sikka

ek sikka dhaatu ka ek thos tukada hai jo vajan mein maanakeekrut hota hai, jise vyaapaar ki suvidhaaon ke liye bahut badi maatra mein utpaadit kiya jaata hai aur mukhya roop se desh, pradesh ya kshetr mein ek nivida kaanooni vaanijya ke liye naamit tokan ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai.

aamtaur par sikke ko dhaatu ya ek dhaatu sadrush saamagri aur kabhi kabhi sinthetik saamagri se banaaya jaata hai, saamaanyat: jiski banaavat gol chipti hoti hai aur yeh aksar sarkaar dvaara jaari ki jaati hain. pratidin ke sikke ke sancharan se lekar badi sankhya mein buliyn sikke ke bhandaaran ke liye, vibhinn prakaar ke lenaden mein sikke ka prayog paise ke roop mein hota hai. aajkal ke maujooda leneden mein aadhunik paise ki pranaali mein sikke aur bainkanot nakad ke roop mein upayog kiye jaate hain. sikke ka upayog bilon ke bhugataan ke liye kiya jaata hai aur saamaanyat: ise kam ikaaiyon ke moolyon ke liye aur bainkanot ko uchch moolya ke liye mudreekrut kiya jaata hai; kai paison ki pranaali mein uchchatam-moolya ke sikke ka moolya nyoonatam-moolya ke bainkanot se bhi kam hota hai. pichhle sau varshon mein, parisancharan sikke ka ankit moolya aamtaur par unhein banaane mein istemaal dhaatu ke kul moolya se adhik hota hai, lekin aam taur par sikke ke parisancharan ke itihaas mein aisa hamesha naheen hua hai, kai baar parisancharan sikke keemati dhaatuon se banaae gaye hain.

is apavaad se ki sikke ka ankit moolya istemaal dhaatu ke kul moolya se adhik ho, kai baar "buliyn sikkon" ko chaadeen aur sone (aur, kadaachit, anya dhaatu jaise plaitinm ya pailediym), moolyavaan dhaatuon mein sangraahak ya niveshak ke uddisht se banaae jaate hain. aadhunik sone ke sangraahak/niveshak sikkon ke udaaharan mein sanyukt raajya America dvaara mudrit kiye gaye American gold igal, Canada dvaara mudrit kiye gaye Canada gold mepal leef, dakshin Africa dvaara mudrit kiye gaye krugeraand shaamil hain. American gold igal ka ankit moolya American $50 hai aur Canada gold mepal leef sikke ka (vishuddh prateekaatmak) ankit moolya naamamaatr hi hai (udaaharanaarth, C$50 1 ouns ke liye); lekin krugerrand ka naheen hai.

aitihaasik drushti se, kai sikke ke dhaatu (mishrit dhaatu sahit) aur anya saamagri vyaavahaarik, kalaatmak aur praayogik roop se utpaadit parisancharan, sangrah aur dhaatu nivesh ke liye istemaal kiye jaate hain, jahaan buliyn sikke anya buliyn ki tulana buliyn sikke dhaatu ki maatra aur shuddhata ke liye aksar adhik suvidhaajanak tareeke se sangrah kiye jaate hain.[1]

lambe samay se sikke paise ki avadhaarana se jude hue hain, jaisa ki yeh tathya parilkshit hai ki "sikka" aur "mudra" shabd samaanaarthak hai. kaalpanik mudraaon mein bhi sikkon ke naam hote hain (jaise, kisi vastu ke liye kaha ja sakta hai jo 123 sikka ya 123 sikkon ke baraabar ho sakta hai).

anukram

ek sikke ka moolya

apne moolya ke sandarbh mein ek sangraahak ke mad mein ek sikka aam taur par apni sthiti, vishisht aitihaasik mahatva, durlabhata, design ki gunavatta / sundarata aur saamaanya lokapriyta dvaara kam ya jyaada moolyavaan banta hai. agar ek sikke mein in sabon ki kami hai, to iska moolya adhik ho iski sambhaavana naheen hai. buliyn sikkon ke moolya in kaarakon par bhi aadhaarit hain, lekin mote taur par un mein sone ya chaandi ke moolya ke aadhaar par ise mahatva diya jaata hai. kabhi kabhi gair mudreekrut buliyn sikke ki tarah Canada mepal leef aur American gold igal dhaatu ke moolya se kam moolyon ke liye mudreekrut kiye jaate hain lekin in sikkon ko kabhi bhi sancharan ke iraade se mudreekrut naheen kiya jaata, ye moolya sankhya baajaar naheen balki aadhikaarik moolyon ke liye hote hain.

vartamaan mein adhiktar sikke aadhaar dhaatu se banaae jaate hai aur unke moolya unke aadhikaarik paise ki sthiti ke roop mein aate hain. iska matlab yeh hai ki sikke ke moolya ka aadesh sarkaari aadhikaarik (kaanoon) deta hai aur is prakaar antararaashtreeya vyaapaar antarapanan mein yeh raashtreeya mudraaon ke roop mein mukt baajaar dvaara nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai. yahi kaaran hai ki kaagaji mudra ki tarah sikke bhi maudrik tokan ke samaan hain, jabki kaagaji mudra seedhe dhaatu dvaara samarthit naheen hain balki saamaan ya sevaaon ke antararaashtreeya vinimay ke liye sarkaar iski guaranty deti hai. kuchh logon ne sujhaav diya hai ki is tarah ke sikke ko "asli sikke" naheen samajhne chaahiye (neeche dekhein). tathaapi, nishchit maal aur sevaaon ke liye aadhikaarik paise sarkaar ki guaranty dvaara samarthit hone ke kaaran, iska moolya mukt baajaar mein mudra vinimay daron ko nirdhaarit karta hai, theek usi prakaar antararaashtreeya baajaar vinimay dar kamauditi paise dvaara samarthit dhaatu ke moolya ko nirdhaarit karte hain, vyavahaarat: in donon paison (mudraaon ke prakaar) ke beech bahut kam aarthik antar hain.

sikkon ko is tarah se mudrit kiya jaata hai ki iska aadhikaarik moolya uske ghatak dhaatu ke moolya se kam ho, lekin sikke ke sancharan ke liye yeh jaanboojhkar aur praarambhik roop se naheen kiya jaata aur baad mein sikke ke utpaadan ke itihaas mein mudraasfeeti ke kaaran, baajaar mein dhaatu ke aadhikaarik moolya sikke ke ghoshit ankit moolya se aage badh jaate hain. aisi ghatnaaon ke udaaharan mein poorv-1965 Amreeki das seint, chauthaai dollar, aadha dollar aur dollar, ameriki nikal aur poorv-1982 ameriki penni shaamil hai. taanbe ki keemat mein vruddhi ke parinaamasvaroop, sanyukt raajya America mein har paise mein taanbe ki maatra bahut adhik ghata di gayi. madhya-1982 ke baad se, sanyukt raajya America ke penni ka nirmaan 97.5% jaste se hone laga, jise 2.5% taanbe ke saath lepit kiya jaane laga. sikkon ke aadhikaarik moolyon aur dhaatu ke moolyon ke beech atyadhik antar hone ki vajah se dhaatu saamagri ke moolya mein ruchi hone ke kaaran avaidh dhaatu pragaalakon dvaara sikkon ko sancharan se hataaya jaane laga. yeh gresham ke kaanoon ka ek udaaharan hai. vaastav mein, sanyukt raajya takasaal ne is abhyaas ki pratyaasha mein, 14 December 2006 ko naya antarim niyam laagoo kiya, vishay par saarvajanik tippani hone ke 30 dinon ke baad, yeh ghoshit kar diya gaya ki penni aur nikel ko pighlaana aur niryaat karna aaparaadhik hai.[2] ullanghan karne vaalon ko 10,000 dollar ka jurmaana aur/ya adhiktam paanch varsh ke liye jail ki saja se dandit kiya ja sakta hai.

praacheen sikke

arastoo dvaara kaha gaya hai ki pehle sikke praacheen grees ke kyame ke demodike dvaara gadhe gaye the, jisne pessins ke raaja midaas se shaadi ki thi aur jisse agaamemanan naam ka ek putr tha.[3]

herodotas ne kaha hai ki (I, 94) laaidiyns pehle the 'jinhonne sone aur chaandi ke sikke banaae'. unke kehne ka arth hai ki pehle donon sikke alag-alag keemati dhaatuon se gadhe gaye the. bahut se log[kaun?] unke bayaan se bhramit ho jaate hain, jaisa ki ullekhit hai in sikkon ko elektram (sona aur chaandi ke mishran se bana ek praakrutik dhaatu) se gadha gaya tha.[kaun?]

sikke elektram, sher, potniya theraun ke nishaan aur dhoop fat, fans ke nishaan ke saath lagbhag 600 E.poo. dhaala.
ejeena ki yoonaani chhota parimaan. agrabhaag: bhoomi / chelone ulta: (aaienae) ΑaaΙaaΓ aur daulfin. puraana ejeena chelone sikke samudri kachhue darshaaya gaya aur kshamataaon dhaala. 700-550 E.poo..

kuchh puraataatvik aur saahityik pramaan bataate hain ki bhaarateeyon ne sabse pehle, chhathi aur paanchaveen sadi E.poo. ke beech sikke ka aavishkaar kiya tha.[4] haalaanki, kuchh mudraashaastri ke vichaar se sikke lagbhag 600-550 E.poo. anaatoliya mein udbhoot kiye gaye, vishesh roop se lidiya ke anaatoliya raajya mein jo aadhunik-yug ke Turkey se mel khaata hai.[5][6] lidiya paridrushya ke virodhiyon ka kehna hai ki puraataatvik tathyon se pata chalta hai ki us yug mein lidiya ki rajdhani saradees mein sikke poori tarah se anupasthit the.[7] ek sikka, paribhaasha ke dvaara, ek vastu hai jise vaanijya aur lenaden ki suvidha ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai. lidiyn yoonaani sikkon ke paridrushya ke samarthak is tathya ko maanate hain ki inka upayog vaanijya ya udyog ke liye naheen kiya jaata tha. elektram sikke vajan mein maanakeekrut naheen the aur virodhi samajhte hain ki inka upayog tamagon, padakon aur aanushthaanik vastuon ke roop mein hota tha jo pujaariyon dvaara jaari kiye jaate the[8], apekshaakrut sikke (unamein sabse puraane vaastav mein lidiya mein naheen balki praacheen yoonaani efesos ke mandir mein paae gaye), ek shahari colony (aadhunik yug ka Turkey) praacheen yoonaaniyon dvaara nirmit tha.

anya mudraashaastri ke anusaar praacheenatam sikke ejeena chelone ke sikke the jo lagbhag 700-550 isa poorv ejeena ke sthaaneeya logon athva argos ke raaja feidon dvaara dhaale gaye the (jisne sabse pehle vajan aur maap maanakon ki shurooaat ki thi). ejeena ka ek anokha elektram praacheen greek sikka bibleeothik naishanal, peris mein hai. is sikke ki taareekh 700 isa poorv ke theek baad ki ho sakti hai.[9]

praacheen yoonaaniyon ne anaatoliya abhyaas ko failaaya (ya iske vipreet) hai aur ise vaanijya aur vyaapaar ke liye badhaaya. yoonaani upaniveshan ke baad hi mudreekaran hua aur iska prabhaav pehle bhoomadhyasaagar ke aaspaas aur baad mein uttari Africa (misr sahit), Syria, faaras aur baalkan mein pada.

pratham lidiyn sikkon ko elektram, sone aur chaandi ke praakrutik roop se paae jaane vaale ek mishrit dhaatu se banaaya gaya tha jise aage chalakar atirikt chaandi aur taanbe ke saath mishrit kiya gaya.[10] bahut jald hi lidiyn aur greek sikke nissandeh niji vyaktiyon ke adhikaar ke tahat dhaale jaane lage aur is prakaar asli sikke ke bajaae tokan ya tamagon ke liye adhik prayog hone lage, haalaanki, nanbaron se yeh spasht hai ki unamein se kuchh raajya adhikaari dvaara jaari kiye gaye the, aksar yeh ullekh kiya jaata hai ki lidiya ke raaja alyaattes hi mudreekaran ke pravartak the.[11] .

adhikaansh praarambhik lidiyn sikkon par koi lekhan naheen hota tha, sirf ek prateekaatmak jaanavar ki chhavi hoti thi jise "aakhyaan" ya "shilaalekh" kaha jaata tha. isliye mukhya roop se in sikkon ki tithiyon ke pramaan puraataatvik par nirbhar karte hain, khudaai karne par ifisus ke aratimis ke mandir se sabse adhik saboot uddhrut hue, efesiyn artemision bhi kaha jaane laga, (jise baad mein praacheen kaal ke vishv ke saat aashcharyon mein shaamil kiya gaya). tathya yeh hai ki puraane sher ke sir vaale sikke jiski khoj mandir mein mili thi aur yeh tathya hai ki inka vaanijyik istemaal naheen hua tha, is paridrushya par jor diya gaya ki paae gaye sikkon ka upayog tamagon aur padakon ke liye hota tha aur jo aratimis ke mandir ke pujaariyon dvaara jaari kiye jaate the, padak ya tamagon ke roop mein paane vaale vyaktiyon ke naam ispar ankit kar diye jaate the. anaatoliya ke aratimis ka naam potniya theraun rakha gaya tha jiska anuvaad hai "jaanvaron ki maalakin" aur usaka prateek tha sher aur baagh.

praarambhik lidiyn yoonaani sikkon ke kuchh pratishat mein khyaati praapt vyakti hote the.[12]

teen roman auri ke set flaaviyn vansh ke shaasakon chitran.vespasiyn taaitas aur domitiyn: oopar se neeche. 69-96 E..

ek prasiddh praarambhik elektram sikka, jo vartamaan mein sabse praacheen khuda hua sikka maana jaata hai, Asia maainar ke paas kaariya se hai. is sikke par yoonaani khyaati praapt hain jise "fenos Amy sema"[13] padha jaaega jiska anuvaad kuchh isaprakaar hai "main faanes ka billa hoon" ya "main prakaash ka sanket hoon"[14] ya ho sakta hai "main prakaash ki kabr hoon" ya "main faanes ki kabr hoon". faanes ke prasiddh sikke yoonaan ke praacheenatam sikkon mein se ek hain, ek khoj mein hemihekate ka vishay efesos ke aratimis ke mandir ke prasiddh neenv mein paaya gaya tha (maana jaata hai ki khoj mein paae gaye in elektram sikke ki dharohar sabse puraani hai). ek dhaarana hai ki faanes ek dhani vyaapaari tha, doosari dhaarana yeh hai ki hiran ke kaaran sikke Apollo-faanos ke saath artemis (Bhagwan Apollo-faanos ki judvaan bahanein) se sambandhit hain. haalaanki keval saat faanes vaale sikke khoj mein mile the, yeh bhi ullekhaneeya hai ki praarambhik elektram sikkon ke 20% bhaag par sher ke chinh the (aratimis-potniya theraun ke prateek) aur dhoop khilne ki chhavi (Apollo-fanos ke prateek). vaikalpik roop se yeh kaha gaya hai[15] ki khudaai kiye gaye faanes shaayad amasis ke halikaarnaassiyn kiraaye ke sainik the, aisa herodotas dvaara kaha gaya hai[16], jo kaimbyses ki adaalat mein bach gaye aur 527 ya 525 isa poorv misr ke aakraman mein unka maargadarshan kiya. herodotas ke anusaar, yeh faanes 50000 faarasi sainikon ke saath reteeli aandhi mein jeevit dafan ho gaye the, jab vo misr mein amun-jeeus mandir ko jeetne ki koshish kar rahe the.[17] tathya yeh hai ki greek shabd "faanes" ka arth prakaash (ya deepak) bhi hai aur "seema" ka matlab hai kabr[18] ne is sikke ko prasiddh aur vivaadaaspad bana diya[19].

dhaatu ke pratham sikke ka anya sambhaavit praarthi cheen se hai. praarambhik gyaat cheeni dhaatu ke tokan lagbhag 900 isa poorv mein banaae gaye the, jo aanyaang ke paas ek kabr mein paae gaye the.[20][21] yeh praarambhik cheeni paise ki kaansya se bani pratikrutiyaan theen, kaud shail isliye inka naam kaansya shail pada.[22][23][24]

adhiktar mudraashaastri, in vastuon ke alaava cheeni kaansya ko bhi jo chaakoo, kudaal aur hut ke prateek the, sikke ke bajaay dhan maanate the kyonki in par kam se kam shurooaat mein aise koi nishaan naheen the jo inke ek nishchit moolya ko siddh karte hon.[25]

anaatoliya aur cheen ke saath saath, Bhaarat bhi sikke ke vikaas mein ek pramukh bhoomika nibhaata tha. pehle bhaarateeya sikke 6thi shataabdi isa poorv sindhu-ganga maidaan mahaajanapad dvaara mudrit kiye gaye. is avadhi ke sikke chihnit the jinhein puraan, karshapaanas ya paana kaha gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] mahaajanapad ne apne sikke dhaale jinmein gaandhaar,[26] kuntala,[27] kuru,[28] panchala,[29] shaakya,[30] surasena[31] aur suraashtr[32] shaamil the.[32]

praarambhik sone aur chaandi ke sikke alyaattes ke putr lidiya ke kroesus ne banaae the. uske baad sheegra hi usi kshetr ke faaras ke achemenid saamraajya ne sone ke "dariks" aur chaandi ke "sigloi" jaari kiye.

maana jaata hai ki pehle Europeeya sikke lagbhag 550 E.poo. Athens aur korinth ke sikkon ka anugaman karte hue sheegra hi ijiyn saagar ke ek dweep ejeena mein dhaale gaye.[33] pehle roman sikke jo anagadhe, bhaari kaansya mein dhale the, lagbhag 289 E.poo. jaari kiye gaye the.[34] pehla Europeeya sikka jispar tithi karne ke liye arabi sankhya ka istemaal hua tha vah Swiss sikke the jise varsh 1424 mein seint gallen silver plaappart mein nirmit kiya gaya tha.[35]

sikke ka apamishran

sampoorn itihaas mein, sarkaarein apni aapoorti se jyaada keemati dhaatuon se sikke banaane ke liye jaani jaati hain. sikke mein mishrit anmol dhaatu ke kuchh ansh ko ek aadhaar dhaatu (aksar taanba ya nikal) se pratisthaapit/badal kar sikke ke aantarik moolya ko kam kiya gaya (usase unke paise ka "apamishran" hone laga), is prakaar sikkon ka nirmaan karne ke adhikaari ke liye aur adhik sikke ka utpaadan sambhav ho saka. apamishrit hokar sikke kabhi kabhi kathor ho jaate hain aur isliye iske jaldi kshaya hone ki sambhaavana kam hoti hai. paise ke apamishran se hamesha mudraasfeeti hoti hai jabatak ki sarkaari praadhikaari moolya ko niyantran mein naheen rakhate, aksar aisi sthiti mein kaalaabaajaari ke panapane ki sambhaavana rahati hai.

sanyukt raajya America is maamale mein bilkul asaamaanya hai kyonki mudraasfeeti ki do shataabdiyon ko sthaan dene ke liye isne apne tankan pranaali ko thoda sanshodhit kiya hai, (sivaaya sikkon par chhaviyon aur prateekon ke, jo kai baar badal diye gaye hain). 1856 ke baad se ek-seint ke sikke ko bahut kam badla gaya hai (haalaanki iski sanrachana 1982 mein badal di gayi thi jab is sikke se taanbe ki maatra ko poori tarah nikaal diya gaya tha) aur yeh abhi bhi prachalan mein hai jabki iski kraya shakti bahut kam ho gayi hai. spectrum ke doosare chhor par, 25 seint ke sikke ka aam sancharan sabse bada hai, anya deshon ki tulana mein sabse bade moolyavarg ke liye ek kam keemat wala sikka hai. taanba, nikal aur jasta ki keematon mein haal ki vruddhi ka matlab hai ki America ek aur paanch seint ke donon sikke ab unke ankit moolya (vyavasthaapatr) ki tulana mein prayukt kachche dhaatu saamagri ke liye adhik moolyavaan hain. vishesh roop se, taanbe ka ek-seint ka sikka (jo 1982 ke pehle aur kuchh 1982 ke sikke the) jismein prayukt taanbe ki keemat ab do seint hai. kuchh moolyavarg ke parisanchaari sikke jo poorv mein sanyukt raajya America mein dhaale gaye the vo ab naheen banaae ja rahe hain. inmein aadha seint, do seint, teen seint aur bees seint ke ankit moolya ke sikke shaamil hain. (aadha dollar aur dollar ke sikke ka utpaadan ab bhi ho raha hai lekin jyaadaatar vikraya masheenon aur collectoron ke liye) sanyukt raajya America nimnalikhit moolyavarg : ek dollar, 2.50 dollar, teen dollar, paanch dollar, das dollar aur bees dollar ke liye sone ke sikke ka sancharan karta hai. iske alaava, seint moolat: aadhunik chauthaai ki tulana mein aur vajan mein lagbhag aadhe auns ka hota hai, jabki paanch seint ke sikke ek daaim ki tulana mein chhote hote hain aur chaandi mishrit dhaatu se bane hote hain. dollar bahut bada aur lagbhag ek auns vajan ka hota hai. aadha dollar aur ek dollar ke sikke ka utpaadan abhi bhi kiya jaata hai lekin inka istemaal kam America bhi buliyn aur nimnalikhit moolyavarg ke saath smaarak sikke banaata hai: 50¢, $1, $5, $10, $25, $50 aur $100.

aadhunik sikkon ki visheshataaen

1884 sanyukt raajya America vyaapaar dollar.

parisanchaari sikkon ko saamaanyat: "sheving" ya "kliping" se gujarana padta hai, jisse vyakti bahumoolya dhaatu ke sikke ke kinaare se chhote bhaag kaatkar nae sikke taiyaar karte hain.[36] ayaantrik british starling chaandi ke sikke ko kabhi kabhi unke vajan ke lagbhag aadhe vajan mein dhaala jaata hai. tyoodar England mein apamishran ke is roop par sar Thomas gresham ne tippani ki jise baad mein gresham law se jod diya gaya. raaja samay-samay par sikke ke sancharan ko vaapas le lete the, chaandi ke buliyn moolya ka bhugataan karte the aur unhein fir se mudrit karte the. yeh rikauyanej (pun: dhalaai) ke naam se jaana jaata hai, yeh ek lambi aur kathin prakriya thi jo yada-kada hi hoti thi.[37] jabki royal takasaal ke guru, aaijaik nyootan is vichaar ke saath aage aae ki kaise sikkon ke kinaaron ki laainon ko kliping se roka jaae taaki pun: dhalaai ko kam kiya ja sake.[38] kate, chhante hue kinaaron ke saath kai sikke aaj bhi paae jaate hain.

paramparaagat roop se, sikkon ke kinaare par raaja ki ardh-moorti ya anya praadhikaari chinh ya raashtreeya chinh hota tha jise agr ya bolachaal ki bhaasha mein head (sir) kaha jaata hai, sikke par mudrit logon ki soochi dekhein . doosari or ko rivers kaha jaata hai ya bolachaal ki bhaasha mein, tel (poonchh)) kehte hain. haalaanki, kuchh maamalon mein iska ullanghan kiya gaya hai.[39] doosra niyam yeh hai ki jis taraf mudran ka varsh ankit hai vo agrabhaag hai, haalaanki kuchh cheeni sikke, adhiktar Canada ke sikke, poorv-2008 british 20pi sikke aur sabhi Japani sikke inse alag hain.

un maamalon mein jahaan ek sahi dhang se unmukh sikke ko lamb roop se vyavasthit kiya jaae taaki anya bhaag bhi sahi dhang se unmukh dikhaai de, is sikke ko sikka anusthaapan kehte hain. aise maamalon mein jahaan ek sikke ko kshaitij roop se flip kiya jaae taaki anya bhaag bhi sahi dhang se dikhaai de, ise padak anusthaapan kehte hain. paravarti british sikkon mein paaya jaata hai.

dvi-dhaatu ke sikkon ko kabhi kabhi uchch moolyon ke liye aur smaarak prayojanon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai. 1990 mein, France ne teen dhaatu ke sikke ka upayog kiya tha. aam sancharan ke udaaharanon mein € 1 € 2 british £ 2 aur Canada $ 2 shaamil hain.

mudrit sikke par mukhya chinh ke neeche chhooti hui jagah jise taareekh dikhaane ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai, haalaanki kabhi kabhi is sthaan ko takasaal chinh, niji chinh, sajaavat ya jaanakaareepoorn design ke liye khaali chhod diya jaata hai. kai sikke par isaprakaar ke mudran bilkul naheen hote hain, khaaskar kuchh ya koi kinvadantiyon ke saath naheen, jaise ki viktoriyn ban penni.

sabhi sikke gol naheen hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, Australiaee 50 seint ke sikke ke baarah flat paksh hain. Hongkong ke do dollar aur bees seint ke sikke aur bahaama ke das seint ke sikke ke laharaate kinaaron par ek mod hai.

kuchh anya sikke, british pachaas peins ke sikke ki tarah paksh bemel hain saath hi kinaare gol hain. is tarah sikke ka vyaas nirantar hai vyaapaarik machine dvaara pahachaana jaata hai jis disha se ismein daala jaata hai.

trikoneeya sikka (tutanakhaamun pradarshani mein 2007/2008 ke liye O2 arena mein utpaadit) aails of main dvaara jaari, 6 December 2007 se nivida kaanooni ban gaya jiska moolya ke 25 pi (ek kraaun) hai.[40] anya trikoneeya pehle ke sikke mein: kaibaindiya sikka, baramooda sikka, 2 dollar cook dveepasamooh 1992 trikoneeya sikka, yugaanda mileniym sikka aur polish starling silver-10-jlauti sikke shaamil hain.[41]

3 roosi rubles sikke 2008 mein dhaale

ek baar gitaar ke aakaar ke sikke somaaliya mein jaari kiye gaye the, Poland mein ek baar ek pankhe ke aakaar ka 10 jlauti sikka jaari kiya gaya tha, lekin shaayad sabse adhik asaadhaaran $ 10 ka Europe ke aakaar ka sikka 2002 mein naauroo mein jaari kiya gaya tha.[42]

kuchh madhyakaaleen sikke, kaha jaata hai brakteate itne patale hote the ki ekataraf kat jaate the.

royal kenediyn takasaal ab svalikhit-prabhaav ke sone aur chaandi ke sikke nirmaan karne mein saksham hai.

sikkon ke vaastavik sancharan mein prayog aur pareekshan ke liye istemaal hone vaale kai shuddh dhaatu tatvon aur unke mishrit dhaatuon ki soochi ke liye dekhein sikke ke dhaatu.[43]

saarvajanik taur par sikke ka upayog do-paksheeya dhalaai ke roop mein hota hai; do vikalpon mein se chunane ki sambhaavana yaadruchhik hoti hai, ek taraf ko "sir" aur doosare ko "poonchh" kehte hain aur "toss" karte samay sikke ko flip kar yeh dekha jaata hai ki head ya tel kis taraf hai. dekhein bernaulli pareekshan ek nishpaksh sikke mein head ki sanbhaavyata paribhaashit hai (bernaulli pareekshan ke muhaavare mein, ek "safalta") vaastav mein 0.5kee. sikka flipping bhi dekhein. sikke kabhi kabhi ek taraf adhik vajan karne ke liye glat saabit ho rahe hain, taaki ek uchit prakaar ke sikke ka banaavati roop na bane jo vaastav mein uchit naheen hai. is tarah ke ek sikke ko "bhaarit" kaha jaata hai.

bhaarateeya sikke

sikke dhaalane ka ekamaatr adhikaar Bhaarat sarkaar ko hai. sikka nirmaan ka daayitv samay-samay par yathaasanshodhit sikka nirmaan adhiniyam, 1906 ke anusaar Bhaarat sarkaar ka hai. vibhinn moolyavarg ke sikkon ke abhiklp taiyaar karne aur unki dhalaai karne ka daayitv bhi Bhaarat sarkaar ka hai. sikkon ki dhalaai Bhaarat sarkaar ke chaar takasaalon yatha Mumbai, Alipur (Kolkata), saifaabaad (Hyderabad), cheriyaapalli (Hyderabad) aur noyada (u.pr.) mein ki jaati hai.

bhaarateeya reserve bank adhiniyam ke anusaar parichaalan ke liye sikke bhaarateeya reserve bank ke maadhyam se jaari kiye jaate hain.

chitradeergha

inhein bhi dekhein

  • barakteate
  • buliyn sikka
  • Category:Currency images
  • chaukalet sikka
  • sikke ekatr
  • kaauntar sikka
  • sikka jaalsaaji
  • sikka saurtar
  • sikka chaal
  • Asia ka sikka nirmaan
    • bhaarateeya sikka
  • sikka dhaatu
  • nakali
  • Euro ke sikke
  • sikkon ka itihaas
    • sona dinaar
    • yoonaani sikka
    • roman mudra
  • sabse mahangi sikke ki soochi
  • mudra-vishyak
  • saanketik sikka
  • asharafi

not

  1. ke prayojanon ke prakaar vyaapak soochi ke dhaatu aur istemaal kiya gaya, jo unke mishr par sabhi ke liye sikke, mein kai baar vibhinn.
  2. sanyukt raajya America takasaal pressroom
  3. http://www.metrum.org/gyges/homgyg.htm
  4. bhaarateeya vishvakosh.jeevani, aitihaasik, dhaarmik, prashaasanik, itholaujikl, vaanijyik aur vaigyaanik Kapoor subodh dvaara sanpaadit
  5. M Kroll, prushth, sameeksha ke l ji savaar hai La naissance de la monnaie, Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau 80 (2001) 526.
  6. di jalaana, greek sikke aur unke moolyon ko Vol. 2, seebi, London, 1979, pi. 317.
  7. ji hanfmann, peepi 73, 77. aar seeford, pi. 128, bataate hain "lagbhag kul sikkon ki kami ... saradees ki khudaai vaanijyik audyogik kshetron mein sikke pata chalta hai ki ve raaja ke haath mein keindrit kar rahe the aur sambhavat: dhani vyaapaariyon."
  8. "greek sikke ke prakaar" ek puraataatvik nibandh ke parsi gaardanar 1883 p.42 "dhyaan mein rakhate hue in aur anya tathyon ko ise aayojit kiya ja sakta hai sambhaavit hone ke liye, agar saabit naheen bilkul, yeh sikka pujaariyon staamp pehle jaari kiye gaye aur hai ki pehle takasaalon mandiron greek mein the. " [1]
  9. http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/aegina.html
  10. December 2009 tak pahuncha http://rg.ancients.info/lion/article.html
  11. A Ramage, "golden saradees", raaja Croesus gold: saradees mein khudaai aur gold rifaaining ka itihaas, A Ramage aur pi. Craddock, Harvard university press, Cambridge, 2000, pi. dvaara sanpaadit 18.
  12. http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/inscriptions.html
  13. http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/cm/e/elektrama_stater_inscribed_with.aspx
  14. (nyootan Num. Chron., 1870, pi. 238
  15. http://www.archive.org/stream/newnumismatic18royauoft/newnumismatic18royauoft_djvu.txt
  16. herodotas teesari pustak (iv ch..)
  17. pustak herodotas teesara
  18. 6.419 2.814, iliyd
  19. 571 # http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/ionia.html
  20. http://www.big5.henan.gov.cn/hngk/system/2006/08/02/010000219.shtml (keval cheeni mein)
  21. http://books.google.com/books?id=RGu62yiVF8wC&pg=PT186&dq=shang+coin&lr=#PPT187,M1
  22. http://chinesechinese.net/HistoryofChina.html vaai.ke. kvaan dvaara the histari of China ka snaipashaut drushya
  23. http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/focus/currency.htm kin raajavansh se pehle shankh mudra
  24. http://encarta..msn.com/encyclopedia_681500371_2/shang_dynasty.html shaang raajavansh arthavyavastha enakaarta. aarkaaivd 2009/10/31.
  25. ji Davis, dhan ka ek itihaas: praacheen kaal se vartamaan din ke liye, vels press, kaardif vishvavidyaalaya, 1994, peepi 54-57, 62.
  26. pankajatandan http://home.comcast.net/ ~ / deerghaaon-gandhara.html 2007/06/03 pahuncha
  27. pankajatandan http://home.comcast.net/ ~ / deerghaaon-kuntala.html 2007/06/03 pahuncha
  28. pankajatandan http://home.comcast.net/ ~ / deerghaaon-kuru.html 2007/06/03 pahuncha
  29. pankajatandan http://home.comcast.net/ ~ / deerghaaon-panchala.html 2007/06/03 pahuncha
  30. pankajatandan http://home.comcast.net/ ~ / deerghaaon-shakya.html, 2007/06/03 pahuncha
  31. 2007/06/03 http://home.comcast.net/ pahuncha ~ deerghaaon-shurasena.html / pankajatandan.
  32. a aa pankajatandan http://home.comcast.net/ ~ / deerghaaon-surashtra.html 2007/06/03 pahuncha
  33. si. kare, puraatan aur shaastreeya yoonaani sikke, California vishvavidyaalaya ke press, Berkeley, 1976.
  34. dablyoo sales, praacheen sikke ekatr III: roman vishv raajaneeti aur prachaar, kruse prakaashan, Iola viskaunsin, 1997
  35. praarambhik dinaank sikke, http://www.medievalcoinage.com/earlydated, December 2009 tak pahuncha.
  36. Cooper, George (2008). The Origin of Financial Crises. New York: Random House. pa॰ 46. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-307-47345-5.
  37. koopar p.47 ji 2008
  38. koopar p.46 ji 2008
  39. Euro sikka aur agrabhaag "" paribhaasha ke hamaare aparyaaptata ki
  40. yeh khareedne ke liye hai ki sambhaavana naheen kiya kharch ke roop mein yeh laagat GBP 15 - 47434, sikka ek du:svapn piraamid lekh ke liye jeb sankhya lekh mudda teleegraaf dainik dvaara Gary kleland p13 ki December 2007 dinaankit 6,
  41. trikoneeya sikke
  42. asaamaanya 10/15/09 sikke
  43. padak aur dhaatu ke sikke kheton mein

sandarbh

baahya kadiyaan