sikkhon ki mislein

mislein (1716-1799) chhote raajaneetik sikhkh kshetr the.

mugal baadshah bahaadushaah (1707-1712) ki 10 December 1710 ko prasaarit ek raajaajnyaa se bade paimaane par sikkhon ka utpeedn aarambh hua. farrukhasiyr ne bhi is aadesh ko dohara diya. Lahore ke Governor abdussamad khaaain aur uske putr tatha uttaraadhikaari jakariya khaaain (1726-45) ne bhi sikkhon ko peedit karne ke liye anek upaaya kiye.

ataev sikkhon ne apne ko do dalon mein sangathit kiya- (1) buddha dal aur (2) tarun dal. buddha dal ka netrutv Kapoor Singh aur tarunadal ka netrutv deepasinh ke haathon mein tha. ye donon dal jab tab apne chhipne ke sthaanon se nikalkar sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ko pareshaan karte the. inhonne apni bikhri hui shakti ko sangathit kiya. tarun dal paaainch jatthon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya jinke nimnalikhit neta the-

(1) deepasinh shaheed,

(2) karamasinh aur dharamasinh, amrutasar.

(3) khaanasinh aur vinod Singh, goindavaal

(4) dasaundha Singh, kot buddha aur

(5) beeroo Singh aur jeevanasinh.

jab Afghanistan se ahamadashaah durraani ke Punjab par aakraman hue to sikkhon ko apne ko drudhtar aadhaar par sangathit karne ka achha avsar mil gaya. unhonne sarahind (January 14, 1764) aur Lahore (April 16,1765) par adhikaar kar liya.

1748 aur 1765 ke beech buddha aur tarun dalon ke paaainchon jatthon ne drut gati se apna prasaar kiya aur anek raajyasangh bane jo mislein kahalaai. nimnalikhit 12 mislein mukhya theen :

(1) bhangi- ise chhajjaasinh ne sthaapit kiya, baad mein bhannaasinh aur harisinh ne bhangi misl ka netrutv kiya. iske kendra amrutasar, Rawalpindi aur mulataan aadi sthaanon mein the.

(2) Ahluwalia- jassaasihan Ahluwalia ke netrutv mein sthaapit hui. iska pradhaan kendra kapoorathala tha.

(3) raamagadhiya- is samudaaya ko nandasinh sanghaaniya ne sthaapit kiya. baad mein iska netrutv jassaasinh raamagadhiya ne kiya iske kshetr bataala, deenaanagar tatha Jalandhar doaab ke kuchh gaaainv the.

(4) nakai- Lahore ke dakshin-pashchim mein nakka ke harisinh dvaara sthaapit.

(5) kanhaiya- kaanh kachh ke jayasinh ke netrutv mein gathit is mislash ke kshetr guradaasapur, bataala, deenaanagar the. yeh raamagadhiya misl mein mila jula tha.

(6) ullevaaliya- gulaabasinh aur taaraasinh gaiva ke netrutv mein yeh misl thi. raahon tatha sataluj ke uttar-dakshin ke ilaake iske mukhya kshetr the.

(7) nishaanavaaliya- iske mukhiya sangatasinh aur moharasinh the. iske mukhya kshetr Ambala tatha sataluj ke dakshin aur dakshin poorv ke ilaake the.

(8) faijullaapuriya (sinhapuriya)- navaab Kapoor Singh dvaara sthaapit, Jalandhar aur amrutasar jile iske kshetr the.

(9) karodsinhiya- 'panj gaai' ke karod Singh dvaara sthaapit. baad mein baghelasinh iske mukhiya hue. kalasiya ke nikat yamuna ke pashchim aur Hoshiarpur jile mein is misl ke kshetr the.

(10) shaheed- deepasinh is misl ke aguaa the. baad mein gurubakhshasinh ne uttaraadhikaar grahan kiya. damadama saahab aur talavandi saabo is misl ke mukhya kendra the.

(11) foolakiyaaain- Patiala, naabha aur jeend ke saradaaron ke poorvaj fool ke naam par sthaapit. ye sardaar iske teen guton ke mukhiya the.

(12) sukkarachakkiya- chadhtasinh ne apne poorvajon ke nivaas gram sukkarachak ke naam par sthaapit kiya. mahatva mein chadhtasinh ka sthaan navaab kapoorasinh aur jassaasinh Ahluwalia ke sthaanon ke baad aata tha. usaka mukhya kshetr gujaraaainvaala aur aaspaas ke ilaake the. chadhtasinh ke putr mahaasinh ne apne pita ka uttaraadhikaar sambhaala aur uske baad uske putr sherepanjaab ranajeetasinh ne.

mislon ka samvidhaan bilkul saral tha. misl ke sardaar ke neeche patteedaar hote the jo apne anuyaayiyon ke bharan-poshan ke liye sardaar ke saath gaaainvon aur bhoomi ka prabandh karte the. ghudsavaari aur astrashastron ke prayog mein dakshata saradaaron, patteedaaron aur unke sahaayakon ki mukhya yogtaaeain maani jaati theen. mislon ka roop ganatantravaadi tha. jeet aur loot ki saamagri ka dasham bhaag sardaar ke liye niyat rahata tha. shesh usi anupaat mein chhote saradaaron aur unke anuyaayiyon mein baaainta jaata tha. ek sardaar se praapt gaaainv aur bhoomi chhodkar anya misl mein sammilit hona sambhav tha. sardaar se bhoomi praapt karanevaale jaageeradaaron ko jaageer ki suraksha ke liye ek nishchit sankhya mein ghode aur sipaahi upalabdh the. chhote saradaaron ya jaageeradaaron ki misl viruddh gatividhiyon par unki sampatti jabt karne ka adhikaar sardaar ko hota tha. saradaaron ke niji naukar taavedaar kahe jaate the aur avajnyaa ya vidroh karne par unki bhoomi jabt ho sakti thi.

sabhi mislon ka samooh dal 'khaalasa' kahalaata tha. ve guru ke naam par yuddh karte the aur sarabatt khaalasa ke naam par sandhiyaaain karte the. mislon ki vyaapak samasyaaon par panth ki saadhaaran sabha dvaara vichaar kiya jaata tha. yeh amrutasar mein varsh bhar mein do baar vaishaakhi aur deevaali ke avsaron par baithati thi. guru granth saahab ki upasthiti mein bahumat se prastaav (gurumat) paarit karke nirnaya liya jaata tha. nyaaya bahut jaldi hota tha. kaanoon aur vyavastha kaayam rakhane ka uttaradaayitv chhote saradaaron par tha aur nyaaya ki vyavastha panchaayaton ke maadhyam se hoti thi. panchaayaton ke viruddh nirnaya sunane ka adhikaar sardaar ko tha aur ant mein, par praaya: bahut kam, panth ya saadhaaran sabha mein appeal ki jaati thi. unke yahaaain mrutyudand ka vidhaan naheen tha. choriyon ke maamalon mein padachih‌aanaanveshak jis gaaainv mein choron ke padachih‌aanon ko khoj lete the, us gaaainv ke mukhiya ko ya to ve padachih‌aan gaaainv ke baahar ki or jaate hue dikhaane padte the ya haani ke baraabar dravya dena padta tha.

baahari kadiyaaain