sindhi bhaasha

sindhi
سaaنaaڌaaي sindhi Sindhī
boli jaati hai sindh (Pakistan), kachh (Bhaarat)
kul bolne vaale 2.5 karod
bhaasha parivaar hind-Europeeya
lekhan pranaali naastaalik, devanaagari, khudaabaadi
aadhikaarik star
aadhikaarik bhaasha ghoshit Pakistan, Bhaarat
niyaamak koi aadhikaarik niyman naheen
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 sd
ISO 639-2 snd
ISO 639-3 snd

sindhi Bhaarat ke pashchimi hisse aur mukhya rup se Gujarat aur Pakistan ke sindh praant mein boli jaane waali ek pramukh bhaasha hai. iska sambandh bhaashaai parivaar ke star par aarya bhaasha parivaar se hai jismein sanskrut samet hindi, punjabi aur gujaraati bhaashaaeain shaamil hain. anek maanya vidvaanon ke mataanusaar, aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein, sindhi, boli ke roop mein sanskrut ke sarvaadhik nikat hai. sindhi ke lagbhag 70 pratishat shabd sanskrut mool ke hain.

sindhi bhaasha sindh pradesh ki aadhunik bhaarateeya-aarya bhaasha jiska sambandh paishaachi naam ki praakrut aur vraachad naam ki apabhransh se joda jaata hai. in donon naamon se vidit hota hai ki sindhi ke mool mein anaarya tatv pehle se vidyamaan the, bhale hi ve aarya prabhaavon ke kaaran gaun ho gaye hon. sindhi ke pashchim mein balochi, uttar mein lahaindi, poorv mein maaravaadi aur dakshin mein gujaraati ka kshetr hai. yeh baat ullekhaneeya hai ki islaami shaasanakaal mein sindh aur mulataan (lahaindeebhaashi) ek praant raha hai aur 1843 se 1936 E. tak sindh Mumbai praant ka ek bhaag hone ke naate gujaraati ke vishesh sampark mein raha hai.

Pakistan mein sindhi bhaasha nastaalik (yaani arabi lipi) mein likhi jaati hai jabki Bhaarat mein iske liye devanaagari aur nastaalik dono prayog kiye jaate hain.

anukram

sindhi ka bhoogol evam upabhaashaaeain

Pune mein cheti chand ke mele ka banner

sindh ke teen bhaugolik bhaag maane jaate hain-

  • (1) siro (shiro bhaag),
  • (2) vicholi (beech ka) aur
  • (3) laad (sanskrut : laat pradesh = neeche ka).

siro ki boli siraaiki kahalaati hai jo uttari sindh mein khairapur, daadoo, laadkaava aur jekabaabaad ke jilon mein boli jaati hai. yahaaain baloch aur jaat jaatiyon ki adhikta hai, isliye isko bareechiki aur jatiki bhi kaha jaata hai. dakshin mein Hyderabad aur Karachi jilon ki boli laadi hai aur in donon ke beech mein vicholi ka kshetr hai jo meerapur khaas aur uske aaspaas faila hua hai. vicholi sindh ki saamaanya aur saahityik bhaasha hai. sindh ke baahar poorvi seema ke aaspaas thadeli, dakshini seema par kachhi aur pashchimi seema par laasi naam ki sammishrit boliyaaain hain. dhadeli (dhar = thal = marubhoomi) jila navaabashaah aur Jodhpur ki seema tak vyaapt hai jismein maaravaadi aur sindhi ka sammishran hai. kachhi (kachh, kaathiyaavaad mein) gujaraati aur sindhi ka evam laasi (laasabela, balochistaan ke dakshin mein) balochi aur sindhi ka sammishrit roop hai. in teenon seemaavarti boliyon mein pradhaan tatv sindhi hi ka hai. Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke baad in boliyon ke kshetron mein sindhiyon ke bas jaane ke kaaran sindhi ka praadhaanya aur badh gaya hai. sindhi bhaasha ka kshetr 65 hajaar varg meal hai.

vyaakaran

sindhi shabd

sindhi ke sab shabd svaraant hote hain. iski dhvaniyon mein g, j, d aur b atirikt aur vishisht dhvaniyaaain hain jinke uchchaaran mein savarn dhvaniyon ke saath hi svar tantr ko neecha karke kaakal ko band kar dena hota hai jisse dvitv ka sa prabhaav milta hai. ye bhedak svanagraam hai. sanskrut ke t varg + r ke saath moordhanya dhvani aa gayi hai, jaise putt, ya puttu (putr), mand (mantra), nind (nindra), doh (droh). sanskrut ka sanyukt vyanjan aur praakrut ka dvitv roop sindhi mein samaan ho gaya hai kintu usase pehle ka hrasv svar deergh naheen hota jaise dhaatu (hin. bhaat), jibh (jihva), khat (khatva, hin. khaat), sutho (sushthu). praaya: aisi sthiti mein deergh svar bhi hrasv ho jaata hai, jaise digho (deergh), sisi (sheersh), tiko (teekshn). jaise san. datt: aur supt: se dato, suto bante hain, aise hi saadrushya ke niyam ke anusaar krut: se keeto, peet: se peeto aadi roop ban gaye hain yadyapi madhyam-t-ka lop ho chuka tha. pashchimi bhaarateeya aarya bhaashaaon ki tarah sindhi mein bhi mahaapraanatv ko sanyat karne ki pravrutti hai jaise saada (saardh, hin. saadhe), kaano (hin. khaana), kulan (hin. khulana), pucha (san. pruchha).

sanjnyaa

sanjnyaaaon ka vitran is prakaar se paaya jaata hai - akaaraant sanjnyaaaeain sada streeling hoti hai, jaise khat (khaat), taar, jibh (jeebh), baaainh, sooainh (shobha); okaraant sanjnyaaaeain saha pulling hoti hain, jaise ghodon, kuto, mahino (maheena), hafto, dooainhon (dhoom); -aa-, i aur - E mein ant hone waali sanjnyaaaeain bahudha streeling hain, jaise hava, garola (khoj), makhi raati, dili (dil), dari (khidki), (ghodo, billi-apavaad roop se sethi (seth), misiri (misr), pakhi, haathi, saaaini aur sanskrut ke shabd raaja, daata pulling hain; -u-, -oo mein ant hone vaale sanjnyaaaprad praaya: pulling hain, jaise kitaab, dharu, muainh, maanh (manushya), rahaakoo (rahane wala) -apavaad hai viju (vidyut), khand (khaand), aabaroo, gaoo. pulling se streeling banaane ke liye-i, -E, -ni aur -aani pratyaya lagaate hain-kukuri (murgi), chhokari; jhirki (chidiya), bakiri, kutti; ghobini, sheehani, nokirvaani, haathyaani. ling do hi hain-streeling aur pulling. vachan bhi do hi hain-ekavachan aur bahuvachan. streeling shabdon ka bahuvachan ooainkaaraant hota hai, jaise jaalooain (striyaaain), khatooain (chaarapaaiyaaain), davaaooain (davaaeain) akhyooain (aaainkhein); pulling ke bahuroop mein vaividhya hain. okaaraant shabd aakaaraant ho jaate hain-ghodon se ghoda, kapadon se kapda aadi; ukaaraant shabd akaaraant ho jaate hain-gharu se ghar, vanu (vruksh) se van; ikaaraant shabdon mein-ooain badhaaya jaata hai, jaise sethyooain. ikaaraant aur ookaaraant shabd vaise hi bane rahate hain.

sanjnyaaaon ke kaarak

sanjnyaaaon ke kaarakeeya roop parasargon ke yog se bante hain - karta-; karm-ke, khe; karan-saaain; sanpradaan-ke, khe, laai; apaadaan-kaaain, khaaain, taaain (par se), maaain (mein se); sambandh-pu. ekav. jo, bahuv. jo, streeling ekav. ji. bahuv. jooain, abhikran-mein, te (par). kuchh pad apaadaan aur adhikran kaarak mein vibhktyant milte hain-gothooain (gaaainv se), gharooain (ghar mein), pati (jameen par), veli (samay par). bahuv. mein sanjnyaa ke tiryak roopru-uni pratyaya (tulana keejiye hindi-on) se banta hai-chhokaryuni, davaauni, raajaauni, ityaadi.

sarvanaam

sarvanaamon ki soochi maatr se inki prakruti ko jaana ja sakega-

1. maaain, aaooain (main); arsi (ham); tiryak kramash: mooain tatha asaaain;
2. tooain ; tavheen, abheen (tum); tiryak roop to, tabhaaain;
3. puain. hoo athva oo (vah, ve), tiryak roop hun, hunani; stri. hooa, hoo, tiryak roop uho, uhe; puain. hi athva heeu (yeh, ye) tiryak roop hi, hinni; stri. iho, ihe, tiryak roop inhein. ijhi (yahi), ujho (vahi), bahuv. ijhe, ujhe; jo, J (hin. jo); chha, kujaadi (kya); keru, kahidi (kaun); ko (koi); ki, kujhu (kuchh); paan (aap, khud).

visheshanon mein okaaraant shabd visheshya ke ling, kaarak ke tiryak roop aur vachan ke anuroop badalate hain, jaise sutho chhokaro, sutha chhokara, suthi chhokari, suthyani chhokaryuni khe. shesh visheshan avikaari rahate hain. sankhyaavaachi visheshanon mein adhiktar ko hindeebhaashi sahaj mein pehchaan sakte hain. b (do), te (teen), daah (das), aridh (18), veeh (20), teeh, (30), panjaah, (50), saadha daah (10..), veeno (doona), teeno (tiguna), sajo (saara), samooro (samoocha) aadi kuchh shabd niraale jaan padte hain.

sanjnyaaarthak kriya

nukaaraant hoti hai-halanu (chalana), badhanu (baaaindhana), tapanu (faaaindana) ghumanu, khaainu, karanu, achanu (aana) vaanu (jaanava, vihnu (baithna) ityaadi. karmavaachya praaya: dhaatu mein-is-ya-ij (praakrut ajj) jodkar banta hai, jaise maarije (maara jaata hai), pitijnu (peeta jaana); athva hindi ki tarah vanyaanu (jaana) ke saath sanyukt kriya banaakar prayukt hota hai, jaise maao varnya tho (maara jaata hai). preranaarthak kriya ki do sthitiyaaain hain-likhaainu (likhna), likhraainu (likhvaana); kamaainu (kamaana), kamaaraainu (kamavaana), krudanton mein vartamaanakaalik-halandon (hilta), bhajado (tootata) -aur bhootakaalik-bachyalu (bacha), maaryalu (maara)-ling aur vachan ke anusaar vikaari hote hain. vartamaanakaalik krudant bhavishyat kaal ke arth mein bhi prayukt hota hai. hindi ki tarah krudanton mein sahaayak kriya (vartamaan aahe, tha; bhoot ho, bhavishyat hooaindo aadi) ke yog se anek kriya roop siddh hote hain. poorvakaalik krudant dhaatu mein-i-ya -E lagaakar banaaya jaata hai, jaise khaai (khaakar), likhi (likhkar), vidhiling aur aajnyaaarthak kriya ke roop mein sanskrut praakrut se viksit hue hain-maaain halaaain (main chalooain), aseen halooain (ham chalein), tooain haleen (too chale), tooain hal (too chal), tabheen halo (tum chalo); hoo hale, hoo haleen. inmein bhi sahaayak kriya jodkar roop bante hain. hindi ki tarah sindhi mein bhi sanyukt kriyaaeain pavanu (padna), rahanu (rahana), vathanu (lena), vijhnu (daalna), chhadanu (chhodna), saghanu (sakana) aadi ke yog se banti hain.

vividh

sindhi ki ek bahut badi visheshata hai uske saarvanaamik antyaya jo sanjnyaa aur kriya ke saath sanyukt kiye jaate hain, jaise putraooain (hamaara ladka), bhaasi (usaka bhaai), bhaaurani (unke bhaai); chayumi (mainne kaha), hujei (tujhe ho), maariyaai (usane usako maara), maariyaaimi (usane mujhako maara). sindhi avyaya sankhya mein bahut adhik hain. sindhi ke shabd bhandaar mein arabi-faarasi-tatv anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki apeksha adhik hain. sindhi aur hindi ki vaakya rachana, padakram aur anvaya mein koi vishesh antar naheen hai.

sindhi ke liye prayukt lipiyaaain

ek shataabdi se kuchh pehle tak sindhi lekhan ke liye chaar lipiyaaain prachalit theen. hindu purush devanaagari ka, hindu striyaaain praaya: gurumukhi ka, vyaapaari log (hindu aur musalmaan donon) "hatavaaniko" ka (jise 'sindhi lipi' bhi kehte hain) aur musalmaan tatha sarkaari karmachaari arabi-faarasi lipi ka prayog karte the. san 1853 E. mein East India company ke nirnayaanusaar lipi ke sthireekaran hetu sindh ke commissioner ministar Alice ki adhyakshata mein ek samiti niyukt ki gayi. is samiti ne arabi-faarasi-urdoo lipiyon ke aadhaar par "arabi sindhi " lipi ki sarjana ki. sindhi dhvaniyon ke liye savarn aksharon mein atirikt bindu lagaakar nae akshar jod liye gaye. ab yeh lipi sabhi vargon dvaara vyavahrut hoti hai. idhar Bhaarat ke sindhi log naagari lipi ko safalataapoorvak apna rahe hain.

aam bolachaal (vaakya)

sindhi vaakya hindi arth
keeyan aahiyo / keeyan aaheen? "aap kaise hain/tum kaise ho?"
aaun / maan theek aahiyaan "main theek hooain."
tavaahinji maherabaani "dhanyavaad"
ha "haan"
na "naheen"
tavaahinjo / tuhinjo naalo chha aahe? "aapka/tumaara naam kya hai?"
muhinjo naalo _____ aahe. "mera naam _____ hai."
heea munhinji maau aahe ye meri maaain hain.
heeu munhinjo peeu aahe ye mere pitaaji hain.
heeu asaanje ghar jo vado॒ aahe ve hamaare ghar ke mukhiya hain.
heea nandhdi baa॒r aahe vah chhoti bachchi hai.
heeu nandhdo ॿaaaru aahe vah chhota bachcha hai.
hi ghana aahin? ye kitne hain?
maan samjhaan natho (pulling) / nathi (stri.) main naheen samjha/samajhi.
toon vari chavandein? fir se kaho (pulling)
toon vari chavandeean? fir se kahogi?
mahirbaani kare vari chau krupaya fir se kahiye.
moonkhe chaanhin jo hiku pyaalo khape mujhe ek pyaali chai chaahiye.
tunhinjo mobile number chha aahe? tumhaara mobile number kya hai?
moonkhe khabar konhe. mujhe naheen pata.
maan veshnoo aahyaan main shaakaahaari hooain.
tunhinjo janam ॾaeenhu kaॾaahin aahe? tumhaara janmadin kab hai?
ॾayaari kaॾaahin aahe? divaali kab hai?
moonkhe kheer jo hiku glass ॾae. mujhe ek gilaas doodh do.
tokhe kahido rangu vanando aahe? tumhe kaun sa rang pasand hai?
pyaalo maij te rakhu pyaali mej par rakho.
khaade mein masaal ghana aahin khaane mein masaala bahut hai.
heeu haal ॾaaadho vaॾao aahe. yeh haal bahut bada hai.
to aॼau deri kai aahe. tum aaj der se aaye ho.
sabhini khe pyaar ॾae (ekabachan) / ॾaiyo (bahubachan) ll sabhi ko pyaar do/dein.
saari kaaynaati hiku kutunbu aahe saari srushti ek parivaar hai.
sada mushkanda raho sada muskaraate raho.
prabhoo najdeek aahe prabhu paas hain.
chho diॼaije? darna kyon?
prabhooa mein imaan rakho Bhagwan mein vishvaas rakho.
panhinjan maaitan khe ijt ॾaiyo maata-pita ka aadar karo.
greeban ji sheva aahe prabhooa ji pooॼaa gareebon ki seva prabhu ki pooja hai.
hikk "ek"
b॒ "do"
tre "teen"
chaaru "chaar"
panj "paanch"
chh: "chhe"
satt "saat"
atth "aath"
navan "nau"
d॒h "das"

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain