane waali jaati bhi "sinhal" kahalaati chali I hai aur us jaati dvaara vyavahrut hone waali bhaasha bhi "sinhal".

anukram

lipi

anek bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki lipiyon ki tarah sinhal bhaasha ki lipi bhi braahmi lipi ka hi parivrtit viksit roop hain aur jis prakaar urdoo ki varnamaala ke atirikt devanaagari sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki varnamaala hai, usi prakaar devanaagari hi sinhal bhaasha ki bhi varnamaala hai.

sinhal bhaasha ko do roop maanya hain - (1) shuddh sinhal tatha (2) mishrit sinhal

shuddh sinhal ko keval battees akshar maanya rahe hain-

a, aa, ऍ, ai, i, E, u, oo, ऒ, O, ऎ, A k, g j t d n t the na p b m ya r l va s h ksh an.

sinhal ke praacheenatam vyaakaran granth sidtsangara (Sidatsan̆agarā (1300 AD)) ka mat hai ki ऍ tatha ai -- a, tatha aa ki hi maatra vruddhi waali maatraaeain hain.

vartamaan mishrit sinhal ne apni varnamaala ko na keval paali varnamaala ke aksharon se samruddh kar liya hai, balki sanskrut varnamaala mein bhi jo aur jitne akshar adhik the, un sab ko bhi apna liya hai. is prakaar vartamaan mishrit sinhal mein aksharon ki sankhya chauvan (54) hai. atthaarah akshar "svar" tatha shesh chhattees akshar vyanjan maane jaate hain.

vyaakaran

do akshar (poorv akshar tatha par akshar) jab milkar ekaroop hote hain, to yeh prakriya "sandhi" kahalaati hai. shuddh sinhal mein sandhiyon ke keval das prakaar maane gaye hain. kintu aadhunik sinhal mein sanskrut shabdon ki sandhi athva sandhichhed sanskrut vyaakaranon ke niyamon ke hi anusaar kiya jaata hai.

"ekaakshar" athva "anekaaksharon" ke samooh padon ko bhi sanskrut ki hi tarah chaar bhaagon mein vibhkt kiya jaata hai - naamaya, aakhyaat, upasarg tatha nipaat.

sinhal mein hindi ki hi tarah do vachan hote hain - "ekavachan" tatha "bahuvachan". sanskrut ki tarah ek atirikt "dvivchan" naheen hota. is "ekavachan" tatha "bahuvachan" ke bhed ko sankhya bhed kehte hain.

jis prakaar "vachan" ko lekar "hindi" aur "sinhal" ka saamya hai usi prakaar ham kah sakte hain ki "ling" ke vishay mein bhi hindi aur shuddh sinhal samaanadharma hai. purush teen hi hain - pratham purush, madhyam purush tatha uttam purush. teenon purushon mein vyavahrut hone vaale sarvanaamon ke aath kaarak hain, jinki apni-apni vibhktiyaaain hain. "karm" ke baad praaya: "karan" kaarak ki ginti hoti hai, kintu sinhal ke aath kaarakon mein "karm" tatha "karan" ke beech mein "kartru" kaarak ki ginti ki jaati hai. "sambodhan" kaarak naheen hone se "kartru" kaarak ke baavajood kaarakon ki ginti aath hi rahati hai.

vaakya ka mukhyaansh "kriya" ko hi maanate hain, kyonki kriya ke abhaav mein koi bhi kathan banta hi naheen hai. yon sinhal vyaakaran adhikaansh baaton mein sanskrut ki anukruti maatr hai. to bhi usamein na to sanskrut ki tarah "parasmaipad" tatha "aatmanepad" hote hain aur na lat lot aadi das lakaar. sinhal mein kriyaaon ke ye aath prakaar maane gaye hain-
(1) karta kaarak kriya (2) karm kaarak kriya, (3) prayojya kriya, (4) vidhi kriya,
(5) aasheervaad kriya, (6) asanbhaavya, (7) poorv kriya, tatha (8) mishr kriya.

sinhal bhaasha bolne-chaalane ke samay hamaari Bhojpuri aadi boliyon ki tarah pratyayon ki drushti se bahut hi aasaan hai, kintu likhne-padhne mein utani hi durooh. bolne-chaalane mein yanava (ya gamane) kriyaapad se hi jaata hooain, jaate hain, jaata hai, jaate ho, (vah) jaata hai, jaate hain ityaadi hi naheen, jaaega, jaaenge aadi sabhi kriyaasvaroopon ka kaam ban jaata hai.

lingabhed hindi ke vidyaarthiyon ke liye tedhi kheer maana jaata hai. sinhal bhaasha is drushti se badi saral hai. vahaaain "achha" shabd ke samaanaarthi "hond" shabd ka prayog aap "ladka" tatha "ladki" donon ke liye kar sakte hain.

pratyek bhaasha ke muhaavare uske apne hote hain. doosari bhaashaaon mein unke theek-theek paryaaya khojana bekaar hai. to bhi anubhav saamya ke kaaran do bhinn jaatiyon dvaara boli jaane waali do bhinn bhaashaaon mein ek jaisi milti-julati kahaavatein upalabdh ho jaati hain. sinhal tatha hindi ke kuchh muhaavaron tatha kahaavaton mein paryaapt ekaroopata hai.

sinhal-bhaasha evam saahitya ka itihs

uttar Bhaarat ki ek se adhik bhaashaaon se milti-julati sinhal bhaasha ka vikaas un shilaalekhon ki bhaasha se hua hai jo E. poo. doosari teesari shataabdi ke baad se lagaataar upalabdh hai.

Bhagwan buddh ke parinirvaan ke do sau varsh baad ashokaputr Mahendra sinhal dweep pahuainche, to "mahaavansh" ke anusaar unhonne sinhal dweep ke logon ko dweep bhaasha mein hi upadesh diya tha. mahaamati Mahendra apne saath "buddhavachan" ki jo parampara laae the, vah maukhik hi thi. vah parampara ya to buddh ke samay ki "maagadhi" rahi hogi, ya unke do sau varsh baad ki koi aisi "praakrut" jise Mahendra sthavir swayam bolte rahe honge. sinhal itihaas ki maanyata hai ki Mahendra sthavir apne saath na keval tripitk ki parampara laae the, balki unke saath uske bhaashyon athva usaki atthakathaaon ki parampara bhi. un atthakathaaon ka baad mein sinhal anuvaad hua. vartamaan paali atthakathaaeain mool paali atthakathaaon ke sinhal anuvaadon ke pun: paali mein kiye gaye anuvaad hain.

kuchh pramukh sinhal shabd aur unke arth

giya --- gaya
yaayi --- jaayega
ave --- aaya

mam --- main
ohu --- vah
aya --- vah
oya --- tum
oo --- yeh
oyaaghe --- tumhaara

stuti --- dhanyavaad
sudu --- safed
seeni --- cheeni
hina venava --- hansana
hitnava --- sochana
seeya --- sau
sinhaya --- sher
sep --- svaasthya
sekaya --- sandeh
sam --- samaan
sapattuv --- joota
satyaya --- satya
satiya --- saptaah
moonn --- chehara
mihiri --- meetha
minisa --- manushya
mitti --- chhota
maama --- maama
maalluva --- machhali
maasaya --- maas
man --- man
him --- barf
sihinya --- sapana
sulaङag --- hava
mal --- gandagi
maranava --- maarana
marannaya --- mrutyu
avurudd --- varsh
saamaya --- shaanti
roopaya --- sundarata
rogaya --- rog
rohal --- aspataal
ruvan --- ratn
ridi --- chaaaindi
reya --- raat
rahas --- rahasya
rasne --- garam
rasnaya --- garmi
ratu --- laal
rajaya --- sarkaar
raj --- raaja

ridenava --- chot pahuainchaana
raiya --- raat
rahas --- rahasya
rasane --- garam
rasanaya --- garami
ratu --- laal
rajaya --- sarkaar
raj --- raaja
rat --- videsh rat --- desh
obanava --- press
okakom --- sab
eliya --- prakaash
eya --- vah
enava --- aana
rituv --- ritu
rin --- rin
uyanava --- khaana banaana

iye --- kal
ilangat --- baad mein
iya --- teer
ॲaanum arinva --- jamhaai lena
ॲaat --- door
iranava --- dekha
ऍs kannadiya --- chashma
ऍngill --- anguloo
senasuraada --- shanivaar
sikuraada --- shukravaar
brahasapatinda --- guruvaar
bradaada --- Budhvaar
angaharuvaada --- mangalvaar
sanduda --- somvaar
irida --- ravivaar
desaimabaraya --- December
novaimabaraya --- November
okatobaraya --- October
saipataimabaraya --- sitmbar
agosatuv --- August
jooli --- July
jooni --- June
maiyi --- May
apriyel --- April
maaratuv --- March
pebaravaariya --- February
janavaariya --- January
chooti --- chhota
gahanava --- peetana
gal --- patthar
gananava --- lena
gang --- nadi
kreedav --- khel
kopi --- kaufi
keti --- chhota

kusasiya --- rasoighar
kuliya --- vetan
kurulala --- pakshi
kikili --- murgi
kat --- muainh
katur --- kainchi
aata --- daada
aachchi --- daadi
sinhal --- sinhali
gam --- gaaainv
miniha --- aadmi
minissu --- manushya
hariya --- kshetr
koyi --- kaun sa
palaat --- praant
dakunu --- dakshin
upan gam --- janmasthaan
namut --- lekin
padinciya --- nivaasi
kohe --- kahaaain
ne --- aisa hai ya naheen?
aayubovan --- Hello
nam --- naam
sub upanadinyak --- shubh janmadin
dananava --- jaanana
matakaya --- smruti
matak venava --- yaad karna

kolal --- baalak
kelal --- stri
loku --- lamba
lasasan --- sundar
dat --- daaaint
dat --- daaaint
div --- jeebh

gasanava --- beat
gaiyuv --- gaaya
gayanava --- gaana
hadavat --- hrudaya
kapanava --- kaatna
kaipuv --- kaata
kond --- baal
podi --- tuchh
ridenav --- hurt
kakul --- paaainv
ऍs --- aaainkh
kan --- kaan
ऍng --- shareer
konand --- peeth
balala --- kutta
giya --- jaana (perfect)

isasar --- pehle
napuru --- nirdayi
pohosati --- dhani stri
pohosata --- dhani purush
pohosat --- dhani
tar --- majaboot
tad --- kathin
nav --- aadhunik
ऍyi --- kyon
kavad --- kaun
ad --- aaj
mage --- Khan
ooro --- sooar
ooru mas --- sooar ka maans
oora --- sooar
un --- jvar
geval --- ghar
geya --- ghar
vaid karanava --- kaam karanaakaarya
vaid --- kaarya
deval --- vastueain
deya --- vastu
denanu --- gaayein
den --- gaaya
ashavayo --- ghode
ashavaya --- ghoda
kaputo --- kauve
kaput --- kauva
diviya --- cheeta
bohom satutiyi --- bahut-bahut dhanyavaad
karunaakar --- krupaya
ovu --- haaain
ekadaah --- hajaar
ekaseeya --- sau
dahaya --- das
navaya --- nau
at --- aath
hat --- saat
haya --- chh:
pah --- paaainch
hatar --- chaar
tun --- teen
dek --- do
ir --- soorya
vandura --- bandar
naivat hamuvemu --- alvida
salali --- dhan
vaisas --- varsha
vahinva --- barasana (varsha hona)

pihiya --- chaakoo
hainad --- chammach
liyum --- patra
kanatoruv --- kaaryaalaya
taiPaaaaEl --- daakaghar
yavananava --- bhejana
panasal --- mandir
aadaraya --- pyaar
goviplaa --- khet
mesaya (na.) --- mej
mehe --- yahaaain
kaal --- chauthaai
kaalaya --- samay
kal --- samay
kochchar --- kitna der

oya --- tum
inanava --- hona
hond --- achha
isatuti --- dhanyavaad
saneep --- svaasthya
saip --- svaasthya
nagaraya --- shahar
apirisidu --- ganda
pirisidu venava --- saaf hona
pirisidu karanava --- saaf
pirisidu --- saaf karna
yat --- neeche
kalin --- pehle
narak --- bura
ladaruva --- bachcha
nainad --- chaachi
satun --- jaanavar
sah --- aur
pilitur --- uttar
atar --- ke beech mein
taniv --- akele
avsar dim --- anumati dena
siylal --- sab
vaataya --- hava
ekangayi --- sahamat hua
kalahakhkar --- aakraamak
vayas --- aayu
virudadav --- viruddh
naivat --- pun:
pasuv --- baad mein
ahasayaanaya --- vaayuyaan
vaidihiti --- vayask
lipinya --- pata
haraha --- aar-paar
anatur --- durghatana

pilignanava --- sveekaar karna
pitrat --- baahar
ud --- upar
karanava --- kaam karna
oloov --- sir
malali --- chhota bhaai
nangi --- chhoti bahan
akaka --- badi bahan
ayaya --- bada bhaai
mesaya --- mej
bat --- ubala chaaval
hari --- theek hai
hari --- bahut
naihai --- naheen
mokakad --- kya
amama --- maaain
duvanav --- daudna
gedar --- ghar
loku meeya --- chooha
meeya --- chooha
ud --- ke upar
irida --- ravivaar
ek --- yeh
ek --- ek
epa --- naheen
dor --- darvaaja
vahanava --- band karna
pot --- pustak
ikaman --- tej
kanava --- khaana
at --- bhuja
mal --- fool
vatur --- paani
le --- rakt
kiri --- doodh
api --- ham log
mam --- mai
yanava --- jaana

mokakd --- kya
keeyad --- kitna
kohend --- kahaaain

baahari kadiyaaain