sikndariya

sikndariya
إaaسaaكaaنaaدaaرaaيaaة iskendereyya
اaaلaaإaaسaaكaaنaaدaaرaaيaaة al-iskandariya (maanak arabi)

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upanaam: bhoomadhya saagar ka moti
सिकन्दरिया is located in मिस्र
sikndariya
Location in Egypt
nirdeshaank : 31°a12′aN 29°a55′aE / 31.2°aN 29.917°aE / 31.2; 29.917
desh Flag of Egypt.svg misr
muhaafajaah sikndariya muhaafajaah
sthaapana 331 isa poorv
shaasan
• raajyapaal aadil labeeb
kshetr
• kul 1,034
janasankhya (2006)
• kul 4
CAPMS 2006 janaganana
samay mandal EST (UTC +2)
• greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) +3 (UTC)
doorabhaash code ++3
jaalasthal Official website
sooryaastakaaleen sikndariya.
sikndariya ki sadkein.

sikndariya (angreji:Alexandria; arabi: اaaلaaإaaسaaكaaنaaدaaرaaيaaة al-iskandariya), misr ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai. yahaan ki janasankhya 41 lakh hai aur yeh desh ka sabse bada samudri bandargaah hai jahaan misr ka lagbhag 80% aayaat aur niryaat kaarya sampann hota hai. sikndariya ek mahatvapoorn paryatak sthal bhi hai. sikndariya, uttar-madhya misr mein bhoomadhya saagar ke tat ke kinaare lagbhag 32 kimi (20 meal) door tak faila hua hai. yeh bibliyotheka alekjeindrina (naya pustakaalaya) ka ghar hai. ek anya shahar, svej, se apne praakrutik gas aur tel ki paaipalaainon ki vajah se yeh misr ka ek mahatvapoorn audyogik kendra ban gaya hai.

praacheen kaal mein, sikndariya duniya ke sabse prasiddh shaharon mein se ek tha. iski sthaapana sikandar mahaan (alekjeindar the great) ne lagbhag (c.) 331 E.poo. mein ek chhote-se faironik shahar ke aaspaas ki thi. fustaat mein ek nai rajdhani ki sthaapana hone ke samay (fustaat ko baad mein kaahira mein samaahit kar liya gaya tha) 641 E. mein muslim misr vijay tak lagbhag ek hajaar saal tak yeh misr ki rajdhani raha. sikndariya apne prakaash stambh (fairos), praacheen duniya ke saat ajoobon mein se ek; apne pustakaalaya (praacheen duniya ka sabse bada pustakaalaya); aur kaitaakaumbs of kom al shokaafa (kom al shokaafa ka bhoogarbh kabristaan), madhya yug ke saat ajoobon mein se ek, ke liye kaafi mashahoor tha. sikndariya ke bandargaah mein 1994 mein chaaloo hone vaale avirt samudri puraatatv se sikandar ke aagaman se pehle (jab vahaan raakotis naam ke ek shahar ka astitv tha) aur taulemi vansh ke kaal ke sikndariya ke rahasyon par se parda uth raha hai.

19veen sadi ke antim daur se yeh antarraashtreeya jahaajaraani udyog ka ek pramukh kendra aur duniya ke sabse mahatvapoorn vyaapaarik kendron mein se ek ban gaya kyonki iski vajah se bhoomadhya saagar aur laal saagar ke daramyaan aasaan jameeni sambandh se aur misr ke kapaas ke laabhaprad vyaapaar se kaafi faayda hota tha.

anukram

itihaas

Raqd.t (Alexandria)
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alekjeindriya, gulaabi grenaait ka bana sfinks, taulemik.

thumb|alekjeindriya ki ek praacheen roman rangabhoomi

alekjeindriya ki sthaapana sikandar mahaan ne April 331 E.poo. mein Ἀaλaεaξaάaνaδaρaεaιaα (alekjeindreeya (Alexáandreia)) ke roop mein ki thi. is pariyojana ke liye sikandar ka mukhya vaastukaar dinokretas tha. alekjeindriya ki sthaapana misr mein naukraatis ko ek yoonaaneevaadik kendra ke roop mein adhikramit karne aur ise yoonaan evam samruddh neel ghaati ke beech ki kadi banaane ke iraade se kiya gaya tha. samudra ke tatavarti kshetr mein pehle se hi raakotis naam ka ek misri shahar maujood tha jise baad mein ise misri bhaasha (misr. raakedayet (Ra'qedyet)) mein alekjeindriya naam diya gaya. misri shahari quarter ke roop mein iska astitv bana raha. sthaapana ke kuchh maheenon ke baad sikandar ne misr se poorv ki or prasthaan kiya aur fir kabhi unhonne apne shahar mein vaapasi naheen ki. sikandar ke chale jaane ke baad unke vaaisaraaya, kliyomenes, ne vistaar jaari rakha. sikandar ke anya uttaraadhikaariyon ke saath sangharsh ke baad, unke general taulemi ne alekjeindriya mein sikandar ke shav ko laane mein kaamayaabi haasil ki.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

haalaanki kliyomenes mukhya roop se alekjeindriya ke satat vikaas ko dekhne ka prabhaari (in chaarj) tha, lagta hai ki heptaastediyn aur mukhyabhoomi ke quarter mukhya roop se taulemi ke hi krutya the. barbaad tyre ke vyaapaar ko viraasat mein praapt karke aur Europe aur arabiyn aur indiyn East ke daramyaan ek naya vaanijyik kendra bankar is shahar ne ek peedhi se bhi kam avadhi mein kaarthej ki tulana mein adhik vikaas kiya. ek sadi mein, alekjeindriya duniya ka sabse bada shahar ban gaya tha aur agali kuchh shataabdiyon mein yeh keval rom ke baad doosare sthaan par tha. yeh misr ka pramukh yoonaani shahar ban gaya jahaan kai shaharon se aane vaale aur kai prushthabhoomiyon vaale yoonaaniyon ka ek asaadhaaran mishran dekhne ko milta tha.[1]

alekjeindriya, yoonaaneevaad ka keval ek kendra hi naheen tha balki yeh duniya ke sabse bade yahoodi samudaaya ka ghar bhi tha. septuaagint, hibroo baaibal ka ek yoonaani anuvaad, ki rachana vaheen ki gayi thi. aaranbhik taulemiyon ne ise kramabaddh kiya aur iske sangrahaalaya ke vikaas ko pramukh yoonaaneevaadik shikshan kendra (alekjeindriya pustakaalaya) mein parint kiya lekin unhonne apni janasankhya ki teen pramukh jaatiyon: yoonaani, yahoodi aur misri, ke antar ko banaae rakhane mein kaafi saavadhaani barati.[2] is vibhaajan se baad mein kaafi ashaanti paida hui, jo 221 se 204 E.poo. tak shaasan karne vaale taulemi filopetar ki adheenata mein apne aap saaf dikhaai dene laga. 144 se 116 E.poo. tak shaasan karne vaale taulemi ashtam fiskan ke shaasan kaal ko parishkaran aur gruh yuddh dvaara chihnit kiya jaata tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

taulemi alekjeindar ki ichha ke anusaar, lekin keval ek sau saal se bhi jyaada samay tak roman prabhaav ke adheen rahane ke baad, 80 E.poo. mein yeh shahar aupachaarik roop se roman adhikaar mein chala gaya. taulemi terahavein evam unke salaahakaaron aur prasiddh raani kliyopetra saptam ke beech hone vaale ghareloo gruh yuddh mein ek roman hastakshep ke dauraan 47 E.poo. mein jooliys seejr ne is par kabja kar liya. is par ant mein okteviyn, bhaavi samraat ogastas, ne 1 August 30 E.poo. kabja kiya jinki jeet ki yaad mein baad mein aathavein maheene ke naam ko badalkar August kar diya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

isa ke janm ke 115 varsh baad, yoonaani-yahoodi gruh yuddhon ke dauraan alekjeindriya ka vishaal khand nasht ho gaya jisne haidriyn aur unke vaastukaar, dekriyaanas, ko iska punarnirmaan karne ka avsar pradaan kiya. 215 mein samraat kaaraakaalla ne is shahar ka daura kiya aur vahaan ke nivaasiyon dvaara un par kuchh apamaanajanak vyangya kiye jaane ki vajah se unhonne achaanak apne sainikon ko un sabhi navajavaanon ko maut ke ghaat utaar dene ka aadesh de diya jo hathiyaar chalaane mein saksham the. 21 July 365 ko ek sunaami (365 ka kreet bhookamp) ki vajah se alekjeindriya tabaah ho gaya,[3] is ghatna ke do sau saal baad aaj bhi is ghatna ko prati varsh "santraas diwas" ke roop mein yaad kiya jaata hai.[4] chauthi sadi ke antim daur mein, butaparaston par nav isaai romanon dvaara kiya jaane wala utpeedn nai oonchaaiyon ko chhoo raha tha. 391 mein, samraat thiyodosiys pratham ke aadesh par paitriyaark thiyofils ne alekjeindriya ke sabhi butaparast mandiron ko nasht kar diya. paanchaveen sadi mein bruchiym aur yahoodi quarter sunasaan ho gaye the. mukhyabhoomi par, lag raha tha maano jindagi seraapiym aur seejriym ke ird-gird keindrit ho gayi thi jinmein se donon baad mein isaai church ban gaye. tathaapi, fairos aur heptaastediym kvaartaron mein adhik sankhya mein rahane vaale logon ki janasankhya jyon-ki-tyon bani rahi aur unhein akshunn chhod diya gaya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

alekjeindriya par british nausainya balon ki bamabaari.

619 mein alekjeindriya sasaanid faarasiyon ke haathon mein chala gaya. haalaanki baaijeinteeni samraat heraakliys ne 629 mein ise fir se praapt kar liya tha, lekin 641 mein general amar ibn al-as ki adheenata mein arabiyon ne chaudah maheenon ki gheraabandi ke baad is par kabja kar liya.

1798 mein nepoliyn ke misr ke abhiyaan ki sainya kaarravaaiyon mein alekjeindriya pramukh roop se prakaash mein aaya. fraanseesi sainikon ne 2 July 1798 ko shahar mein tahalaka macha diya aur 1801 mein ek british abhiyaan ke aagaman tak yeh unke haathon mein raha. 21 March 1801 ko alekjeindriya ki ladaai mein angrejon ne fraanseesiyon par kaafi had tak vijay praapt kar li thi jiske baad unhonne shahar ki gheraabandi kar di jo 2 sitmbar 1801 ko unke haathon mein aa gaya. mohammad Ali, misr ka turk raajyapaal, ne 1810 ke aaspaas alekjeindriya ke punarnirmaan aur punarvikaas ka kaam shuroo kiya aur 1850 tak is shahar ne kuchh had tak apni puraani garima ko fir se praapt kar liya.[5] July 1882 mein british nausainya balon ne is shahar par bamabaari ki aur is par kabja kar liya. July 1954 mein yeh shahar ek ijaraayali bamabaari abhiyaan ka nishaana bana jo baad mein laivon afeyar ke naam se mashahoor hua. keval kuchh hi maheene baad[kab?], alekjeindriya ke mansheya square mein jamaal abdul naaser ki hatya ka ek asafal prayaas kiya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

alekjeindriya ki sabse mahatvapoorn ladaaiyon aur gheraabandiyon mein shaamil hain:[krupaya uddharan jodein]

  • alekjeindriya ki gheraabandi (47 E.poo.), seejr ka gruhayuddh
  • alekjeindriya ki ladaai (30 E.poo.), roman ganaraajya ka antim yuddh
  • alekjeindriya ki gheraabandi (619), baaijeinteeni-faarasi yuddh
  • alekjeindriya ki gheraabandi (641), baaijeinteeni misr par rasheedun ki vijay
  • alekjeindriya ki ladaai, fraanseesi kraantikaari yuddh
  • alekjeindriya ki gheraabandi (1801), fraansisi kraantikaari yuddh
  • 1807 ka alekjeindriya abhiyaan, fraansisi kraantikaari yuddh

bhoogol

jalavaayu

alekjeindriya mein shushk jalavaayu (kopen jalavaayu vargeekaran beedablyooech (BWh)) pai jaati hai[6] lekin bhoomadhya saagareeya kshetron se hokar bahne waali prabal uttari hava is shahar ko registaani bheetari pradesh se ek alag jalavaayu pradaan karti hai.[7] shahar ki jalavaayu mein bhoomadhyasaagareeya (seeesae (Csa)) visheshataaen dekhne ko milti hain, arthaat halke, parivrtaneeya varsha sheet kaal aur garmi, shushk greeshm kaal jo kabhi-kabhi bahut jyaada aardr ho sakta hai; January aur February ka maheena sabse thanda rahata hai jiska dainik taapamaan ki adhiktam seema aam taur par 12 se 18 °ase (54 se 64 °afai) hai.12 se 18 °ase (54 se 64 °afai) jaade ke maheenon mein alekjeindriya mein tej aandhi, baarish aur kabhi-kabhi ole bhi padte hain. July aur August ke maheenon mein saal ki sabse jyaada garmi aur sabse jyaada nami hoti hai jiska ausat dainik adhiktam taapamaan 30 °ase (86 °afai) hota hai.

Alexandria ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 18.4
(65.1)
19.3
(66.7)
20.9
(69.6)
24.0
(75.2)
26.5
(79.7)
28.6
(83.5)
29.7
(85.5)
30.4
(86.7)
29.6
(85.3)
27.6
(81.7)
24.1
(75.4)
20.1
(68.2)
24.9
(76.8)
dainik maadhya °aC (°aF) 13.8
(56.8)
14.3
(57.7)
15.9
(60.6)
18.7
(65.7)
21.6
(70.9)
24.5
(76.1)
26.3
(79.3)
26.8
(80.2)
25.5
(77.9)
22.7
(72.9)
19.2
(66.6)
15.4
(59.7)
20.4
(68.7)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 9.1
(48.4)
9.3
(48.7)
10.8
(51.4)
13.4
(56.1)
16.6
(61.9)
20.3
(68.5)
22.8
(73)
23.1
(73.6)
21.3
(70.3)
17.8
(64)
14.3
(57.7)
10.6
(51.1)
15.8
(60.4)
himpaat/varsha mm (inch) 55.2
(2.173)
29.2
(1.15)
14.3
(0.563)
3.6
(0.142)
1.3
(0.051)
0.01
(0.0004)
0.03
(0.0012)
0.1
(0.004)
0.8
(0.031)
9.4
(0.37)
31.7
(1.248)
52.7
(2.075)
201.6
(7.937)

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srot: World Meteorological Organization (UN)[8]
antariksh se alekjeindriya, March 1990

praacheen shahar ka naksha

yoonaani alekjeindriya ko teen kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha:

bruchiym
shaahi ya yoonaani quarter, jisse shahar ke sabse shaanadaar hisse ka nirmaan hua tha. roman kaal mein ek aadhikaarik quarter ko jodkar bruchiym ka vistaar kiya gaya tha jisse kul milaakar chaar pradeshon ka nirmaan hua tha. is shahar ko samaanaantar sadkon ke ek grid ke roop mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha jinmein se pratyek mein ek parichr bhoomigat nahar hoti thi;
yahoodi quarter
isse shahar ke uttar poorv hisse ka nirmaan hua tha;
raakotis
raakotis naamak is puraane shahar ko alekjeindriya mein mila liya gaya tha. is par mukhyat: misriyon ka kabja tha. (kauptik raakota "alekjeindriya" se).

panktibddh stanbhashreni yukt aur kathit roop se lagbhag 60 meter (200 fut) chaudi do mukhya sadkein shahar ke beech mein ek doosare se hokar gujarati theen jo us sthal ke nikat tha jahaan sikandar ke sema (ya soma) (unki samaadhi) ka sthit tha. yeh sthal nebi dainiyl ki vartamaan masjid ke kaafi nikat sthit hai; aur saath mein yeh mahaan East-vest "kainopik" sadak ki pankti ke bhi kaafi nikat hai jo aadhunik baulavaard di roset (ab shariya fauaad) se sirf thoda sa hata hua hai. roseta gate ke paas iske feetapaath aur nahar ke nishaan paae gaye hain lekin sadkon aur naharon ke avasheshon ka anaavaran poorvi durgon ke baahar jarman utkhanakon dvaara 1899 mein hua tha jo praacheen shahar kshetr ke bheetar kaafi achhi sthiti mein tha.

alekjeindriya mein mool roop se fairos ke dweep se thoda adhik kshetr shaamil tha jise lagbhag ek meal lambe ek teele ke dvaara mukhya bhoomi se juda hua tha aur jise heptaastediyn ("saat stadium" - stadium, yoonaan mein prachalit lambaai ki ek ikaai thi jo lagbhag 180 meter ke samatulya tha). iska antim sira vartamaan grand square ke sheersh sthal ki bhoomi se sata hua tha jahaan "moon gate" sthit tha. ve sab ab us sthal aur gaad par bane aadhunik "raas al-teen" quarter ke beech sthit hai jo dheere-dheere failata gaya aur is teele ka naamonishaan mita diya. "raas al-teen" un sabhi ka pratinidhitv karta hai jo fairos ke dweep par shesh rah gaye hain jo samudra ke prabhaav se samaapt hone vaale vaastavik prakaashastanbh ka sthal hai. teele ke poorv disha mein great haarbar sthit tha jo ab ek khuli khaadi hai; pashchim mein yoonostos bandargaah aur usaka aatanrik besin kibotos sthit tha jo ab kaafi vistrut hokar aadhunik bandargaah sthal ka roop dhaaran kar chuka hai.

straibo kaal (isa poorv pehli sadi ki uttaraardh avadhi) ki pramukh imaaraton ka vivran usi kram mein neeche prastut kiya gaya hai jis kram mein unhein great haarbar mein pravesh karne vaale jahaaj se dekha ja sakta tha.

  1. royal paileses (shaahi mahal), jo shahar ke uttar poorv kone mein sthit hai aur jiske kabje mein lochiyaas ka uchch antareep shaamil hai jo poorv disha mein great haarbar ko avarooddh karta hai. lochiyaas (aadhunik fairiln) lagbhag poori tarah se samudra mein gaayab ho gaya aur saath mein iske mahal, "private port" (niji bandargaah) aur entirodas dweep bhi lupt ho gaye hain. Africa ke uttar poorv tat mein chaaron taraf, yahaan ki bhoomi dhans gayi hai.
  2. great theatre (mahaanaatyashaala), jo raamleh station ke paas aadhunik hauspitl hil par sthit tha. iska istemaal seejr ne ek gadh ke roop mein kiya tha jahaan unhonne faarsaalus ki ladaai ke baad shahar ke janasamooh ki gheraabandi ka saamana kiya tha.
  3. poseedan, ya samudra devata ka mandir, jo naatyashaala ke nikat sthit tha.
  4. timoniym, jiska nirmaan mark entoni ne kiya tha.
  5. emporiym (exchange)
  6. epostaases (maigajeen)
  7. navaaliya (dauks), jo timoniym ke pashchim mein sthit tha jo samudra ke agrabhaag ke ek chhor se doosare chhor tak adhik se adhik teele jitna door tha.
  8. emporiym ke peechhe great seejriym sthit tha jiske maadhyam se do vishaal chatushkonik stambh khade the jo "kliyopetra's needals" ke naam se mashahoor hue jinhein New York shahar aur landan le jaaya gaya tha. samay gujarane par yeh mandir paitriyaarkal church (kulapati girijaaghar) ban gaya, haalaanki is mandir ke kuchh praacheen avashesh bhi praapt hue hain. vaastavik seejriym, arthaat samudri laharon dvaara jin bhaagon ka kataav naheen hua hai, nae baandh ke paas panktibddh kram mein bane makaanon ke neeche sthit hai.
  9. jimnaijiym (vyaayaamashaala) aur pailestra (akhaada) donon shahar ke andar, shahar ke poorvaardh mein baulavaard di roset ke paas, sthit hain jinki sateek avasthiti agyaat hai.
  10. tempal of saitarn (shani mandir), jiski sateek avasthiti agyaat hai.
  11. ek gol ghere mein taulemiyon aur sikandar ki samaadhi (soma), jo do mukhya sadkon ke chauraahe ke paas sthit tha.
  12. ek hi kshetr mein is shahar ki prasiddh laaibreri (pustakaalaya) aur naatyashaala ke saath myoojiym (sangrahaalaya); jiski sateek avasthiti gyaat naheen hai.
  13. seraapiym, sabhi alekjeindriyaai mandiron mein se sabse prasiddh mandir. straibo ke anusaar yeh shahar ke pashchim mein sthit tha; aur haal ke khojon se "paumpi's pillar" ke paas iski sthiti ka pata chala hai jo daayokletiyn dvaara shahar ki gheraabandi ki yaad mein banaaya gaya ek svatantr smaarak tha.
misr ke nakshe par alekjeindriya ki avasthiti

mukhya bhoomi par sthit kuchh anya saarvajanik imaaraton ke naam gyaat hai lekin unki vaastavik avasthiti ke baare mein bahut kam jaankaari upalabdh hai. haalaanki, unamein se koi bhi imaarat fairos dweep ke poorvi kshetr mein sthit imaaraton ki tarah prasiddh naheen hai. vahaan, duniya ke saat ajoobon mein se ek, the great laaitahaaus, ki sthiti ka pata chala jo 138 meter (450 feet) ooncha hone ki vajah se kaafi mashahoor tha. taulemi pratham ne is pariyojana ko shuroo kiya tha aur taulemi dviteeya ne ise poora kiya tha jiske nirmaan mein kul 800 talent kharch hua tha. ise poora hone mein 12 saal lag gaye aur isne duniya ke sabhi paravarti prakaashastanbhon ke ek prototaaip ke roop mein apne seva pradaan ki. sheersh par sthit ek bhatthi se prakaash utpann hota tha aur iska tauvar jyaadaatar choona-patthar ek thos blaukon se nirmit tha. fairos prakaashastambh 14veen sadi mein aae ek bhookamp mein nasht ho gaya tha, great piraamid of geeja (geeja ka vishaal piraamid) ke baad sabse jyaada dinon tak bacha rahane wala yeh doosra praacheen ajooba tha. fairos mein teele ke sheersh sthal par hefaastas ka ek mandir bhi tha.

pehli sadi mein, alekjeindriya ki janasankhya mein bahut badi sankhya mein mukt daason, mahilaaon, bachchon aur daason ke alaava, 180,000 se adhik vyask purush naagrik (isa ke janm ke 32 varsh baad ke ek pepaairas se) shaamil the. 500,000 se lekar 1,000,000 se bhi adhik ki anumaanit kul janasankhya ke aadhaar par yeh audyogik kraanti se pehle nirmit us vakt tak ke sabse bade shaharon mein se ek tha aur aisa sabse bada poorv-audyogik shahar tha jo ek shaahi rajdhani naheen tha.

praacheen avashesh

roman paumpi's pillar

praacheen kaal mein alekjeindriya mein lagaataar yuddh hote rahane ki vajah se vartamaan kaal mein is praacheen shahar ka bahut kam hissa bacha rah gaya hai. bhookamp avatalan (dhansane ki kriya) ki vajah se adhikaansh shaahi aur naagrik quarter bandargaah-sthal ke neeche dab chuke hain aur shesh kvaartaron ka nirmaan aadhunik kaal mein hua hai.

alekjeindriya ka "paumpi's pillar" (paumpi ka khambha), ek roman vijay stambh, sabse jyaada prasiddh praacheen smaarakon mein se ek hai jo aaj bhi vahaan maujood hai. yeh alekjeindriya ke praacheen ekropolis (durg) — shahar ke arabi kabristaan ke nikat sthit ek maamooli pahaadi — par sthit hai aur yeh vaastav mein ek mandir ki stanbhashreni ka hissa tha. aadhaaratal sahit iski oonchaai 30 meter (99 feet) hai; iska shaaft paulishd laal grenaait ka bana hai, jiske aadhaar ka vyaas 2.7 meter hai jo oopar ki taraf kam hote-hote sheersh par keval 2.4 meter rah jaata hai. grenaait ke keval ek hi tukade se bane is shaaft ki oonchaai 88 feet hai. yeh 132 ghan meter ya lagbhag 396 tan hoga.[9][10] paumpi ke khambhe ko unheen tareekon ka istemaal karke khada kiya gaya hoga jin tareekon ka istemaal praacheen chatushkonik stambhon ko khada karne mein kiya gaya tha. romanon ke paas krenein thi lekin unamein is tarah ke bhaari-bharakam khand ko uthaane laayak majabooti naheen thi. Roger haupakins aur mark lernar ne chatushkonik stambhon ko khada karne ke liye kai prayog kiye jinmein se unhonne 1999 mein 25 tan vaale ek chatushkonik stambh ko khada karne ke prayogon mein safalta praapt ki. iske baad chhote-chhote chatushkonik stambhon ko seedha khada karne ke liye do prayog kiye gaye aur 25 tan vaale ek chatushkonik stambh ko khada karne ke do asafal prayaas kiye gaye.[11][12] butaparasti ke sarvanaash ke sandarbh mein ek bishp dvaara aadesh jaari kiye jaane par chauthi sadi mein is sanrachana ko loot liya gaya aur dhvast kar diya gaya. "paumpi's pillar" ek mithya naam hai kyonki paumpi ke saath iska koi lena-dena naheen hai, jise 293 mein shaayad domitiys domitiyaanas ke vidroh ki yaad mein, daayokletiyn ke liye banavaaya gaya tha. khud ekropolis ke neeche seraapiym ke bhoomigat avashesh dabe pade hain, jahaan seraapis devata ke goodh tathyon ko adhiniymit kiya gaya tha aur jiske nakkaasheedaar deevaareeya sthalon ne maanyataanusaar praacheen pustakaalaya ke liye bahutaayat bhandaar sthal pradaan kiya hai.

alekjeindriya bhoogarbh kabristaan, jise kom al-shokaafa ke naam se jaana jaata hai, is khambhe se dakshin pashchim disha mein kuchh doori par sthit hai, jismein ek bahu-stareeya bhoolabhulaiya hai, jahaan tak ek vishaal ghumaavadaar seedhi ke maadhyam se pahuncha ja sakta hai, jahaan moortiklaatmak khambhon, moortiyon aur anya samadharmi romaano-misri dhaarmik prateekon, kabr sthalon aur patthar ke taabooton se susajjit darjanon kakshon ke saath-saath roman-shaili ke aadhaar par nirmit ek vishaal preetibhoj kaksh bhi hai jahaan mrutak ke rishtedaaron dvaara mrutak ki yaad mein bhojan kaaryakram ka aayojan kiya jaata tha. 1800 ke dashak mein sanyogavash bhoogarbh kabristaan ki khoj hone tak naagrik ise kaafi lambe samay se ise bhulaae hue the.

alekjeindriya ke vartamaan mein chal rahi sabse vyaapak praacheen khudaai ko kom al-dikka ke naam se jaana jaata hai aur isse is praacheen shahar ke susanrakshit naatyashaala ka pata chala hai aur iske romanakaaleen snaan kund ke avashesh bhi mile hain.

praacheenakaaleen vastuen

alekjeindriya ki praacheenakaaleen vastuon ka pata lagaane ke liye lagaataar prayaas kiye gaye hain. sthaaneeya puraataattvik samaaj aur kai logon, vishesh roop se is shahar ko apne desh ke itihaas ka ek gaurav maankar garv karne vaale yoonaaniyon ne, is kaarya mein apna protsaahan aur sahayog pradaan kiya hai.

sangrahaalaya ke poorv aur vartamaan nideshakon ko samay-samay par avsar milne par vyavasthit dhng se khudaai kaarya karne ki kshamata pradaan ki jaati hai; di. ji. hogaarth ne 1895 mein society for the promotion of helenik stadeej (yoonaani sanvardhan adhyayan protsaahan samaaj) aur ijipt eksaploreshan fund (misr anveshan nidhi) ki taraf se jaanch ke taur par kuchh shodh kiye; aur ek jarman abhiyaan par do saal (1898–1899) tak kaam hota raha. lekin alekjeindriya mein asafal utkhanak ko do mushkilon: khudaai ke liye jagah ki kami aur kuchh roochipoorn kshetron ke kaarya-sthal ka paani ke neeche hona, ka saamana karna pada.

ekdam se praacheen shahar ke oopar vartamaan vishaal aur vikaasasheel aadhunik shahar ke sthit hone ki vajah se, keval atyadhik kharch ke alaava, khudaai karne laayak koi paryaapt jagah milna asambhav hai. isa ke janm ke pashchaat chauthi sadi mein kliyopetra saptam ke shaahi quarter bhookampon aur jvaareeya laharon mein jalamagn ho gaye jisse ye dheere-dheere dhansane lage.[13] is jalamagn bhaag ka khulaasa 1992 mein hua jismein yoonaaneevaadik shahar ke mahal ke quarter sahit kai sabse dilchasp bhaag shaamil the aur fraansisi jalamagn puraatatvavid Frank godiyo aur unke dal ke log abhi bhi bade paimaane par iski chhaanabeen kar rahe hain.[14] ismein seejriyn ka ek ullekhaneeya sir baraamad hua. kuchh vivaadon ke baavajood inhein paryatakon ke liye khola ja raha hai.[15] adhikaansh khule sthaan uttar-poorv aur dakshin-pashchim ki taraf sthit nichli jameen hai jahaan roman star se neeche jaana vyavahaarik roop se asambhav hai.

"paumpi ke khambhe" ke pados mein sangrahaalaya ke svargavaasi nideshak, dau॰ ji. boti, ne sabse mahatvapoorn kaamayaabi haasil ki jahaan kaafi parimaan mein khuli jameen upalabdh hai. yahaan ek bade bhavan ya bhaavon ke samooh ki upasanrachanaaen ujaagar hui hain jo shaayad seraapiym ka hissa hai. paas mein, vishaal bhoogarbh kabristaan aur kolambariya khola gaya hai jo mandir ke baahari hisse ho sakte hain. inmein ek bahut ullekhaneeya gumbaj shaamil hai jis par kautoohal paida karne waali chitraankit nakkaashi ki gayi thi jise ab krutrim roop se prakaashit kiya gaya hai aur aagatukon ke liye khol diya gaya hai.

anusandhaanon mein praapt vastuon ko sangrahaalaya mein rakha gaya hai jismein se sabse ullekhaneeya vastu besaalt se bana ek vishaal bail hai jo shaayad kabhi seraapiym mein ek upaasana yogya vastu thi. anya bhoogarbh kabristaan aur kabron ko kom al-shokaafa (roman) aur raas al-teen (chitraankit) mein khol diya gaya hai.

jarman khudaai dal ko shahar ke uttar-poorv mein ek taulemik stanbhashreni aur sadkon ke avashesh, lekin bahut kam, mile. hogaarth ne kom al-dikka ke teele ke andar sthit ek vishaal int sanrachana ke hisse ka pata lagaaya jo peniym, mausoliya, ya ek roman kile ka hissa ho sakta hai.

nai abari (tat ka agala bhaag) ka nirmaan karne ke liye paitriyaarkal church ke avasheshon ka talakarshan hua; aur aadhunik imaaraton ki neenv rakhane ke dauraan shaayad hi kabhi kisi praacheenakaaleen vastu ka pata na lagta ho. ismein koi sandeh naheen hai ki jameen ke bheetar kaafi dhan daba pada hai; lekin har koshish karne ke baavajood puraavettaaon ko alekjeindriya mein sangrahaalaya aur "paumpi ke khambhe" ke pados ke baahar jyaada kuchh dekhne ko naheen mila hai. haalaanki, deshi-kabr luteron, su-gotaakhoron, nikrshakon aur isi tarah ke anya maadhyamon se samay-samay par moolyavaan vastuon ka pata chala hai jinmein se adhikaansh ko niji sangrah mein rakha gaya hai.

aadhunik shahar

jile

raatrikaaleen alekjeindriya
praacheen kom al dekka padosi kshetr aur alekjeindriya ke yoonaani kone ke pravesh dvaara ki taraf munh kiye hue naaik ka ek pankhayukt pratima liye hue aur busefaalus par savaar sikandar mahaan ki moorti

aadhunik alekjeindriya ko chh: jilon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai:

  • al-montaaja jila: janasankhya 1,190,287
  • sharak (poorvi alekjeindriya) jila: janasankhya 985,786
  • vasaat (kendreeya alekjeindriya) jila: janasankhya 520,450
  • al-aamriya jila: janasankhya 845,845
  • agaami (pashchimi alekjeindriya) jila: janasankhya 386,374
  • al-gomrok jila: janasankhya 145,558

mahaanagareeya alekjeindriya ka nirmaan karne vaale alekjeindriya ke prashaasanik vibhaag adhikaar kshetr ke antargat do shahar bhi aate hain:

  • borg al-arab shahar : janasankhya 186,900
  • new borg al-arab shahar : janasankhya 7,600

padosi kshetr

agaami, amreya, enafooshi, asaafra, ataarin, ajaarita (urf maajaarita ; moolat: laajaaret), Bob sidra, bahaari, baakchas, bolkli (bokla), burg al-arab, camp shejaar, kliyopetra, dekheela, daaunataaun, istarn haarbar, fleming, gabbaari (urf: kbbaari, kubbaari, kabbaari), giyaanaaklis, gleem (gleemenopoolas ka sankshipt roop), gumrok (urf: al-gomrok), haadara, ibraahimiya, King mairiyt, kaafar abdu, kaarmoos, jise kaarmooj ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, kom-L dik (urf kom al-dekka), labbaan, laureint, lauran, maamoora beech, maamoora, maafrooja, mandaara, manshiya, meks, Miami, montaaja, muharram beya, mustafa kaamel, raamleh (urf L raaml), raas al-tin, rashdi, saba paasha, sain stefaano, shatbi, shatj, sidi bishr, sidi gaibar, smooha, sporting, stenali, siyoof, thaarvat, Victoria, vaardeyan, western haarbar aur jijiniya.

vargaakaar sanrachanaaen

  • (Ahmad) orabi square (mansheya square), daaunataaun mein
  • saad jghalul square, daaunataaun mein
  • tahareer square (poorvat: mohammad Ali square, moolat: place des kaunsals) daaunataaun mein
  • Ahmad jevail square, vaiboor L maayaah ke nikat

mahal

  • montaaja pailes, montaaja mein
  • raas al-tin pailes, raas al-tin mein
  • presideinshiyl pailes, maamoora mein

manoranjak sthal

  • montaaja royal gaardans
  • entoniyaades park
  • shailaalat gaardans
  • alekjeindriya chidiyaakhaana
  • green plaaja
  • faintaji land
  • maamoora beech, alekjeindriya
  • mareena vilej

dharm

isaai dharm

mansheya mein seint Cathrine ka laitin Catholic church.
eliyaahoo hanaavi yahoodi upaasanaagruh

rom ke baad alekjeindriya ko duniya mein isaai dharm ka ek pramukh kendra maana jaata tha. alekjeindriya ke Pope, dviteeya amang ikvals (samakaksh shreshth vyaktiyon mein doosra sthaan paane wala) the, jo rom ke bishp ke baad doosare shreshth vyakti the, jo 430 tak roman saamraajya ki rajdhani thi. alekjeindriya ke church ke adhikaar kshetr mein sampoorn Africa mahaadveep shaamil tha. isa ke janm ke 451 varsh baad chaalseedan parishd ki tarah alekjeindriya ke church ko miyaafisaaits aur melkaaits mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya. miyaafisaaits ne jis church ka nirmaan kiya use aaj alekjeindriya ke kauptik roodhivaadi church ke naam se jaana jaata hai. melkaaits ne jis church ka nirmaan kiya use aaj alekjeindriya ke yoonaani roodhivaadi church ke naam se jaana jaata hai. 19veen sadi mein, Catholic aur protesteint mishnariyon ne roodhivaadi charchon ke anuyaayiyon mein se kuchh ke dharmon ko apne-apne dharmon mein tabdeel kar diya.

aaj, Pope of kauptik roodhivaadi church ka kulapati kendra, raamleh mein sthit seint mark kaithedral hai. alekjeindriya ke sabse mahatvapoorn kauptik roodhivaadi charchon mein kliyopetra ka Pope saairil first church, sporting ka seint jaurjs church, sidi bishr ka seint mark end Pope Peter first church, asaafra ka seint mairi church, giyaanaaklis ka seint mairi church, fleming ka seint meena church, mandaara ka seint meena church aur ibraahimiya ka seint tekal hemainat church shaamil hain.

alekjeindriya ke sabse mahatvapoorn yoonaani roodhivaadi church, seint anaargiri church, church of the enansiyeshan, seint enthani church, aarkeinjals gaibriyl end Michael church, seint Cathrine church, mansheya ka kaithedral of the dormishn, church of the dormishn, profet elijaah church, seint jaurjs church, ibraahimiya ka church of the imaikyoolet kaunsepshan, fleming ka seint Joseph church, seint Joseph of erimaathiya church, raamleh ka seint mark end seint nektairiys chaipal, seint nikolas church, seint paaraskevi church, raamleh ka seint saava kaithedral aur seint thiyodor chaipal hain. yoonaani roodhivaadi church se mel khaane vaale dhaarmik sanpradaaya mein alekjeindriya ke roosi roodhivaadi seint alekjeindar nevaski church ka pramukh sthaan hai jo shahar mein rahane vaale roosi bolne vaale samudaaya ko apni seva pradaan karta hai.

laitin Catholic sanskaaron ka paalan karne vaale charchon mein mansheya ka seint Cathrine church aur kliyopetra ka church of the jesuits shaamil hai.

college seint mark ke hisse ke roop mein praapt, shatbi ka seint mark church bahuaayaami hai aur yahaan par laitin Catholic, kauptik Catholic aur kauptik roodhivaadi sanskaaron ke anusaar pooja-praarthana kiya jaata hai.

islaam

al-mursi abu'l-'Abbas masjid

alekjeindriya ke adhikaansh naagrik islaam dharm ka paalan karte hain. alekjeindriya ka sabse prasiddh masjid, enafooshi ka Abu al-Abbas al-mursi masjid hai. shahar ke anya ullekhaneeya masjidon mein somooha ka Ali ibn abi taalib masjid, bilaal masjid, mandaara ka al-gaami al-bahaari, somooha ka haatem masjid, sidi bishr ka hoda al-islaam masjid, haadara ka al-movaasaah masjid, Miami ka shark al-madeena masjid, mustafa kaamel ka al-shohaada masjid, kid Ibrahim masjid, jijiniya ka yehiya masjid, sidi gaibar ka sidi gaibar masjid aur sultaan masjid shaamil hain.

yahoodi dharm

1950 aur 1960 ke dashakon mein arab raashtravaadi aandolan ke prabhaavasvaroop adhikaansh yahoodiyon ke ijaraail, fraans, Brazil aur anya deshon mein palaayan karne ke baad alekjeindriya ek baar bahut samruddh yahoodi samudaaya ab lagbhag vilupt ho gaya hai. alekjeindriya ka sabse mahatvapoorn yahoodi upaasanaagruh, eliyaahoo hanaavi singaug hai.

shiksha

mahaavidyaalaya aur vishvavidyaalaya

alekjeindriya mein asankhya uchch shiksha sansthaan hain. alekjeindriya vishvavidyaalaya ek saarvajaanik vishvavidyaalaya hai jo misri uchch shiksha pranaali ka anusaran karta hai. iske kai faikaltiyon (shikshakon), khaas taur par engineering ke faikaltiyon, ka antarraashtreeya star par kaafi naam hai. iske alaava, arab vigyaan evam praudyogiki aur samudri parivhan academy ek ardh-niji shikshan sansthaan hai jo uchch vidyaalaya ke saath-saath poorvasnaatak star ke chhaatron ke liye bhi paathyakramon ki peshakash karta hai. university seinghar (Université Senghor) ek niji fraansisi vishvavidyaalaya hai jo maanaviki, raajaneeti aur antarraashtreeya sambandhon ke adhyaapan par dhyaan kendrit karta hai aur jo mukhya roop se afreeki mahaadveep ke chhaatron ko apna lakshya banaata hai. alekjeindriya ke anya uchch shikshan sansthaanon mein alekjeindriya instityoot of technology (eaaiti (AIT)) aur fairos university in alekjeindriya shaamil hain.

vidyaalaya

chitr:ISJA.jpg
instityooshan sainte jiyaan-entaaid
laaisi al-horreya, alekjeindriya

alekjeindriya ke videshi shikshan sansthaanon ka ek bahut lamba itihaas hai. pehle videshi vidyaalayon ka samayakaal 19veen sadi ka aaranbhik daur hai, jab fraansisi mishnariyon ne misravaasiyon ko shikshit karne ke liye fraansisi dharmaarth vidyaalayon ki sthaapana karna shuroo kiya tha. aaj, alekjeindriya mein Catholic mishnariyon dvaara chalaae jaane vaale sabse mahatvapoorn fraansisi vidyaalayon mein college de la mer di diyoo, college notre dem di saayan, college seint mark, ikoles des soyoors fransiskains (4 alag-alag vidyaalaya), ikole jeraard, ikole seint-vinseint di paul, ikole seint Joseph, ikole sainte Cathrine aur instityooshan sainte jiyaan-entaaid shaamil hain. fraansisi dhaarmik sansthaaon ki sthaapana ke pratikriyaasvaroop, ek dharmanirpeksh (laukik) mission ne laaisi al-horreya ki sthaapana ki, jisne shuroo mein ek fraansisi shikshan pranaali ka anusaran kiya lekin vartamaan mein yeh misr ki sarkaar dvaara chalaaya jaane wala ek saarvajaanik vidyaalaya hai. alekjeindriya mein poori tarah fraansisi shiksha pranaali ka anusaran karne wala ekamaatr vidyaalaya ikole chaimpoliyn hai. yahaan aam taur par alekjeindriya ke fraansisi visheshagyon aur raajanayikon ke bachche hi aksar aate hain.

alekjeindriya mein angreji vidyaalayon ki sankhya bahut kam hai aur fraansisi vidyaalayon ki tulana mein inki sthaapana abhi haal hi mein hui hai. is shahar ke sabse mahatvapoorn angreji bhaashi vidyaalayon mein alekjeindriya American school, british school of alekjeindriya, ijeepshiyn American school, modern American school, sekred heart girls school (esaechaes (SHS)), shatj American school, Victoria college,
al manaar laingvej school of girls (M.E.ji.S. (M.E.G.S.)) (jise pehle skautish school for girls kaha jaata tha), kaumeya laingvej school (keelaes (KLS)), al nasr bauyaj school (ibeees (EBS)) aur al nasr girls college (ijeesi (EGC)) shaamil hain. inmein se adhikaansh vidyaalayon ko naaser yug ke dauraan raashtreeyakrut kiya gaya hai aur vartamaan mein ye misr ke shiksha mantraalaya dvaara sanchaalit misri saarvajaanik vidyaalaya ban gaye hain.

alekjeindriya ka ekamaatr vidyaalaya dyoosh shyool der borromairinnen (deeesabi (DSB) of seint Charles borromi) hai.

alekjeindriya mein maaaintesari shiksha pranaali ki shuruaat sabse pehle 2009 mein alekjeindriya maaaintesari mein ki gayi thi.

dhyaan dein: alekjeindriya ke sabse ullekhaneeya vidyaalayon mein al abaasiya haai school, jamaal abdul naaser haai school aur al manaar english laingvej school for girls shaamil hain.

parivhan

alekjeindriya traam
misr station ke andar
chitr:Double-decker-alexandria.jpg
double dekar bas
alekjeindriya bandargaah.

havaai adde

alekjeindriya mein borg al arab airport dvaara havaai seva pradaan ki jaati hai jo shahar ke kendra se lagbhag 25 kimi ki doori par sthit hai.

March 2010 mein, poorv havaai adde, alekjeindriya intaranaishanal airport ko vaanijyik sanchaalanon ke liye band kar diya gaya aur sabhi eyaralaainon ka sanchaalan borg al arab airport ke maadhyam se hone laga jahaan February 2010 mein ek brand naveen terminal ka nirmaan kaarya sampann hua.[16]

raajamaarg

  • intaranaishanal kostal road. (alekjeindriya - port Saeed)
  • dessert road. (alekjeindriya - kaahira /220 kilometer 6-8 galiyaan, jyaadaatar prakaashit)
  • egriklcharal road. (alekjeindriya - kaahira)
  • sarkular road. the tarnapaaik
  • ta'aameer road "mehavaar al-ta'aameer" - (alekjeindriya - North kost)

train

is shahar mein railway maarg ka vistaar "misr station"; jo alekjeindriya ka mukhya railway station hai, se lekar Abu kir tak hai.

railway stationon mein shaamil hain:

  • misr station (mukhya station)
  • sidi gaibar station

traam

1860 mein ek vyaapak traam maarg network ka nirmaan kiya gaya tha jo Africa ka sabse puraana traam maarg network hai.

saarvajanik parivhan ke anya saadhan

bas aur mineebas.

bandargaah (port)

bandargaah ko nimnalikhit do bhaagon mein baanta gaya hai:

  • poorvi haarbar
  • pashchimi haarbar

sanskruti

pustakaalaya

bibliyotheka alekjeindrina

misr ke alekjeindriya ka royal laaibreri of alekjeindriya kisi samay duniya ka sabse bada pustakaalaya tha. aam taur par aisa maana jaata hai ki iski sthaapana misr ke taulemi dviteeya ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan, isa poorv teesari sadi ke aarambh mein hui thi. iska nirmaan shaayad unke pita dvaara laaibreri complex, myoojej ka mandir — myoojiyn, yoonaani Μaaοaaυaaσaaεaaίaaοaaν (jisse aadhunik angreji shabd myoojiym utpann hua hai) — ke pehle bhaag ka nirmaan karne ke baad hua tha.

ab yeh yathochit roop se pramaanit ho gaya hai ki yeh laaibreri, ya iske sangrah ke hisse, kai baar aag lagne se nasht ho gaye the (pustakaalaya mein aag lagana aam baat thi aur jal chuki hastalikhit paandulipiyon ko pratisthaapit karne ka kaam kaafi mushkil, mahanga aur kaafi samay lagne wala kaam tha). vinaash (ya vinaashon) ke baare mein ab tak praapt vivran, vivaad ka ek jeevant srot bankar rah gaye hain. bibliyotheka alekjeindrina ka udghaatan puraani laaibreri ke site ke paas 2003 mein kiya gaya tha.

sangrahaalaya

  • alekjeindriya ekvairiym
alekjeindriya raashtreeya sangrahaalaya
  • greeko-roman myoojiym
  • royal jvelari myoojiym
  • myoojiym of faain Arts
  • kaivefi myoojiym
  • alekjeindriya naishanal myoojiym ka udghaatan kiya 31 December 2003 ko kiya gaya tha. yeh shahar ke kendra ke paas, taarik al-horreya street (poorv riyoo fauaad) mein ek pratyaavartit itaalavi shaili vaale mahal mein sthit hai. ismein lagbhag 1,800 shilpakrutiyaan hain jo alekjeindriya aur misr ki kahaani bayaan karte hain. inmein se adhikaansh krutiyaan anya misri sangrahaalayon se laai gayi hain.

is sangrahaalaya ko puraane al-saad basili paasha pailes mein sthaapit kiya gaya hai jo alekjeindriya ke sabse ameer lakdi vyaapaariyon mein se ek the. is sthal par nirmaan kaarya ki shuruaat sabse pehle 1926 mein ki gayi thi.

sambandhit shabd

  • al-iskandareya (h) (al-Iskandareyya(h)) (اaaلaaإaaسaaكaaنaaدaaرaaيaaة) (sanjnyaa) (aupachaarik): jo "alekjeindriya" shahar ko sandarbhit karta hai, jiska istemaal aupachaarik granthon aur bhaashan mein kiya jaata hai. iska misri arabi samatulya shabd iskeindereya (Eskenderreya) ya iskindereya (h) (Iskindereyya(h)) hai. iskandariya (h) (Iskandariyya(h)) aur iskeindereya (h) (Eskendereyya(h)) ke uchchaaran mein antar hai, haalaanki arabi bhaasha mein likhte samay inki vartani ek samaan hoti hai. saahityik arabi mein, iskandariya (h) (Iskandariyya(h)) mein hamesha nishchayavaachak upapad (definit aartikl) al- (al-) ka prayog hota hai jabki misri arabi mein, iskeindereya (h) (Eskendereyya(h)) mein kabhi al- (al-) ka prayog naheen hota hai. donon shabdon ke ant mein vaikalpik h (h) ko ta'maarbuta (ta' marbuta) kaha jaata hai jiska aam taur par uchchaaran to naheen kiya jaata hai, lekin likhte samay hamesha iska prayog kiya jaata hai.
  • "Alex " (sanjnyaa): iska istemaal alekjeindriya aur kaahira donon ke mool nivaasiyon ke liya kiya jaata hai jinhein thodi bahut angreji aati hai ve alekjeindriya ko, khaas taur par anaupachaarik roop se, "Alex" ke roop mein sandarbhit karte hain.
  • iskandaraani (Eskandarany) (اaaسaaكaaنaaدaaرaaاaaنaaي) (visheshan): misri arabi mein iska arth 'mool alekjeindriyaavaasi' (purling) ya "alekjeindriya ka" hai.

khel-kood

alekjeindriya stadium
chitr:DSC01990.JPG
alekjeindriya mein cycle chaalakon ka ek samooh

Africa aur misr ke shesh hisson ki tarah alekjeindriyaavaasiyon ka roochikr mukhya khel-kood bhi football hi hai. alekjeindriya stadium, misr ke alekjeindriya ka ek bahuuddesheeya stadium hai. vartamaan mein iska istemaal jyaadaatar football maichon ke liye kiya jaata hai aur iska istemaal 2006 afreekan cup of nations ke liye kiya gaya tha. yeh stadium misr aur Africa ka sabse puraana stadium hai jism nirmaan 1929 mein hua tha. is stadium mein 20,000 logon ke liye jagah hai. alekjeindriya, January 2006 mein aayojit afreekan cup of nations ki mejabaani mein bhaag lene vaale teen shaharon mein se ek tha jise (afreekan cup of nations ko) misr ne jeeta tha. sarfing, jet-skeeng aur vautar polo jaise samudri khel-koodon ka abhyaas bahut kam paimaane par kiya jaata hai.

alekjeindriya mein chaar stadium hain:

  • borg al arab stadium
  • hairas al-hedood stadium
  • alekjeindriya stadium
  • al-krom stadium

tennis aur skvaish jaise anya kam lokapriya khel-koodon ko aam taur par niji saamaajik aur sports clubon mein khela jaata hai, jaise:

  • "sporting" ka alekjeindriya sporting club
  • alekjeindriya country club
  • al-itihaad al-iskandari club
  • al-olimpi club
  • koroom club
  • hairas al hodood club
  • laigoon rijaurt korts
  • "smooha" ka smooha SC (Smouha SC)
alekjeindriya saaikling kaarnivl

alekjeindriya mein cycle ijipt group dvaara har saptaah shukravaar ko saaikling kaarnivl ka bhi aayojan hota hai jiske liye cycle chalaane ka shauk rakhane vaale log har shukravaar ki subah ko vahaan ikaththa hote hain aur al kourniche se hote hue al montaaja se lekar al kla tak ya garmiyon mein bibliyotheka alekjeindrina tak cycle chalaate hain.

saahitya

alekjeindriya ke aadhunik saahitya par do lekhakon ki chhaap hai jinmein se ek, alekjeindriya mein janm lene vaale yoonaani kavi, si.pi. kaivefi aur doosare, indiyn mool ke angrej aur the alekjeindriya kvaartet ke lekhak, Lawrence durel hain. kaivefi ne apni kavita mein yoonaani itihaas aur pauraanik kathaaon aur apni samalaingikta ko samaavisht kiya. durel ne maanav ichhaaon ka pata lagaane ke liye ek paridrushya ke roop mein is sarvadesheeya nagar ka istemaal kiya. naaguib mahafooj ka miraamar, alekjeindriya mein set kiye gaye arabi upanyaason ke liye kaafi prasiddh hai. 2000 ke dashak mein, John kaurtane greemavud, ki laaaingafelo aur keeth Miller jaise lekhakon ne ek kaalpanik kahaani ki seting ke roop mein alekjeindriya ka istemaal kiya hai.

  • upanyaas
    • Robert lidel ka anariyl city (1952)
    • di.J. enaraait ka aikademik yar (1955, jise 1940 ke dashak ke antim daur mein set kiya gaya tha)
    • Lawrence durel ka the alekjeindriya kvaartet (1957–60, jise 1930 ke dashak mein set kiya gaya tha)
    • straatis tsirkaas ka the bait (drifting sitij trayi ka bhaag) (1965, jise 1943-44 mein set kiya gaya tha)
    • naaguib mahafooj ka miraamar (1967)
    • oliviya maining ka the deinjar tri (1977, jise 1942 mein, aanshik roop se alekjeindriya mein, set kiya gaya tha)
    • giliyn braidashau ka the beekan alekjeindriya (1986, jise chauthi sadi mein set kiya gaya tha)
    • edavar al-kharaat ka city of saifaran (tr. 1989, jise 1930 ke dashak mein set kiya gaya tha)
    • edavar al-kharaat ka girls of alekjeindriya (tr. 1993, jise 1930 aur 1940 ke dashakon mein set kiya gaya tha)
    • Robert sol ka the alekjeindriya semaafor (1994)
    • Ibrahim abdul meguid ka no van sleeps in alekjeindriya (1996, jise dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan set kiya gaya tha)
    • John kaurtane greemavud ka pashaajde (2001) vaikalpik itihaas
    • vil edams ka the alekjeindar saaifar (2007)
    • ki laaaingafelo ka flo daaun like silver, haaipetiya of alekjeindriya (2009)
    • keeth Miller ka the book on fire (2009, shahari kalpana)
  • itihaas
    • E.M. forstar ka alekjeindriya: A history end A guide (1922; anginat punarmudran)
    • Michael haag ka alekjeindriya: city of memori (yel university press, 2004)
    • Michael haag ka vintej alekjeindriya: fotograafs of the city 1860-1960 (the American university in kaahira press, 2008)
  • sansmaran
    • Andre asimn ka out of ijipt (1994; jismein alekjeindriya ke paarivaarik itihaas ka varnan hai)
    • Harry E. tjaalas ka feyaravel tu alekjeindriya (tr. 2004)
  • khel
    • final faintasi naainth (peeesaeks) (Final Fantasy IX (PSX)) "final faintasi naainth par alekjeindriya shahar ke the major kahaani mein yahaan Rajkumari "gaarnet" hai

geet

  • fraansisi bhaasha mein geet:
    • jaurjs moostaaki ka alekjeindri
    • klaaud frainkois ka alekjeindri, alekjeindra
  • yoonaani bhaasha mein geet:
    • yaanis kotsiraas ka alekjeindrinos
  • arabi bhaasha mein geet:
    • fairooj ka shat iskeindereya
    • mohammad kaandil ka been shateen ve maaya
    • dalida ka ehsaan naas
    • mustafa amar ka leil iskeindereya
    • mustafa amar ka ya vaad ya iskandaraani
    • muhammad muneer ka ya iskeindereya (jismein Ahmad fauaad negam ke bol hain)
  • angreji bhaasha mein geet:
    • kaamelot ka alekjeindriya
  • vibhinn bhaashaaon mein geet:
    • ya mustafa, daariyo moreno, Bob aazam aur kai anya dvaara punarnirmit - jiske bol arabi, fraansisi aur itaalavi bhaasha mein hain.

paryatan

alekjeindriya, madhya poorv ka ek mukhya greeshmakaaleen rijaurt (ghoomane-firne ki jagah) hai jahaan dhoop aur samudra ka maja lene ke liye anya sabhi shaharon ke log ghoomane aate hain. garmiyon mein yahaan ka beech (samudra tat) chhatariyon aur parivaaron se bhar jaata hai aur shahar mein aam taur par logon ki bheed ikaththa hone lagti hai. is shahar mein saarvajaanik beech (jiska istemaal koi bhi muft mein kar sakta hai aur aam taur par yahaan logon ki kaafi bheed jama hoti hai) ke saath-saath niji beech (jiska istemaal ek chhota sa shulk ka bhugataan karke kiya ja sakta hai) bhi upalabdh hai. yahaan kuchh aise bhi niji beech hain jo keval kuchh hotelon ke mehamaanon ke liye samarpit hain.

ullekhaneeya vyakti

  • Ahmad raamji (misr ke abhineta)
  • Ahmad najif (misr ke pradhaanamantri)
  • Ali abdul haamid moorsi (pratham lauh evam ispaat kaarkhaane ka adhyaksh)
  • aleepiyoos (chauthi sadi E.poo.) yoonaani sangeet lekhak
  • alekjeindar aayolaas (1907-1987) yoonaani kala sangraahak
  • Andre asimn (ameriki lekhak)
  • entonis benaakis (1873-1954) yoonaani kala sangraahak
  • apolos (pehli sadi, ekts 8:24) praarambhik isaai injeelavaadi
  • eriys (chauthi sadi), jisne eriyn vivaad ko bhadkaaya tha
  • Pope ethanesiys the epostolik (isaai dharm ka champion)
  • chereman of alekjeindriya (taapas daarshanik aur vyaakaran shaastri)
  • taulemi first sotar (misr ka shaasak) taulemik raajavansh ki neenv rakhi
  • kliyopetra saptam (misr ka shaasak)
  • kaunstaintaain pi. kaivefi (1863-1933) yoonaani kavi
  • kausmas indikopliyoostas (chhathaveen sadi) yoonaani bhikshu, bhoogolavetta aur lekhak
  • demis roosos (yoonaani gaayak)
  • erik haubsabaum (british itihaasakaar)
  • yooklid (ganitjnya)
  • fareeda of ijipt (misr ki poorv raani)
  • Faruk hausni (misri sanskruti mantri)
  • prinses faujiya (misr ki Rajkumari)
  • filipo tomaaso maarineti (itaalavi kavi aur kalaakaar, bhavishyavaad ka sansthaapak)
  • jaurjs moostaaki (yoonaani-fraanseesi gaayak aur sangeetakaar)
  • gidiyn gechtmain (ijaraayali moortikaar)
  • giyoosep ungaareti (itaalavi kavi)
  • haim saban (ameriki arabpati)
  • heind raustam (misr ki abhinetri)
  • haaipetiya (isa janm pashchaat chauthi-paanchaveen sadi) yoonaani daarshanik
  • Jacob kverido (yahoodi/muslim rahasyavaadi)
  • jeen deses (1904-1970) yoonaani fashion designer
  • konstaintinos paarthenis (1878-1967) (yoonaani chitrakaar)
  • beram al-tunsi (misr ka kavi)
  • mohammad al fayaad (misr ka vyavasaayi)
  • mustafa amar (misr ka gaayak)
  • nikos tsiforos (yoonaani patakathaalekhak aur film nirdeshak)
  • origen (yoonaani isaai vidvaan)
  • umar shareef (misr ka abhineta)
  • paipas (isa janm pashchaats chauthi sadi) yoonaani paddhati grahan karne wala misr ka ganitjnya
  • filo (20 E.poo. se san 50) yoonaaneevaadik yahoodi daarshanik
  • penelop delta (1874-1941) yoonaani lekhak
  • rudolf hes (naaji dal ka jarman upaneta)
  • Sayyed daravesh (misr ka sangeetakaar)
  • taafik al-hakeem (misr a lekhak)
  • yoosaf chaaheen (misr ka film nirdeshak)
  • bishya rashad (misr ka faarmaasist)

antarraashtreeya sambandh

inhein bhi dekhein: List of twin towns and sister cities in Egypt

judvaan nagar - sahayogi shahar

nimn shaharon ke saath alekjeindriya ka judvaan sambandh hai:

inhein bhi dekhein

  • alekjeindriya prashaasanik vibhaag
  • misr ke prashaasanik vibhaag
  • bade pattharon se bane sthalon ki soochi
  • alekjeindriya ka, alekjeindriya se sambandhit

lekh (nots)

  • Michael haag ka "alekjeindriya: city of memori" (landan aur new hevan, 2004) unneesaveen aur beesaveen sadi ke dauraan sarvadesheeya alekjeindriya ka ek saamaajik, raajaneetik aur saahityik chitr.
  • Victor dablyoo. vaun haigen. the rods dait led tu rom, the world pablishing company (The World Publishing Company), kleevalaind aur New York. 1967.

sandarbh

  1. Erskine, Andrew (1995-04). "Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser.,". Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: the Museum and Library of Alexandria 42, (1): pp 38–48 [42]. "One effect of the newly created Hellenistic kingdoms was the imposition of Greek cities occupied by Greeks on an alien landscape. In Egypt there was a native Egyptian population with its own culture, history, and traditions. The Greeks who came to Egypt, to the court or to live in Alexandria, were separated from their original cultures. Alexandria was the main Greek city of Egypt and within it there was an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds.".
  2. Erskine, Andrew (1994-04). "Greece & Rome, 2nd Ser.,". Culture and Power in Ptolemaic Egypt: the Museum and Library of Alexandria 42 (1): pp 38–48 [42–43]. "The Ptolemaic emphasis on Greek culture establishes the Greeks of Egypt with an identity for themselves. […] But the emphasis on Greek culture does even more than this – these are Greeks ruling in a foreign land. The more Greeks can indulge in their own culture, the more they can exclude non-Greeks, in other words Egyptians, the subjects whose land has been taken over. The assertion of Greek culture serves to enforce Egyptian subjection. So the presence in Alexandria of two institutions devoted to the preservation and study of Greek culture acts as a powerful symbol of Egyptian exclusion and subjection. Texts from other cultures could be kept in the library, but only once they had been translated, that is to say Hellenized.
    […] A reading of Alexandrian poetry might easily give the impression that Egyptians did not exist at all; indeed Egypt itself is hardly mentioned except for the Nile and the Nile flood, […] This omission of the Egypt and Egyptians from poetry masks a fundamental insecurity. It is no coincidence that one of the few poetic references to Egyptians presents them as muggers.".
  3. amiyaanas maarselins, "race gesta", 26.10.15-19
  4. staithis si. stiros: "poorvi bhoomadhyasaagareeya kshetr mein chauthi se chhathaveen sadi ke dauraan aae isa poorv 365 ka kreet bhookamp aur sambhaavit bhookampeeya guchhan: aitihaasik aur puraataatvik aankadon ki ek sameeksha", journal of strakcharal jiyolauji, khand 23 (2001), peepi. 545-562 (549 evam 557)
  5. "aadhunik" {{{author}}}, {{{title}}}, [[{{{publisher}}}]], [[{{{date}}}]].
  6. Koeppen-Geiger.vu-wien.ac.at
  7. britaanika Britannica.com
  8. "Weather Information for Alexandria". http://www.worldweather.org/059/c01268.htm.
  9. "The Sarapeion, including Pompay's Pillar In Alexandria, Egypt". Touregypt.net. http://touregypt.net/featurestories/sarapeiona.htm. abhigman tithi: 19 January 2009.
  10. nyoojveek book diveejn ke sampaadkon aur desamand steevart dvaara the piraamids end sfinks, 1971, prushth 80-81
  11. "NOVA Online | Mysteries of the Nile | 27 August 1999: The Third Attempt". Pbs.org. 27 August 1999. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/egypt/dispatches/990827.html. abhigman tithi: 5 May 2009.
  12. time life laust sivilaaijeshans series: raamses sekand: maignifeseins on the neel (1993) prushth 56-57
  13. "Fgs Project Alexandria". Underwaterdiscovery.org. http://www.underwaterdiscovery.org/Sitemap/Project/Alexandria/Default.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-14.
  14. "Divers probe underwater palace". BBC News. 28 October 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/203470.stm. abhigman tithi: 19 January 2009.
  15. "New underwater tourist attraction in Egypt". BBC News. 24 September 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/940333.stm. abhigman tithi: 19 January 2009.
  16. "A new gateway for Alexandria". Al-Ahram Weekly. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2009/954/sk1.htm
  17. "Bratislava City - Twin Towns". Bratislava-City.sk. http://www.bratislava-city.sk/bratislava-twin-towns. abhigman tithi: 26 October 2008.
  18. "Sister Cities Home Page". http://www.durban.gov.za/durban/government/igr/idr/sister. ithekvini online (eThekwini Online): daraban shahar ka aadhikaarik site
  19. "Baltimore City Mayor's Office of International and Immigrant Affairs - Sister Cities Program". http://www.baltimorecity.gov/government/intl/sistercities.php. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2009.

baahari links