sigaar

from the Spanish cigarro "cigar", which was
perhaps derived from the Spanish cigarra "cicada"

(OED)
vibhinn braandon ke chaar sigaar (oopar se: H. apamain, montekristo, maakaanudo, romiyo vaaya juliyet)
ek -semeeeyarataait sigaar sangrahan tube aur ek double gilotin-style katar

sigaar sookhe aur kinvit tambaakoo ka kasakar-lapeta gaya ek bandal hota hai jisko jalaakar uske dhune ka kash munh ke andar kheencha jaata hai. sigaar ka tambaakoo braajeel, Cameroon, kyooba, dominikn ganaraajya, honduraas, Indonesia, maiksiko, nikaaraaguaa, fileepeens aur poorvi sanyukt raajya America mein kaafi maatra mein ugaaya jaata hai.

anukram

shabd-vyutpatti

sigaar shabd ki utpatti dhoomrapaan ke liye maayaai-bhaarateeya shabd "sikaar" se hui thi jo Spanish bhaasha mein "sigaaro" ban gaya; Spanish ka "sigaaro" shabd sanbhavat: maaya ke 'sikaar' yaani "lapete hue tambaakoo ke patton ka dhoomrapaan karne" se aaya tha ('sikaar' shabd 'sik' yaani "tambaakoo" se aaya tha); ya sanbhavat: yeh shabd Spanish shabd sigaara arthaat "graasahaupar" se athva isse prabhaavit hokar aaya. haalaanki swayam yeh shabd aur iske vibhinn svaroop 1730 tak saamaanya upayog mein naheen aaye the.[1]

itihaas

khojakarta Christopher kolanbas ko aam taur par Europe mein tanbaakoo ki shuruaat karne ka shreya diya jaata hai. kaha jaata hai ki kolanbas ki 1492 ki yaatra ke dauraan unke dal ke do saathiyon rodrigo di jerej aur luis di tores ne hispeniyola dweep par pehli baar tambaakoo ko dekha tha, jab vahaaain ke nivaasiyon ne unhein kuchh sookhe patte bheint kiye the jinse ek vishisht prakaar ki sugandh failati thi. tanbaakoo sabhi kairebiyaai dveepon mein vyaapak roop se door-door tak faila hua tha aur iseeliye unhonne ek baar fir ise kyooba mein dekha jahaaain kolanbas aur uske saathi jaakar bas gaye the.[2] unke naavikon ne bataaya ki kyooba ke dweep par rahane vaale taainos sigaar ke ek aadim svaroop ka dhoomrapaan karte the, jise tambaakoo ke sookhe patton ko anya patton jaise ki taad ya kele ke patton mein lapetakar aur modkar banaaya jaata tha.

samay ke saath Spanish aur anya Europeeya naavikon aur kaunkvistedars (Conquistadors) ko yeh aadat pad gayi aur dhoomrapaan Spain evam Portugal mein faila aur antat: purtaagaal mein France ke raajadoot aur nikotin ko apna naam dene vaale jeen nikot ke jariye sanbhavat: yeh poore France mein fail gaya. baad mein is aadat ka vistaar Italy mein hua aur sar vaaltar rele ki samudri yaatraaon ke baad yeh America aur Britain mein fail gaya.

16veen sadi ke madhya tak dhoomrapaan poore Europe mein prachalit tha (Britain mein paaipon mein) aur aadhi sadi ke baad America mein vyaavasaayik taur par tanbaakoo ki kheti honi shuroo ho gayi thi. aisa maana jaata tha ki tanbaakoo mein mool roop se aushadheeya gun hote hain lekin kuchh aise log bhi the jo ise bura maanate the. Spain ke Phillip dviteeya aur England ke James pratham ne iski ninda ki thi.

1592 ke aaspaas speni gailiyn (jahaaj) 50 kilogram (110 LB) tambaakoo ka beej sain klimeinte akaapulko-Manila vyaapaar maarg se fileepeens lekar aaya. iske baad is beej ko roman Catholic mishnariyon mein baaaint diya gaya jahaaain paadariyon ne yeh paaya ki Philippine ki bhoomi par uchch-gunavatta vaale tanbaakoo ugaane ke liye utkrusht jalavaayu aur mitti maujood hai.

19veen sadi mein sigaar ka dhoomrapaan aam ho gaya tha jabki cigarette tulanaatmak roop se abhi tak durlabh hi thi. 20veen sadi ki shuruaat mein rudayaard kipling ne dhoomrapaan par apni prasiddh kavita "the betrothed" likhi. sigaar vyaapaar ek mahatvapoorn udyog tha aur masheenon dvaara sigaar utpaadan shuroo hone se pehle kaarkhaanon mein kai log kaam karte the.

1860 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein jab viseint maartinej yebor ne apne ki vest (key West) sigaar kaarobaar ko taampa ke ek bhaag mein sthaanaantarit kiya, jise ab yebor city ke naam se jaana jaata hai, apne pratidvandvi flor di saanchej aur haaya dvaara apne kaarkhaane kholne ke turant baad unhonne apni principle di gels (prince of vels) factory khol li, is tarah vah kshetr sigaar utpaadan ke liye ek pramukh kendra ban gaya.[3]

New York mein sigaar ko rolars dvaara apne gharon mein kaam karte hue taiyaar kiya jaata hai. yeh bataaya gaya tha ki 1883 tak sigaar New York mein 127 apaartameint makaanon mein banaaya ja raha tha jismein 1,962 parivaar aur 7,924 log kaam karte the. usi saal ke ant mein is prachalan ko pratibandhit karne wala ek praanteeya kaanoon trade unionon ke is tark ke aadhaar par paarit kar diya gaya ki is kaarya mein bahut kam majadoori di ja rahi thi, ise chaar maheene se bhi kam samay ke baad asamvaidhaanik karaar de diya gaya. yeh udyog jise is kaanoon ke prabhaavi rahate brookaleen aur laang aailaind ke anya sthaanon par sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya tha, fir New York mein vaapas laut aaya.[4]

1905 tak sanyukt raajya America mein sigaar-banaane ke 80,000 kendra sanchaalit ho rahe the jinmein se jyaadaatar chhoti, parivaar-dvaara sanchaalit dukaanein theen jahaaain sigaaron ko tatkaal lapeta aur becha jaata tha.[3]

kai aadhunik sigaaron ko pratishtha aur gunavatta ki drushti se sabse adhik pramukhata se madhya America aur kyooba ke saath-saath sanyukt raajya America ke pratyek bade shahar mein paae jaane vaale chinchaales mein aaj bhi haathon se lapeta jaata hai.[3] haath se lapete gaye sigaaron ke dibbon par totalameinte aa maano (poori tarah haath se bana) ya hecho aa maano (haath se bana) ankit hota hai.

aitihaasik aankade

King Edward saptam kaafi had tak apni maaain mahaaraani Victoria ke santaap ke kaaran cigarette aur sigaar ke dhoomrapaan mein doobe rahate the. kaha jaata hai ki unki mrutyu ke baad King Edward ne ek dinr party ke ant mein apne purush mehamaanon se kaha tha, "sajjano, aap dhoomrapaan kar sakte hain." unke naam par sasti ameriki sigaaron ki ek shrrunkhala ko kaafi samay tak King Edward naam diya gaya tha.

ameriki raashtrapati yoolisis S. graant bahut adhik sigaar peete the, ek anumaan ke mutaabik ek din mein 12 sigaar. 1884 ke ant mein graant ka mailaaineint skvaamas sel kaarsinoma ki shikaayat ke saath muainh ke Cancer ka ilaaj kiya gaya. apne girte svaasthya ke saath graant ne apna samay apni aatmakatha likhne ko diya, ise poora karne ke paaainch din baad ve Cancer ki vajah se maut ka shikaar hone vaale pehle ameriki raashtrapati ban gaye the.

prasiddh manovishleshak sigmand fraayad apne saathiyon se mili svaasthya sambandhi chetaavaniyon ke baavajood ek din mein 20 sigaar peete the.[5] failik sinbolijm ke prati unke lagaataar sandarbhon ke baavajood unke saathiyon ne sigaar ke “afailik” aakaar ko chunauti thi. maana jaata hai ki fraayad ne unhein yeh javaab diya tha “akabhi-kabhi ek sigaar sirf ek sigaar hota hai."[6] 1923 mein unke muainh mein Cancer ki shuruaati sambhaavana ke viksit hone ke baad fraayad ko graant ki hi tarah ka Cancer hone ka ilaaj kiya gaya tha. 30 se jyaada sarjariyon aur tej dard se lekar kaisar grast kshetr ke aaspaas keedon dvaara mrut tvacha ki koshikaaon ko sankramit karne tak ki jatiltaaon ke baavajood fraayad apni jeevanaleela samaapt hone tak sigaar ka sevan karte rahe. fraayad ki mrutyu 83 varsh ki umr mein unako Cancer ke dard se raahat dilaane ke liye maarfin dvaara laayi gayi coma ki sthiti mein hui.[5]

vinstan charchil, jinhein port vaain ya braandi mein sigaar daalkar peene ka prachalan shuru karne ka shreya diya jaata hai,[7] unhein Britain ke yuddh kaal ke neta ke roop mein unke kaaryakaal ke dauraan shaayad hi kabhi sigaar ke bagair dekha gaya tha, ve itna adhik sigaar peete the ki unke sammaan mein ek bade aakaar ke sigaar ka naam unke naam par rakh diya gaya.

fidel kaastro ko kyoobaai kraanti ke shuruaati dinon mein aksar ek sigaar peete hue dekha jaata tha lekin yeh daava kiya jaata hai ki unhonne svaasthya sambandhi aadhaaron par kyoobaai janta ko kam dhoomrapaan karne ke liye protsaahit karne ke abhiyaan ke ek hisse ke roop mein 1980 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein dhoomrapaan karna chhod diya tha.[8] kai anya sigaar peene vaale prasiddh hastiyon mein shaamil hain graaucho maarks, George barns, mark tven, miltan barle, rash limbo aur bill kausbi.[9]

rudayaard kipling ne apni kavita "the betrothed" mein kaha tha, "aur ek aurat sirf ek aurat hai, lekin ek achha sigaar dhune ke samaan hai."

chooainki kuchh teevr nasavaar (snaf) ke atirikt sigaar, tambaakoo ke swayam-sevan ka sarvaadhik prachalit aur prabhaavashaali jariya hai, ise lambe samay se mardaanagi ke saath jodkar dekha jaata raha hai; jaisa ki sanbhavat: America mein poorv-kolanbiyaai yug mein bhi raha hoga. iske dhuon aur rivaajon ne ameriki aur Europeeya sanskrutiyon mein ek "purushon ki jhopadi" (meinj hat) ki sthaapana kar di thi; 19veen sadi mein purush gambhir muddon par charcha karne ke liye dinr ke baad "dhoomrapaan vaale kamre" (smoking room) mein jaakar aaraam kiya karte the.

utpaadan

varsh 1942 mein pyoorto reeko ke sigaar nirmaata

tanbaakoo ke patton ko ek aisi prakriya se kaata aur sukhaaya jaata hai jismein bade patton ko sadne se bachaate hue ismein cheeni aur paani ki maatra ko kam karne ke liye is par dhoop aur chhaaainv donon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. prakriya ka yeh pehla hissa kyoring kahalaata hai jismein 25 se 45 din ke beech ka samay lagta hai aur ismein mausam ki paristhitiyon ke saath-saath kaate gaye tambaakoo ko sangrah kar rakhane ke liye istemaal kiye jaane vaale chhappar ya baade ke nirmaan ke aadhaar par kaafi antar hota hai. tambaakoo ke prakaar aur patton ke vaanchhit rang ke aadhaar par kyoring ki prakriya mein badlaav kiya jaata hai. is prakriya ke doosare hisse ko kinvan (farmeinteshan) kaha jaata hai, yeh kaarya patton ko dheere-dheere sukhaane (maarane) mein madad ke liye design ki gayi paristhitiyon ke tahat poora kiya jaata hai. taapamaan aur aardrata ko yeh sunishchit karne ke liye niyantrit kiya jaata hai ki patte sade ya bikhre bagair nirantar kinvit hote rahe. yahi vah charan hai jahaaain patton mein svaad, jalan aur khushboo sambandhi visheshataaeain mukhya roop se laai jaati hai.

patton ko achhi tarah sukha lene ke baad inhein inke svaroop aur samagr gunavatta ke aadhaar par istemaal ke liye filr ya rapper ke roop mein sangrah kar rakha jaata hai. is prakriya ke dauraan patte nirantar nam hote rahate hain aur yeh sunishchit karne ke liye ki pratyek patte ka behtar istemaal iske vyaktigat gunon ke anusaar ho, inhein saavadhaani se sanbhaal kar rakha jaata hai. patton ka nirantar gatthar banaaya jaata hai, nireekshan kiya jaata hai, fir gatthar ko khola diya jaata hai, fir nireekshan kiya jaata hai aur uske baad fir se iske puraane hone ke chakr ke saath-saath baar-baar iska gatthar banaaya jaata hai. jab patte nirmaata ke vinirdeshon ke anusaar paripakva ho jaate hain tab inhein sigaar ke utpaadan ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.

uchch gunavatta ke sigaar abhi bhi haath se banaae jaate hain. ek anubhavi sigaar-rolar prati din saikadon bahut achhe aur lagbhag aadarsh sigaaron ka utpaadan kar sakta hai. rolar tanbaakoo ki nami kaayam rakhate hain - vishesh roop se rapper ko - aur vishisht prakaar se design kiye gaye arddh-chandraakaar chaakuon ka istemaal karte hain jinhein chaavetaas kaha jaata hai. lapete (rol kiye jaane) ke baad sigaar ko sookhane ke liye lakdi ke saanchon mein rakha jaata hai jismein unke khule hue siron ko baraabar aakaar mein kaata jaata hai. is charan ke baad se sigaar ek poorn utpaad ban jaata hai jise vaataavaran ke anuroop 21°aaselsiys (70° faarenahaait) ke kareeb ki saapeksh aardrata mein "rakha" aur sukhaaya ja sakta hai. ek baar sigaar khareed lene par inhein vishisht prakaar ke lakdi ke dibbon ya hyoomidr (nameekaarak) mein rakhakar aam taur par iske uchit bhandaaran ka kaam poora kiya jaata hai, jahaaain paristhitiyon ko kaafi samay tak saavadhaaneepoorvak niyantrit kiya ja sakta hai. yahaaain tak ki agar sigaar shushk ho jaata hai to ise fir se itne lambe samay tak safalataapoorvak nameekrut kiya ja sakta hai jaise ki ise sanbhaalakar rakhane mein laaparavaahi na hui ho aur yeh kaarya bahut dheere-dheere poora kiya gaya ho. haalaanki asli tanbaakoo ke tel ki kami iske svaad ko bahut adhik prabhaavit karegi.

kuchh sigaar, vishesh roop se premium brand mein filr aur rapper ke liye tanbaakoo ki vibhinn kismon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. lambe filr sigaar, jinmein poori tarah lambe patton ka istemaal kiya jaata hai, kaheen adhik uchch gunavatta ke sigaar hote hain. in sigaaron mein tambaakoo ke patton ki teesari kism ka upayog kiya jaata hai jise "baaindar" kehte hain jo filr aur baahari rapper ke beech maujood rahata hai. yeh nirmaataaon ko rapper ke roop mein adhik naajuk aur aakarshak pattiyon ka upayog karne mein madad karta hai. in uchch-gunavatta vaale sigaaron mein takareeban hamesha vibhinn kismon ke tambaakoo ka mishran kiya jaata hai. yahaaain tak ki kyoobaai lambe-filr sigaaron mein bhi kai alag-alag jaayake daalne ke liye dweep ke kai hisson ke tambaakuon ko milaaya jaata hai.

nimn-stareeya aur machine se bane sigaaron mein filr ke liye tambaakoo ke kaate gaye patton ka istemaal kiya jaata hai aur lambe patton ya tambaakoo ke palp se taiyaar ek tarah ke "pepar" ka istemaal us rapper ke liye kiya jaata hai jo sigaar ko ek saath baandhata hai. yeh sigaar ki jvalanasheel visheshataaon ko badal deta hai jiske kaaran haath se bane sigaaron ko kaheen adhik pasand kiya jaata hai.

aitihaasik drushti se ek lektar ya reedar ko hamesha sigaar kaarkhaane ke shramikon par najar rakhane ke liye niyukt kiya jaata tha. portebal myoojik pleyaron ke liye audio books upalabdh ho jaane ke baad yeh prachalan puraana ho gaya lekin kyooba ke kuchh kaarkhaanon mein yeh pratha abhi bhi jaari hai. montekristo sigaar brand ka naam sanbhavat: isi pratha se utpann hua hoga.

pramukh nirmaata

do kanpaniyaaain sigaar udyog par haavi hain. duniya ki sabse badi sigaar nirmaata company, altaadis sanyukt raajya America, dominikn ganaraajya aur honduraas mein sigaar ka utpaadan karti hai aur kyooba mein kauraporeshan haibaanos mein iski 50% hissedaari hai. yeh company cigarette bhi banaati hai. doosra sabse badi sigaar utpaadak company hai sveedish match jo honduraas, Belgium, Germany, Indonesia, sanyukt raajya America aur dominikn ganaraajya mein sigaar ka utpaadan karti hai; yeh chabaane vaale aur pipe ke tambaakoo, nasavaar, laaitar aur maachis bhi banaati hai.[10]

sigaar udyog mein sanlagn parivaar

saaaincha:Importance-section

lagbhag sabhi aadhunik sigaar nirmaata lambe samay se sthaapit sigaar parivaaron ke sadasya hain ya hone ka daava karte hain [1] haath se banaae jaanevaale premium sigaaron ki kala aur yogyata peedhi dar peedhi aage badhi hai; sigaar ke kai vijnyaaapanon aur paikejing mein aksar parivaaron ko dikhaaya jaata hai.[11]

1992 mein, sigaar efeesiyonaado patrika ne "sigaar hall of fame" ka srujan kiya aur nimn chhah vyaktiyon ko maanyata pradaan ki:[12]

  • edagar M. kalamain, adhyaksh, general sigaar company, New York, New York, sanyukt raajya America
  • jeeno deveedof, sansthaapak, deveedof eight si., jineva, Switzerland
  • kaarlos fyoonte senior, adhyaksh, taabaakaalera A. fyoonte vaai siya., saintiyaago de loss kaibaaleros, dominikn ripblik
  • Frank laaneja, adhyaksh, vilaajon end company, taampa, florida, sanyukt raajya America
  • stainaford J. nyoomain, adhyaksh, J.si. nyoomain sigaar company, taampa, florida, sanyukt raajya America
  • enjel oliva senior (sansthaapak); oliva tanbaakoo company, taampa, florida, sanyukt raajya America

duniya mein sabse prasiddh sigaar parivaar sanbhavat: aarturo fyunte parivaar hai.[13] vartamaan mein pita aur putr kaarlos fyunte senior aur junior ke netrutv mein fyunte parivaar 1912 se apne aarture fyunte aur montesino sigaaron ko rol karta aa raha hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] 1995 mein fyunte fyunte opasaeks ki release ke saath dominikn ganaraajya mein viksit kiye gaye pehle uchch gunavatta ke rapper ki shuruaat hui thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein] dominikn ganaraajya ka sabse puraana sigaar nirmaata Leon parivaar hai jo 1905 se apne Leon jimenes aur la aurora sigaar ka utpaadan karta aa raha hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

na keval premium sigaar-nirmaata hi aam taur par parivaaron ke roop mein hain balki ve log bhi jo premium sigaar tanbaakoo ki kheti karte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] oliva parivaar 1934 se sigaar tanbaakoo ki kheti karta aa raha hai aur ameriki baajaar mein beche jaanevaale lagbhag har bade sigaar brand mein unke parivaar ka tambaakoo paaya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] suprasiddh paidrons jaise kuchh parivaaron ne tanbaakoo ki kheti se sigaar banaane ke kshetr mein kadam badhaaya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] haalaanki paidron parivaar 1850 ke dashak se tambaakoo ki kheti karta aa raha hai, unhonne apne parivaar ke naam vaale sigaaron ka utpaadan 1964 mein shuroo kiya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] paidrons ki tarah kaarlos toraano parivaar ne 1990 ke dashak mein apne khud ke parivaar ke brand, jismein parivaar ka naam bhi maujood tha, iski roling shuroo karne se pehle 1916 mein tambaakoo ki kheti karna shuroo kiya tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

parivaar, premium sigaar udyog ka is kadar ek mahatvapoorn hissa hain ki "sigaar faimili" shabd aarturo fyunte aur J.si. nyoomain parivaaron ka ek panjeekrut tredamaark ban gaya hai jisse unke parivaaron ki vishishtata aur pehchaan, premium sigaar braandon aur charitable faaundeshanon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] yahaaain tak ki sigaar udyog ke do corporate samoohon, altaadis aur sveedish match dvaara banaae jaanevaale premium sigaaron ki dekharekh do sigaar parivaaron, altaadish ke beinjaamin meneindij aur sveedish match ke arnesto perej-kairilo ke sadasyon dvaara ki jaati hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

maarketing aur vitran

sigaaron ki maarketing vijnyaaapanon ke jariye aur filmon evam anya media, khel sambandhi aayojanon, sigaar-anukool patrikaaon jaise ki sigaar efisiyondo aur sigaar dinrs mein product plesameint ke maadhyam se ki jaati hai. vijnyaaapanon mein aksar samruddhi ke chitran, yaun sambandhi tasveeron aur spasht ya antarnihit celebrity endorsameint ko shaamil kiya jaata hai.[14]

1992 mein pesh kiye gaye sigaar efisiyondo ko sigaar companiyon aur paathakon donon dvaara ameriki sigaar dhoomrapaan baajaar ko ek chhote blue-kaular segameint se lagjari hotelon aur golf course jaise sthaanon mein bade paimaane ke prachaar-prasaar vaale baajaar mein tabdeel karne ka shreya diya gaya tha. yeh patrika sigaaron ko ek safal jeevanashaili ke prateek ke roop mein prastut karti hai aur un vijnyaaapanon ke liye ek pramukh sanvaahak hai jo 1965 ke baad se tambaakoo udyog ke vigyaapan sambandhi svaichhik pratibandhon ke anuroop naheen hai jaise ki glaimar ke saath dhoomrapaan ka sambandh naheen jodne ka ek pratibandh. patrika lanbaai ke aadhaar par dhoomrapaan-samarthak tarkon ko bhi suvyavasthit roop se prastut karti hai, iska tark hai ki sigaar cigarette ki tulana mein kaheen adhik surakshit hota hai aur yeh ki vaise bhi jeevan khataron se bharpoor hai, ki (helth effects mein ullikhit pramaanon ke vipreet) sigaar peene ke svaasthya sambandhi faayde hain, ki sanyam svaasthya sambandhi jyaadaatar ya sabhi jokhimon ko khtm kar deta hai, ki sigaar peene waali lambi aayu tak jeevit rahate hain, ki svaasthya sambandhi shodh trutipoorn hain aur yeh ki rananeetik roop se chune gaye svaasthya sambandhi shodh ke parinaam suraksha ke daavon ka samarthan karte hain.[15] apne pratidvandvi smok ki tarah sigaar efisiyondo is maayane mein anya tambaakoo utpaadon ke liye vaahanon ki maarketing se bhinnata rakhati hai ki yeh sigaaron ko poori patrika ka kendra bindu bana deta hai jisse utpaad aur jeevanashaili ke beech ek sahajeevita ban jaati hai.[16]

chitr:Flor de Baltimore.jpg
sigaar dilivri truck, saalt lek city, 1913

America mein sigreton ko niyantrit karne vaale maarketing sambandhi kai viniymon se sigaaron ko chhoot di gayi hai. udaaharan ke liye 1970 ke pablik helth cigarette smoking act ne sigaaron ko iske vigyaapan sambandhi pratibandh se chhoot de di thi,[17] aur cigarette ke vijnyaaapanon ke vipreet sigaar ke vigyaapan mein svaasthya sambandhi jokhimon ka ullekh karne ki koi jaroorat naheen rah gayi thi.[14] 2007 tak sigaaron par sigreton se kam kar lagaaya jaata tha jo itna kam tha ki kai ameriki raajyon mein chhote sigaaron ke ek packet ka moolya sigreton ke ek packet ke moolya ke aadhe se bhi kam tha.[17] America mein naabaaligon ke liye sigaar aur anya tambaakoo utpaad khareedna gairkaanooni hai lekin kaanoonon ko ek samaan roop se laagoo kiya gaya hai: varsh 2000 ke ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki Internet sigaar maarketing saaiton mein se teen chauthaai naabaaligon ko sigaar khareedne ki anumati dete the.[18]

saste sigaar suvidhaajanak storon, kiraane ki dukaanon aur dava ki dukaanon mein jyaadaatar swayam-seva saamagriyon ke roop mein beche jaate hain. premium sigaaron ko tambaakoo utpaad ki dukaanon (tobaikoniston), sigaar baaron aur anya vishisht pratishthaanon mein becha jaata hai.[19] kuchh sigaar store shrrunkhlaaon ka hissa hote hain jinke paas aakaar mein bhinnata hoti hai: America mein United sigaar store 1920 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein raashtreeya shrrunkhlaaon ke keval teen utkrusht udaaharanon mein se ek tha jabki anya do eendapi aur voolavarth ke the.[20] hotel ki dukaanein, restaurant, veinding machine[19] aur Internet sigaaron ke gair-paaramparik dukaanon mein shaamil hain.[18]

sanghatak (sanrachana)

sigaar teen tarah ke tambaakoo ke patton se banaae jaate hain jinki vividhtaaen dhoomrapaan aur jaayake sambandhi visheshataaon ka nirdhaaran karti hain:

raipars

sigaar ke sabse baahari patte ya rapper paudhe ke sabse chaude hisse se taiyaar hote hain. rapper sigaar ke adhikaaainsh gunon aur svaad ko nirdhaarit karta hai aur yahaaain tak ki iske rang ka istemaal aksar sigaar ki sanpoornata ka varnan karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. nirmaataaon dvaara 100 se adhik raiparon ke sheds ki pehchaan ki gayi hai lekin sabse halake se lekar sabse gahre saat sabse aam vargeekaran is prakaar hain:[21] ' ऑल्ट= सिगार रैपर कलर चार्ट.सिगार रैपर कलर चार्ट

rang vivran
double klaaro bahut halka, thoda hare jaisa (jise kaindela, American market selekshan ya Z bhi kaha jaata hai); yeh svaroop patton ke paripakva hone se pehle todkar teji se sukha lene se taiyaar hota hai, iska rang patton mein maujood klorofil ki vajah se aata hai; yeh svaroop pehle lokapriya tha lekin ab durlabh hai.
klaaro bahut halke bhoore ya peelaapan liye hue. chhaaya mein ki gayi tambaakoo ki kheti ka sanket deta hai.
Colorado klaaro maadhyam bhoore rang ke jismein natural aur english market selekshan shaamil hain.
Colorado vishisht laalima liye bhoora rang (jise rosaado ya korojo bhi kaha jaata hai)
Colorado maidooro adhik gahra bhoora rang; jiska sambandh aksar Cameroon aur honduraas ke afreeki raiparon ya nikaaraaguaa mein kyoobaai beej se viksit kiye gaye raiparon ke saath joda jaata hai.
maidooro bahut hi gahre bhoore ya kaale; mukhya roop se Connecticut, maiksiko nikaaraaguaa aur braajeel mein viksit kiya jaata hai.
oskooro bahut hi kaale, (jise double maidooro bhi kaha jaata hai), iska svaroop aksar taileeya hota hai; 2000 ke dashak mein adhik lokapriya hua hai; ise mukhya roop se kyooba, nikaaraaguaa, braajeel, maiksiko aur sanyukt raajya America ke Connecticut mein ugaaya jaata hai.

kuchh nirmaata ek vaikalpik naam ka upayog karte hain:

naam sankshepan vivran
American market selekshan eemaes double klaaro ka paryaaya
english market selekshan iemaes aam taur par Colorado klaaro, lekin double klaaro se adhik tej rang parantu maidooro ki apeksha madhyam
Spanish market selekshan SMS do sabse gahre rangon maidooro aur oskuro mein se ek.

aam taur par gahre rapper ek mithaas ka sparsh jod sakte hain jabki halake rapper svaad mein sookhepan ka sanket dete hain. saamaanyat: yeh sveekaar kiya jaata hai ki svaad mein 40 pratishat yogadaan rapper ka hota hai jabki filr aur baaindar anya 60 pratishat ka yogadaan karte hain.[22] aam taur par yeh sveekaar kiya jaata hai ki maidooro sigaar ka svaad halake rapper mein isi sigaar ki apeksha kaheen adhik kada hota hai lekin yeh sabhi sigaaron par laagoo naheen hota.

filrs

ek sigaar ka adhikaaainsh hissa filrs se bana hota hai jo rapper ke andar lapete gaye patton ke guchhe hote hain. vibhinn kshamataaon vaale filrs ko aam taur par sigaar ke vaanchhit jaayake taiyaar karne ke liye milaaya jaata hai. sigaar udyog mein ise "bleind" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai. kai sigaar nirmaata dhoomrapaan karne vaale vyakti ko sabse adhik aanand dene wala sateek bleind taiyaar kar khud par garv mahasoos karte hain. tambaakoo ke patton mein jitna adhik tel maujood hota hai filr utana hi tej (kam shushk) hota hai. iski kismon ka vistaar paudhe ke aadhaar se liye gaye kam se kam sugandh vaale volaado se lekar paudhe ke beech se liye gaye halake-jaayake vaale seko (shushk) se hote hue sabse adhik soorya ki roshani mein rahane vaale oopari patton se liye gaye tej ligero tak hota hai. apekshaakrut adhik gej vaale faitar (mote) sigaaron mein adhik filr hota hai jismein ful baudi aur complex flevar pradaan karne ki kaafi kshamata hoti hai. haalaanki apekshaakrut mote sigaaron (50 ring gej se adhik) ke aam taur par kam jalne vaale gunon ke kaaran is prabhaav ko kam kiya ja sakta hai aur yeh tathya hai ki ye sigaar dheere-dheere jalate hain. yeh aasaani se pata lagaae jaane yogya jaayakon ke poore spectrum ko rok sakta hai. istemaal ke samay ligero ko hamesha filr ke beech se moda jaata hai kyonki yeh dheere-dheere jalata hai.

filrs lambe ya chhote ho sakte hain; lambe filr mein poore patton ka istemaal hota hai aur yeh ek behtar gunavatta wala hota hai, jabki chhote filr jise "miksd" kehte hain, ismein kate hue patton, tanon aur anya bits ka upayog kiya jaata hai. haal hi mein kuchh utpaadakon ne aise sigaaron ko banaaya hai jise unhonne "meediym filr" ka naam diya hai. ve bagair tanon vaale chhote filr ki bajaay apekshaakrut bade patton ka istemaal karte hain jo chhote filr sigaaron ki tulana mein behtar gunavatta vaale hote hain. chhote filr sigaaron ko peete samay pehchaanana aasaan hota hai kyonki ye aksar adhik tej hokar jalate hain aur patton ke tukadon ki thodi maatra dhoomrapaan karne vaale ke muainh mein chhod dete hain. uchch gunavatta vaale laang fild sigaaron ko ek samaan roop se aur lagaataar jalate rahana chaahiye. ek anya filr bhi upalabdh hai jise "saindavich" (kabhi-kabhi "kyooban saindavich") kaha jata hai jo ek aisa sigaar hai jise lambe baahari patton ke andar chhote patton ko modkar banaaya jaata hai. jab koi sigaar sirf ek desh ke tambaakoo se poori tarah taiyaar (filr, baaindar aur rapper) kiya jaata hai, ise sigaar udyog mein "pyooro" ke naam se sandarbhit kiya jaata hai jiska matlab Spanish mein "pyor" (shuddh) hota hai.

baaindar

baaindar filrs ke guchhon ko ek saath baandhane ke liye istemaal kiye jaanevaale lochadaar patte hote hain. moolat: baaindars aise rapper hote hain jinhein chhidrayukt, dhabbedaar, kharaab rang ya bahut adhik dhaariyon ki vajah se nakaar diya jaata hai.

aakaar aur svaroop

inhein bhi dekhein: Factory name
skensen, staukahom, sveedan ke tobeko end maichastik sangrahaalaya mein mein vishv ka sabse bada sigaar.

sigaaron ko saamaanyat: inke aakaar aur svaroop ke aadhaar par vargeekrut kiya jaata hai jise ek saath vitola ke naam se jaana jaata hai.

sigaar ka aakaar do aayaamon se maapa jaata hai: iska ring gej (ek inch ke chausathavein hisse mein iska vyaas) aur iski lanbaai (inch mein).

pairejo

sabse aam svaroop hai pairejo, jise kabhi-kabhi seedhe taur par "koronaaj" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai jo paramparaagat roop se vah nyoonatam maanadand (benchmark) raha hai jiske anuroop sigaar ke anya sabhi svaroopon ko maapa jaata hai. iska dhad belanaakaar, kinaare seedhe, ek sira khula hua aur doosare sire par tambaakoo ke patte ka ek gol "kaip" jise anivaarya roop se kaat liya jaata hai, ek vishesh katar ke saath iske andar bana ek vi (V) ke aakaar ka ek kataav hota hai ya jise dhoomrapaan se pehle iske andar daala jaata hai.

pairejo ko nimnalikhit shabdon dvaara varnit kiya jaata hai:

shabd inch mein lanbaai chaudaai ek inch ke 64vein bhaag mein meetrik lanbaai meetrik chaudaai shabd-vyutpatti
rauthsachaaild 4 + 1/2 48 11 semi 19 mimi rauthsachaaild parivaar ke naam par
robusto 4 + ⅞ 50 11 semi 20 mimi rospain=9
chhota painaatela 5 33 13 semi 13 mimi
petit korona 5 + ⅛ 42 13 semi 17 mimi
kaarlota 5 + ⅝ 35 14 semi 14 mimi
korona 5 + 1/2 42 14 semi 17 mimi
korona gorda 5 + ⅝ 46 14 semi 18 mimi
painaatela 6 38 15 semi 15 mimi
toro 6 50 15 semi 20 mimi
korona graindi 6 + ⅛ 42 16 semi 17 mimi
lonsdel 6 + 1/2 42 17 semi 17 mimi lonsdel ke paanchavein arl hyoo sesil lothar ke naam par
charchil 7 47-50 18 semi 19-20 mimi sar vinstan charchil ke naam par
double korona 7 + ⅝ 49 19 semi 19 mimi rospain=3
presideinti 8 50 20 semi 20 mimi
graan korona 9 + ¼ 47 23 semi 19 mimi
double toro/gordo 6 60 15 semi 24 mimi

in aayaamon ko aadarsh roop mein prastut kiya gaya hai. vaastavik aayaam kaafi bhinn ho sakte hain.

figuraado

sigaar ke aakaar

aniyamit aakaar ke sigaaron ko figuraadoj ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur kabhi-kabhi uchch gunavatta wala maana jaata hai kyonki inhein banaana kaheen adhik kathin hota hai.

aitihaasik roop se, vishesh kar 19veen sadi ke dauraan figuraadoj sabse adhik lokapriya svaroop the; haalaanki 1930 ke dashak tak ye na keval fashion aur chalan se baahar ho gaye the balki lupt ho gaye the. haalaanki haal hi mein inki lokapriyta mein ek chhota punarutthaan hua aur vartamaan mein kai aise brand (nirmaata) maujood hain jo apekshaakrut saamaanya pairejoj ke saath-saath figuraadoj ka utpaadan karte hain. kyoobaai sigaar brand kyooba ke paas apni shreni mein keval figuraadoj hi maujood hai.

figuraadoj mein nimnalikhit shaamil hain:

figuraado vivran
taurapeedo pairejo ki tarah iske sivaaya ki ismein kaip nukeela (pvaainted) hota hai.
piraamid ek chauda aadhaar (foot) hota hai aur yeh ek nukeele kaip tak ek samaan roop se sankara ho jaata hai.
parafekto donon siron par patala aur beech mein ubhara hua hota hai.
presideinti / daaidema aakaar ek pairejo ki tarah hota hai lekin iske vishaal aakaar aur parafekto ki tarah kabhi-kabhaar band aadhaar (foot) ke kaaran ise figuraado samjha jaata hai.
kyulebraas teen lambe, pvaainted sigaar ek saath bandhe hue.
taskeniyn 19veen sadi ki shuruaat mein us samay bana vishesh prakaar ka itaalavi sigaar jab kentaki tobaiko ka sthaaneeya kismon ke saath sankaran karaaya gaya tha aur ise ek bahut tej sugandh vaale ek lambe, kade, patale sigaar ko banaane ke liye istemaal kiya gaya tha jo beech mein mota aur donon siron par chauda hota hai. ise cheroot ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai jo sanyukt raajya America mein sabse jyaada bikne wala sigaar ka svaroop hai.

dominikn ganaraajya mein sthit ek bade sigaar utpaadak, aarturo fyunte ne bhi chili peepars (laal mirch) se lekar besabaul ke ballon aur ameriki futabaulon ke aakarshak svaroopon tak mein figuraados sigaaron ka utpaadan kiya tha. saarvajanik roop se upalabdh hone par ye atyant sangrahaneeya aur bahut mahange ho gaye. vyaavahaarik taur par taurapeedo aur piraamid shabdon ko aksar adal-badalkar istemaal kiya jaata hai, yahaaain tak ki bahut jaankaar sigaar peene vaalon ke beech bhi. Hongkong sthit sigaar visheshagya min raun ni jinki rachana N illustrated enasaaiklopeediya of post-rivolyooshan havaana sigaars ko sigaaron aur sigaaron se sambandhit shabdon par ek utkrusht kruti maana jaata hai, yeh taurapeedo ko "sigaar slaing" ke roop mein paribhaashit karta hai. ni yeh maanate hain ki jyaadaatar log sahi hain (kyonki slaing ko jyaadaatar upayogon dvaara paribhaashit kiya gaya hai) aur taurapeedo ka doosra naam piraamid hai.

little sigaar

little sigaar (jise kabhi-kabhi smaul sigaar bhi kaha jaata hai) aam sigaaron se kaafi alag hote hain. inka vajan sigaaron aur sigaariloj se kam hota hai,[23] lekin sabse mahattvapoorn baat yeh hai ki ye aakaar, svaroop, paikejing aur filtaron ke maamale mein sigreton ke samaan hote hain.[24] 1971 se 1973 tak America mein pablik helth cigarette smoking act ke javaab mein little sigaaron ki bikri chaar guna badh gayi thi, is adhiniyam ne cigarette ke vijnyaaapanon ke prasaaran par pratibandh laga diya tha aur cigarette ke paiketon par anivaarya roop se svaasthya sambandhi kadi chetaavaniyaaain likhne ka praavadhaan kar diya tha. sigaaron ko is pratibandh se mukt rakha gaya tha aur sanbhavat: sabse adhik mahatvapoorn baat yeh thi ki in par lagaae jaane vaale kar ki dar bahut hi kam rakhi gayi thi. little sigaaron ko kabhi-kabhi "sigrets in disgaaij" (chhadm vesh mein cigarette) kaha jaata hai aur inhein cigarette ke roop mein pun: vargeekrut karne ke asafal prayaas kiye gaye hain. little sigaaron ki bikri inke karaadhaan ki khaamiyon ke dam par 2006 mein sabse adhik uchchatam star par pahuainch gayi thi.[17]

dhoomrapaan

chitr:H.Upmann Coronas Major.jpg
ek double gilotin shaili ka katar, sigaar ki nok ko kaatne ke liye prayukt; do hast-nirmit H. apamain koronaas major sigaars ke nikat, ek uske sangrahan tube ke bheetar aur ek uske baahar."med in kyooba" lebal ("kyooban sigaars" ka bhaag dekhein) loar tube par dikhaai deta hai.

sigaar ko peene ke liye dhoomrapaan karne wala vyakti pehle ise kaatata hai, jalaata hai aur uske baad bagair jalaae hue hisse ko muainh mein rakhata hai aur dhuaaain muainh ke andar kheenchata hai. kuchh dhoomrapaanakarta dhuen ko fefadon ke andar lete hain, vishesh roop se little sigaaron ke maamale mein, lekin yeh abhyaas anyatha asaamaanya hai. dhoomrapaanakarta dhuen ko muainh se nikaalne ke pehle isse muainh ke andar chhalle bana sakta hai aur sigaar ki behtar sugandh aur jaayaka lene ke liye dhuen ke kuchh hisse ko naak se baahar nikaal sakta hai.

kaatna

haalaanki kuchh sigaaron ke donon siron ko kaat liya jaata hai ya donon siron ko ghumaakar mod diya jaata hai, jyaadaatar sigaar ek seedhe kate hue sire aur ek sire par "kaip" lagaae hue svaroop mein aate hain. adhikaansh uchch-gunavatta vaale hastanirmit sigaar, chaahe jis aakaar ke hon, unke oopar ek kaip laga hota hai jo sigaar ke ek sire par rapper ke ek ya adhik chhote tukadon ke roop mein ek praakrutik tambaakoo pest ke saath ya aata aur paani ke mishran se chipkaaya gaya hota hai. sigaar ko theek se peene yogya banaane ke liye iske kaip vaale sire ko anivaarya roop se kaat diya jaata hai. yeh ek gol sira hota hai jismein tambaakoo baahar naheen nikla hota hai aur yahi vah sira hai jise dhoomrapaanakarta dvaara hamesha kaat diya jaana chaahiye. agar kaip ko jaise-taise ya asaavadhaani se kaata jaata hai to sigaar ka doosra sira ek samaan roop se naheen jalega aur peene yogya tambaakoo baahar nikalkar nasht ho jaaega. kuchh sigaar nirmaata dhoomrapaanakarta ko shuroo se ant tak alag-alag tarah ke jaayake, dhad aur shakti ka ehsaas dene ke liye jaan-boojhakar ek chhor se doosare chhor tak vibhinn kismon ke tanbaakoo daalte hain. galat sire se sigaar peene ka parinaam ek bure anubhav ke roop mein saamane aa sakta hai.

sigaar katar ke teen buniyaadi prakaar hote hain.

  • gilotin (stret kat)
  • panch kat
  • vi-kat (ise nauch kat, kaits I, vej kat, english kat bhi kehte hain)

jalaana

sigaar ka "head" aam taur par sigaar ke band ka sabse kareebi sira hota hai. sigaar ke vipreet sire ko "foot" kaha jaata hai. band sigaar ke prakaar ko dikhaata hai aur ise hataaya ya chhod diya ja sakta hai. dhoomrapaanakarta sigaar ke head se kaip ko kaat deta hai aur sigaar ke foot ko aag se jalaata hai. dhoomrapaanakarta sigaar ke head se muainh aur hothon ke jariye dhuaaain chhodta hai aur aam taur par ise fefadon ke andar naheen leta hai.

jalaae jaate samay sigaar ko ek samaan roop se jalaane ke liye ise ghumaaya jaana chaahiye aur hava ko dheere-dheere halke kash lete hue chhodna chaahiye. sigaaron ko byooten se bhare laaitaron ke istemaal se jalaaya ja sakta hai. byooten rangaheen aur gandhaheen hota hai aur yeh achhi tarah bahut halke flevar, agar koi ho, ke saath jalata hai. flood se bhare laaitaron aur kaagaj mein maachison ka istemaal karne ki salaah naheen di jaati hai kyonki ye svaad ko prabhaavit kar sakte hain. anya vikalp lakdi ke maachis hain. inhein salfar se upachaarit kiya aur bhigoya naheen jaata hai aur iseeliye dhuaaain rasaayanon se prabhaavit naheen hota hai. [25]

dhaatu ki nalikaaon mein paik kiye gaye sigaaron ko aam taur par devadaar ki ek patali parat se lapeta jaata hai. ise sigaar ko jalaane ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai jo jaayake ko prabhaavit karne vaale laaitaron ya maachison ki samasya ko door kar deta hai.

jaayaka (flevar)

sigaar ke pratyek brand aur prakaar ka svaad alag-alag hota hai. choonki rapper poori tarah se sigaar ke flevar ko nirdhaarit naheen karta hai, gahre rang ke rapper mein ek tarah ki mithaas hoti hai jabki halke raiparon mein aam taur par ek "apekshaakrut shushk" svaad hota hai. sigaar chaahe halka, madhyam ya poora bhara hua ho, gunavatta ke saath iska koi sambandh naheen hota hai. sigaar ke jaayake aur rang ka varnan karne mein istemaal kiye jaane vaale kuchh shabdon mein shaamil hain: spaaisi, pepari (laal ya kaale), sveet, haarsh, barnt, green, arthi, voodsi, kokoaa, rosted, ejed, nati, kreemi, sedaar, ok, chevi, frooti aur ledari.

sigaar ka dhuaaain jise shaayad hi kabhi saaains ke jariye andar liya jaata hai, yeh tambaakoo ke svaad ke saath-saath anya svaadon ki baareekiyon ka ehsaas deta hai. sigaar ke dhuen ki khushboo kai alag-alag cheejon se prabhaavit hoti hai: tambaakoo ka prakaar, sigaar ki gunavatta, shaamil kiye gaye svaad, aayu aur aardrata, utpaadan vidhi (hastanirmit banaam machine se bana) aur kai anya baatein. ek behtar sigaar saaains ke jariye andar liye gaye cigarette ke dhueain se poori tarah alag svaad deta hai. jab dhuen ko saaains ke jariye andar liya jaata hai, jaisa ki aam taur par cigarette ke maamale mein hota hai, tambaakoo ke svaad ko dhuen ki uttejana ki tulana mein kam mahasoos kiya ja sakta hai. kuchh sigaar peene vaale utsaahi vyakti sigaar peete samay mahasoos kiye gaye ovaraton aur andaraton ka varnan karne ke liye sharaab chakhane vaalon ki tarah ek alag shabdaavali ka prayog karte hain. vyaktigat retings, mahasoos kiye gaye jaayakon ka varnan, aakaaron, braandon aadi ki rikaurding ke liye patrikaaeain (jarnals) upalabdh hain. in sandarbhon mein sigaar ki testing sharaab, braandi, vhiski, chai, kaufi aur biyr ki testing ke samaan hai.

dhuaaain

kai logon ko sigaar ke dhuen ki gandh naapasand hoti hai aur ek sigaar peene vaale ko unhein thes pahuainchaane se bachane ke prati vishesh roop se saavdhaan rahana vinmrata ka prateek maana jaata hai.[26] yeh gandh dhoomrapaanakarta ki saaainson mein bas jaati hai jise door karne ke liye aise upabhokta utpaadon ki jaroorat hoti hai jo saaainson ko taajagi de sake.[27] dhuaaain tambaakoo ke apoorn dahan se paida hota hai jiske dauraan kam se kam teen tarah ki raasaayanik pratikriyaaen hoti hain: paairolaaisis kaarbanik anuon ko saamaanya anuon ke roop mein tod deta hai, paairosinthesis in nae bane kanon ko fir se jodkar aise rasaayanon mein badal deta hai jo moolat: maujood naheen hote hain aur distileshan nikoteen jaise yaugikon ko tambaakoo se lekar dhuen mein tabdeel kar deta hai. tambaakoo ke pratyek gram ke dhoomrapaan ke liye ek sigaar takareeban 120-140 mileegraam kaarban daaioksaaid, 40-60 mileegraam kaarban monooksaaid, 3-4 mileegraam aaisopreen, haaidrojan cynide aur eseetaildihaaid mein se pratyek ki 1 mileegraam maatra aur chhoti-chhoti maatraaon mein volaataail N -naaitrasaemins aur volaataail kaarbanik kanpaaunds ke laarj spectrum ke saath agyaat cheejon ki vistrut sanrachana ka utsarjan karta hai.[28]

sigaar ke dhuen mein sabse adhik gandh paida karne vaale rasaayan aur uttejak gandh ke liye yakeenan sabse adhik jimmedaar, paairidaains hote hain. paairaajaains ke saath ye sigaar peene vaale vyakti ki saaainson mein maujood sabse gandhayukt rasaayan bhi hote hain. in padaarthon ko keval kuchh ansh prati billion ki atyant nyoonatam saandrata ke baavajood bhi pahachaana ja sakta hai. dhoomrapaan ke dauraan yeh pata naheen chal paata hai ki kya ye rasaayan nikoteen ke raasaayanik bandhanon ke tootane se taiyaar hue hain ya tambaakoo mein maujood emino esid aur sharkara ke beech melaard pratikraya ki vajah se.[27]

sigaar ka dhuaaain cigarette ke dhuen se kaheen adhik kshaareeya hota hai aur isliye turant ghul jaata hai aur muainh ki shleshma jhilli dvaara aasaani se avashoshit kar liya jaata hai jisse dhoomrapaanakarta nikoteen ko saaains ke jariye andar liye bagair hi ise aasaani se avashoshit kar leta hai.[29]

nameekaarak (hyumidrs)

sigaaron ko aardrata ke jis star par rakha jaata hai uske anusaar kaafi had tak iske svaad mein bhinnata hoti hai. maana jaata hai ki ek sigaar ka svaad sabse achhi tarah tab viksit hota hai jab iska bhandaaran lagbhag 68-74% ki ek saapeksh aardrata aur 64 ef ke taapamaan par kiya gaya ho.[krupaya uddharan jodein] aardrata ki ek aadarsh dar sigaar ko ek samaan roop se jalne mein madad karta hai. iske vipreet shushk sigaar naajuk hote hain aur teji se jal jaate hain jabki nam sigaar ek samaan roop se naheen jalaate hain aur inka svaad bahut adhik amleeya ho jaata hai. tab hyumidrs ko unke hyumidifaayaron ke saath is prayojan ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai. hyumidr ki aatanrik lining moolat: teen tarah ki lakdi se taiyaar ki jaati hai jinke naam hain: Spanish sedaar (devadaar), ameriki (ya Canadai) laal devadaar, honduraas ki mahogani.

jyaadaatar hyumidrs ek plastic ya dhaatu ke dabbe mein aate hain jismein ek spanj hota hai jo hyumidifaayar ke roop mein kaam karta hai, haalaanki sabse adhik haal ke sanskaran paulimr ekraail mein aate hain. ise anivaarya roop se keval distild vaatar se bhara jaata hai aur pehle vaale ke liye propaaileen glaaikol aur distild vaatar ke ek ghol ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. hyumidifaayar baikteeriya se dooshit ho sakte hain aur is sandooshan se bachane ke liye inhein har do varsh mein badal diya jaana chaahiye.

hyumidrs haaigromeetars ke saath bhi aate hain jo enaalaug ya digital hote hain. enaalaug haaigromeetaron ki teen pranaaliyaaain hoti hain: ek metal spring wala enaalaug haaigromeetar, enaalaug nechural heyar haaigromeetar aur enaalaug sinthetik heyar haaigromeetar.[30]

sahaayak saamagriyaan (eksesareej)

bahut lokapriya sigaar eksesareej ki ek vistrut kism baajaar mein maujood hai jo sigaar efisiyonaado ke anubhav ko badhaate hain. inki keematein istemaal ki gayi saamagriyon aur finishing ke aadhaar par bhinn ho sakti hain. in eksesareej ke kuchh udaaharan nimnalikhit hain.

sigaar traival case

traival case sigaaron ko paryaavaraneeya tatvon se suraksha karne aur choor-choor hone ki sambhaavana se bachane ke iraade se taiyaar kiya gaya hota hai. adhikaansh traival case eksapeindebal ya stardi ledar mein aate hain. inhein itna mota hona chaahiye ki ye sigaaron ki suraksha kar sakein aur iske andar ek tej chamade ki gandh naheen honi chaahiye jo sigaar ke svaad ko prabhaavit kar sake. inmein se kuchh case (dibbe) gatte ya dhaatu ki nalikaaon ke saath aate hain jo adhik suraksha dete hain aur sigaar mein chamade ke asar ko failane se bachaate hain.

chaandi jadi magaramachh ki tvacha se nirmit ek sigaar jispar 1904 ka Birmingham haulamaark bana hua hai

iske alaava chaandi aur peetal ke sigaar case ke saath-saath lakdi ke sigaar case bhi baajaar mein upalabdh hain. lakdi ke case saste dibbon se lekar aakarshak dastakaari vaale case ke roop mein hote hain jabki chaandi aur peetal ke case kaafi mahange hote hain.

sigaar tyoobs

sigaar tyoobs chhoti maatra mein, saamaanyat: ek ya paaainch sigaaron ko rakhane ke liye upayogi hote hain. paaainch sigaar vaale tube ko 5-fingar tube aur ek sigaar vaale tube ko 1-fingar tube kaha jaaega. ye aam taur par stenales steel se bane hote hain. sigaar tyoobs ka upayog saamaanya roop se us samay kiya jaata hai jab vyakti kuchh ghanton ke liye baahar hota hai lekin agar jyaada samay baahar bitaane ki jaroorat ho to aise tube bhi hain jo hyumidifaayar aur haaigromeetar ke saath bane hote hain.

sigaar holder

sigaar holdaron ko sigaar stainds bhi kaha jaata hai aur ye sigaaron ko aishatre se baahar rakhane mein upayogi hote hain. iske alaava sigaar holder ka matlab ek aisa tube hota hai jismein sigaar ko dhoomrapaan karte samay rakha jaata hai. inka istemaal jyaadaatar mahilaaon dvaara kiya jaata hai aur purushon dvaara shaayad hi kiya jaata hai.

svaasthya sambandhi prabhaav

tambaakoo upayog ke anya svaroopon ki tarah sigaar ka dhoomrapaan iske doj ke aadhaar par svaasthya sambandhi kaafi jokhim paida karta hai: un logon ke liye jokhim kaheen adhik hota hai dhoomrapaan karte samay iske dhuen ko saaains ke jariye andar lete hain, jyaada sigaar peete hain ya jyaada samay tak inka dhoomrapaan karte hain.[31] aankadon ke aadhaar par kabhi dhoomrapaan naheen kaheen karne vaale vyakti ki tulana mein sigaar peene vaalon ke liye kisi bhi vajah se maut ka khatra adhik hota hai, jismein 65 varsh se kam umr ke logon ke liye aur maadhyam evam gahre dhoomrapaanakarta (saaains ke jariye dhuen ko andar lene vaale) jo cigarette peene vaalon ke samaan staron tak pahuainche hote hain, jokhim kaheen adhik hota hai.[32] little sigaaron ko aam taur par saaains ke jariye andar liya jaata hai aur inse sigreton ki tarah hi svaasthya sambandhi jokhim ki sambhaavana rahati hai.[33] prati din 1-2 sigaar peene vaalon ke liye badha hua jokhim aankadon ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hone ke liye kaafi kam hai,[32] aur pratidin ek sigaar se bhi kam peene vaalon mein 3/4 ke svaasthya sambandhi jokhim ko nirdhaarit naheen kiya gaya hai[34] aur inka nirdhaaran karna mushkil hai; haalaanki yeh daava kiya gaya hai ki jo log kam sigaar peete hain unke liye koi badha hua jokhim naheen hota hai, ek kaheen adhik sateek kathan yeh hai ki unke jokhim unke vivran ke samaanupaatik hote hain.[35] cigarette peene ke samaan svaasthya sambandhi jokhim nikoteen ki lat, periyodontal helth, daanton ke nuksaan aur munh, gale evam isofegas ke kainsaron sahit kai tarah ke Cancer ke maamalon mein ho sakte hain. sigaar ka dhoomrapaan fefade aur gale ke Cancer ka bhi kaaran ban sakta hai jismein badha hua jokhim sigreton ki tulana mein kam hota hai. inmein se kai tarah ke Cancer se mukti (ilaaj) ki dar bahut hi kam hai. sigaar ka dhoomrapaan fefade aur hrudaya sambandhi rogon jaise ki kraunik obsatraktiv palmonari dijeej ke khatre ko bhi badha deta hai.[31]

lokapriyta

sigaar peene ke prachalan mein sthaan, aitihaasik kaal aur aabaadi ke sarvekshan ke aadhaar par bhinnataaen hoti hain aur iski vyaapakata ka anumaan kuchh had tak sarvekshan ki paddhati ke aadhaar par alag-alag hai. America iska sabse bada upabhokta desh hai jiske baad Germany aur Britain ka naam aata hai; America aur pashchimi Europe milkar duniya bhar mein sigaar ki bikri mein 75% ka yogadaan karte hain.[10] 2005 ke you.S. national helth interview sarve ka anumaan tha ki 2.2% vayask sigaar peete hain, jo dhuaaainrahit tambaakoo ke takareeban baraabar hai lekin cigarette peene vaale 21% vayaskon ki tulana mein kaafi kam hai; yeh anumaan bhi lagaaya gaya tha ki 4.3% purush sigaar peete hain lekin keval 0.3% mahilaaen sigaar ka sevan karti hain.[36] 2002 ke you.S. national sarve of drag yooj N helth mein yeh paaya gaya ki gambhir manovaigyaanik sankat se grast vayaskon ke sigaar peene ki sambhaavana un logon ki apeksha kaheen adhik hai jo is samasya se grast naheen hote hain.[37] 2007 mein California ke ek adhyayan mein yeh paaya gaya ki samalaingik (gay) purush aur ubhayalingi mahilaaen aam aabaadi ke purushon aur mahilaaon ki tulana mein kramash: kaafi kam sigaar peete hain.[38] 1990 ke dashak ke dauraan aur 2000 ke dashak ki shuruaat mein America mein vayaskon aur kishoron donon ke beech sigaar peene ka chalan kaafi teji se aur lagaataar badhta dekha gaya tha.[24] aankade bataate hain ki yuva vayask purushon ke beech sigaar peene ka chalan 1990 ke dauraan teen guna badh gaya tha; 1999-2000 mein 31,107 yuva vayask ameriki military niyuktiyon ke beech kiye gaye sarvekshan mein paaya gaya ki inmein se 12.3% sigaar peete the,[39] aur 2003-2004 mein mid western County mein 4,486 haai school chhaatron ke beech ek sarvekshan mein 18% chhaatron ko sigaar peene wala paaya gaya.[40]

kyoobaai sigaar

chitr:Habanos-Mech.jpg
machine nirmit kyooban sigaar par "med in kyooba" lebal.
chitr:Habanos-Total-a-mano.jpg
hast-nirmit kyooban sigaar par "med in kyooba, kampleetali bye hand" lebal

kyoobaai sigaaron ko kyooba mein desh bhar mein paae jaane vaale tanbaakoo ke patton mein lapetakar taiyaar kiya jaata hai. filr, baaindar aur rapper is dweep ke vibhinn hisson se laaye gaye ho sakte hain. kyooba mein sabhi sigaaron ka utpaadan kyoobaai sarkaar ke niyantran mein hai aur pratyek brand kyooba mein kai alag-alag kaarkhaanon mein rol kiya gaya ho sakta hai. sigaar visheshagyon ka daava hai ki kyoobaai sigaar rolars ya "torsedors" duniya bhar mein sabse kushal rolars hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] torsedors ko kyoobaai samaaj aur sanskruti mein kaafi sammaan diya jaata hai aur duniya bhar ki yaatra mein inhein apne haath se rol kiye gaye sigaaron ki kala ka pradarshan karte hue dekha jaata hai.[41]

haibaanos esae aur kyoobaataibeko kyoobaai sigaaron se sambandhit utpaadan, gunavatta niyantran, prachaar-prasaar evam vitran aur niryaat sahit sabhi kaarya aapas mein milkar poora karte hain. kyooba hastanirmit aur machine se bane, donon tarah ke sigaaron ka utpaadan karta hai. sabhi dibbon aur lebalon par hecho N kyooba (kyooba mein nirmit) chihnit kiya hota hai. machine se baandhe gaye aur haath se finishing kiye gaye sigaaron mein hecho A maano shabd joda jaata hai jabki poori tarah haath se bane sigaaron ko script tekst mein totalameinte A maano kehte hain, haalaanki sabhi kyoobaai sigaaron mein yeh vaakya shaamil naheen kiya jaata hai. kyoobaai sigaaron ke tathaakathit status ki vajah se jaalsaaji ke prayaas kuchh had tak aam hain.[42]

kyooba ke utpaadon ke khilaaf ameriki vyaapaar pratibandhon ke baavajood sigaar desh ke pramukh niryaaton mein se ek bana hua hai. kyoobaan ne 1991 mein 77 million, 1992 mein 67 million aur 1993 mein 57 million sigaar ka niryaat kiya tha, niryaat mein yeh giraavat ek toofaan (hareeken) mein rapper ki fasal ka kaafi hissa nasht ho jaane ki vajah se aayi thi.[43]

kyooba ke khilaaf sanyukt raajya America ke pratibandh

maarksavaadi kraantikaari chi guaavera ke anusaar, "aaraam ke samay mein dhoomrapaan, akele sainik ka ek badhiya saathi hai". sigaar premi jeesas aarboleya tatha Robert ef. kaimpos dvaara "cheej haibenos", October 1997 se liya gaya.

7 fravari 1962 ko sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati John ef. kainedi ne fidel kaastro ki communist sarkaar ko maanyata dene ke liye kyooba par vyaapaarik pratibandh laga diya tha. kainedi ke tatkaaleen press sachiv piyre sailingar ke anusaar raashtrapati ne 6 fravari ki shaam ko unhein 1,200 H. apamain brand petit korona kyoobaai sigaar praapt karne ka aadesh diya tha; agali subah sigaaron ke saath sailingar ke vahaaain pahuainchaane par kainedi ne ek aadhikaarik aadesh par hastaakshar kiya jisse pratibndh prabhaavi roop se laagoo ho gaya.[44] raashtrapati kainedi aur Johnson ke white house ke ek sahaayak richrd gudavin ne varsh 2000 ke New York times ke ek aalekh mein yeh khulaasa kiya kiya ki 1962 ki shuruaat mein jeefake ne unhein kaha tha, "humne sigaaron ko isse mukt rakhane ki koshish ki thi lekin taimpa ke sigaar nirmaataaon ne is par aapatti ki thi."[45] pratibandh ne America ke nivaasiyon ko kaanooni taur par baajaar se kyoobaai sigaar khareedne se rok diya tha aur kyooba ko tambaakoo ke apne ek pramukh graahak se vanchit kar diya tha.

sanyukt raajya America mein aadhikaarik taur par kyooba mein nirmit sigaaron ko amerikiyon dvaara khareede jaane ke liye ek "varjit fal" ke roop mein dekha jaane laga tha. kyooba mein niji sampattiyon ko jbt kiye jaane ke kaaran kai poorv kyoobaai sigaar nirmaata apna utpaadan jaari rakhane ke liye anya deshon (mukhya roop se dominikn ganaraajya) mein sthaanaantarit ho gaye the.[46] iske parinaam svarup dominikn ganaraajya ka tambaakoo ka utpaadan kaafi teji se badh gaya tha.[47] pun: aabantan ke baad jyaadaatar kyoobaai nirmaataaon ne apne company naam, beej aur kataai ki takaneek ko hi aage istemaal kiya jabki kyooba mein raashtreeya tambaakoo prabhutv waali company kyoobaataibeko ne kraanti ke baad poorv niji company ke naamon ka istemaal karte hue sigaaron ka utpaadan svatantr roop se jaari rakha.[46] iske parinaam svaroop anya braandon ke saath romiyo ya juliyeta, gloriya kyoobaana, montekristo jaise sigaar naam ke brand kyooba aur dominikn ganaraajya donon mein maujood the.[48] honduraas aur nikaaraaguaa bhi bade paimaane par sigaaron ka utpaadan karte hain. kuchh kyoobaai sharanaarthi America mein sigaar banaate hain aur is tark ke saath kyoobaai sigaaron ke roop mein unka vigyaapan karte hain ki in sigaaron ko kyoobaaiyon dvaara banaaya gaya hai.[49]

ameriki nivaasiyon ke liye kyoobaai sigaaron ko khareedna ya inka aayaat karna aaj bhi gairkaanooni hai bhale hi ve diniya ke kisi bhi hisse mein hon,[50] haalaanki ye Canada ki samoochi uttari seema mein aur maiksiko ki dakshini seema mein aasaani se upalabdh hain. choonki kyoobaai sigaaron ko sanyukt raajya America mein taskari ke jariye le jaaya aur oonche daamon par becha jaata hai, ismein jaalsaaji vyaapt hai; aisa kaha jaata hai ki America mein beche jaane vaale 95% kyoobaai sigaar nakali hain.[51] haalaanki kyoobaai sigaaron ko kaanooni roop se sanyukt raajya America mein aayaat naheen kiya ja sakta hai, Internet ke aagaman ne sanyukt raajya America ke logon ke liye anya deshon se sigaaron ko online khareedna bahut aasaan bana diya hai, khaaskar jab inhein bagair baindon ke bheja ja raha ho. kyoobaai sigaaron ko ameriki baajaaron ke sampark vaale kuchh Europeeya paryatak kshetron mein khule taur par vijnyaaapit kiya jaata hai, iske baavajood ki adhikaansh Europeeya kshetron mein tambaakoo ka vigyaapan karna avaidh hai.[52]

anya deshon ke liye vishesh sigaar

Italy "sigaaro toskaano" (taskan sigaar) ka utpaadan karta hai jo havaana shaili se kaafi alag hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

cheroot paaramparik roop se barma (myaanmaar) aur Bhaarat ke saath juda hua hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

lokapriya sanskruti mein

chitr:Le Premier Cigarre, Les Beaux Jours de la Vie, by Honore Daumier.JPG
li Premier sigre, le byoo jors de la vi, dvaara honore daumiye.
chitr:Cigar Box Label - Old Judge.JPG
sanskruti mein sigaar, laaitar myoojiym ke ek sigaar box lebal se.

pramukh ameriki print media mein sigaaron ka chitran prashansaatmak roop se kiya jaata hai, ye aam taur par sigaaron ke istemaal ko ek svaasthya sambandhi jokhim ki bajaay ek aakarshak vyavasaaya ya ek paramparaagat (treindi) aadat ke roop mein dikhaate hain.[53] samruddh logon ka chitran aksar sir par hait aur tels lagaae aur sigaar peete hue kiya jaata hai. sigaaron ka dhoomrapaan aksar kisi vishesh avsar ka jashn manaane ke liye kiya jaata hai: bachche ka janm, snaatak hona, ek badi bikri ka avsar. "kloj bat no sigaar" ka kathan maidaan (feyaragraaunds) par achhe uddeshya vaale khelon ke dauraan sigaaron ko puraskaar svaroop dene ke chalan se nikla hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • sigaar braandon ki soochi
  • sigaar sambandhi aacharan
  • box-presd
  • cabinet chayan
  • dhoomrapaan jacket

paadalekh

  1. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=cigar&searchmode=none. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  2. Van Lancker JL (1977). "Smoking and disease" (PDF). NIDA Res Monogr (17): 230–88. PMID 417256. http://nida.nih.gov/pdf/monographs/17.pdf#page=243.
  3. a aa i "Frank, Michael "Wise old hands", ''Cigar Aficionado'' (Winter 1993)". Cigaraficionado.com. 1993-12-01. http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Archives/CA_Show_Article/0,2322,803,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  4. ""Tenement cigar making", ''New York Times'' (January 30, 1884)". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9F0CE7DF1238E033A25753C3A9679C94659FD7CF. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  5. a aa Hafner JW, Sturgis EM (2008). "The famous faces with oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer" (PDF). Tex Dent J 125 (5): 410–29. PMID 18561797. http://doep.org/ODU2008.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-05. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  6. baartalet mein etreebyoot, femiliyr koteshan 15th edishn 679
  7. Online Havana Cigars (2008). "Cigar Tips". http://www.onlinehavanacigars.com/pages/cigarTips.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-09.
  8. Stubbs J (2005). "Tobacco in the Contrapunteo: Ortiz and the Havana cigar". In Font MA, Quiroz AW (eds.). Cuban Counterpoints: the Legacy of Fernando Ortiz. Lexington. pp. 105–24. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0739109687.
  9. "The top 100 cigar smokers of the twentieth century". Cigar Aficionado. Nov/Dec 1999. http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Archives/CA_Show_Article/0,2322,1140,00.html.
  10. a aa Rarick CA (2008-04-02). Note on the premium cigar industry. SSRN. http://ssrn.com/abstract=1127582. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-02.
  11. "The Change at C.A.O. | Cigar Stars". Cigar Aficionado. 2004-04-01. http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Profiles/Cigar_Stars_Profile/0,2547,138,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  12. "Cigar Aficionado Magazine Cigar Hall of Fame". Cigaraficionado.com. 2002-12-01. http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Archives/CA_Show_Article/0,2322,1320,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  13. "Arturo Fuente Cigars | Buy Arturo Fuente Cigars | Fuente Cigars Online ~". Cigarsdirect.com. http://www.cigarsdirect.com/ProductCart/pc/viewCategories.asp?idcategory=784. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  14. a aa Baker F, Ainsworth SR, Dye JT et al. (2000). "Health risks associated with cigar smoking". JAMA 284 (6): 735–40. doi:10.1001/jama.284.6.735. PMID 10927783.
  15. DeSantis AD, Morgan SE (2003). "Sometimes a cigar [magazine] is more than just a cigar [magazine]: pro-smoking arguments in Cigar Aficionado, 1992–2000". Health Commun 15 (4): 457–80. doi:10.1207/S15327027HC1504_05. PMID 14557079.
  16. Wenger LD, Malone RE, George A, Bero LA (2001). "Cigar magazines: using tobacco to sell a lifestyle". Tob Control 10 (3): 279–84. doi:10.1136/tc.10.3.279. PMC 1747592. PMID 11544394.
  17. a aa i Delnevo CD, Hrywna M (2007). "'A whole 'nother smoke' or a cigarette in disguise: how RJ Reynolds reframed the image of little cigars". Am J Public Health 97 (8): 1368–75. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2006.101063. PMC 1931466. PMID 17600253.
  18. a aa Malone RE, Bero LA (2000). "Cigars, youth, and the Internet link" (PDF). Am J Public Health 90 (5): 790–2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.5.790. PMC 1446234. PMID 10800432. http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/90/5/790.pdf.
  19. a aa Slade J (1998). "Marketing and promotion of cigars". In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffman D, Cummings KM, Amacher RH (eds.) (PDF). Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. National Cancer Institute. pp. 195–219. http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/9/m9_7.PDF. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-11.
  20. Hayward WS, White P, Fleek HS, Mac Intyre H (1922). "The chain store field". Chain Stores: Their Management and Operation. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 16–31. OCLC 255149441.
  21. perelamaan, richrd, perelamaans pauket saaiklopeediya of sigaars perelamaan, paayoneer end company aaiesabeeen 1-893273-05-09 (2004) pej 12
  22. Frank, Michael, test end flevar, sigaar 101, sigaar efisionaado patrika
  23. Connolly GN (1998). "Policies regulating cigars". In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffman D, Cummings KM, Amacher RH (eds.) (PDF). Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. National Cancer Institute. pp. 221–32. http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/9/m9_8.PDF. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-15.
  24. a aa Delnevo CD (2006). "Smokers' choice: what explains the steady growth of cigar use in the U.S.?" (PDF). Public Health Rep 121 (2): 116–9. PMC 1525261. PMID 16528942. http://www.publichealthreports.org/userfiles/121_2/121116.pdf.
  25. laaiting sigaars aartikl, sigaarsa4dameej, 2009
  26. Post E (1984). Emily Post's Etiquette (14th san॰). New York: Harper & Row. pa॰ 88. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0061816833. OCLC 10322817. "Cigar smokers, because so many people dislike the smell, must be especially careful. Don't leave cigar butts in ashtrays. They do smell ..."
  27. a aa Bazemore R, Harrison C, Greenberg M (2006). "Identification of components responsible for the odor of cigar smoker's breath". J Agric Food Chem 54 (2): 497–501. doi:10.1021/jf0519109. PMID 16417311.
  28. Hoffmann D, Hoffmann I (1998). "Chemistry and toxicology". In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffman D, Cummings KM, Amacher RH (eds.) (PDF). Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. National Cancer Institute. pp. 55–104. http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/9/m9_3.PDF. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-15.
  29. Viegas CA (2008). "Noncigarette forms of tobacco use". J Bras Pneumol 34 (12): 1069–73. doi:10.1590/S1806-37132008001200013. PMID 19180343. http://scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-37132008001200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en.
  30. "Humidor Guide". http://www.humidor-guide.com. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-19.
  31. a aa Symm B, Morgan MV, Blackshear Y, Tinsley S (2005). "Cigar smoking: an ignored public health threat". J Prim Prev 26 (4): 363–75. doi:10.1007/s10935-005-5389-z. PMID 15995804.
  32. a aa Shanks TG, Burns DM (1998). "Disease consequences of cigar smoking". In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffman D, Cummings KM, Amacher RH (eds.) (PDF). Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. National Cancer Institute. pp. 105–160. http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/9/m9_4.PDF. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-21.
  33. Dollar KM, Mix JM, Kozlowski LT (2008). "Little cigars, big cigars: omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet". Nicotine Tob Res 10 (5): 819–26. doi:10.1080/14622200802027214. PMID 18569755.
  34. "Questions and answers about cigar smoking and cancer". National Cancer Institute. 2000-03-07. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Tobacco/cigars. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-21.
  35. Burns DM (1998). "Cigar smoking: overview and current state of the science". In Shopland DR, Burns DM, Hoffman D, Cummings KM, Amacher RH (eds.) (PDF). Cigars: Health Effects and Trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 9. National Cancer Institute. pp. 1–20. http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/9/m9_1.PDF. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-02.
  36. Mariolis P, Rock VJ, Asman K et al. (2006). "Tobacco use among adults—aUnited States, 2005". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55 (42): 1145–8. PMID 17065979. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5542a1.htm.
  37. Hagman BT, Delnevo CD, Hrywna M, Williams JM (2008). "Tobacco use among those with serious psychological distress: results from the national survey of drug use and health, 2002". Addict Behav 33 (4): 582–92. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.11.007. PMC 2696205. PMID 18158218.
  38. Gruskin EP, Greenwood GL, Matevia M, Pollack LM, Bye LL, Albright V (2007). "Cigar and smokeless tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population". Nicotine Tob Res 9 (9): 937–40. doi:10.1080/14622200701488426. PMID 17763109.
  39. Vander Weg MW, Peterson AL, Ebbert JO, Debon M, Klesges RC, Haddock CK (2008). "Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits". Addict Behav 33 (1): 69–82. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2007.07.005. PMC 2101765. PMID 17706889.
  40. Brooks A, Gaier Larkin EM, Kishore S, Frank S (2008). "Cigars, cigarettes, and adolescents". Am J Health Behav 32 (6): 640–9. doi:10.5555/ajhb.2008.32.6.640 (inactive 2008-06-25). PMID 18442343. http://www.atypon-link.com/PNG/doi/pdf/10.5555/ajhb.2008.32.6.640.
  41. RIVERA, Maricarmen (2002-04-29). "CUBAN GOLD GETS ROLLED IN VINELAND / STORE OFFERS CIGARS ROLLED BY CUBAN HANDS". The Press of Atlantic City. http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AC&p_theme=ac&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0F338C43ACDEC4B0&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-08.
  42. "Identifying Counterfeit Cuban Cigars". Decaturspirits.com. http://www.decaturspirits.com/cigars/fakecubans/. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  43. maaravin aar. shanken, "inasaaid kyooban sigaar: sigaar efisionaado intaravyooj kyoobaatabaakoj top official, Francisco pedron," sigaar efisionaado, vaulyoom 2, sankhya 3 (spring 1994), peepi 75-83.
  44. ""Kennedy, Cuba and Cigars"". Cigar Aficionado. 1992-09-01. http://www.cigaraficionado.com/Cigar/CA_Archives/CA_Show_Article/0,2322,862,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  45. Goodwin R (2000-07-05). "President Kennedy's plan for peace with Cuba". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0DEFDB1039F936A35754C0A9669C8B63. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-20.
  46. a aa Tad Gage (1997). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Cigars. Alpha Books. pa॰ 80. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780028619750. http://books.google.com/books?id=XA6UfOmVfAMC&pg=PA80. abhigman tithi: 2 August 2010.
  47. Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain) (1998). Country report: Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico. The Unit. http://books.google.com/books?id=x9iyAAAAIAAJ. abhigman tithi: 2 August 2010.
  48. Bret Saxon; Steve Stein (1 March 1998). The Art of the Shmooze. SP Books. pp. 224–30. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781561719761. http://books.google.com/books?id=m6QibvnDErMC&pg=PA229. abhigman tithi: 2 August 2010.
  49. Gould LE (2007-05-30). "Las Vegas cigar lounges roll out the welcome mat". Los Angeles Times. http://travel.latimes.com/articles/la-trw-vegas3jun03. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-11.
  50. "Office of Foreign Assets Control: "Cuban Cigar Update"" (PDF). http://www.treas.gov/offices/enforcement/ofac/programs/cuba/ccigar2.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2010-10-25.
  51. Steve Saka (2002-02-22). "The Ultimate Counterfeit Cuban Cigar Primer". http://www.cigarnexus.com/counsel/counterfeit. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-12.
  52. Karen Slama (1995). Tobacco and health. Springer Science & Business. pp. 78–. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780306451119. http://books.google.com/books?id=iomVoBt-qFcC&pg=PA78. abhigman tithi: 2 August 2010.
  53. Wenger L, Malone R, Bero L (2001). "The cigar revival and the popular press: a content analysis, 1987–1997" (PDF). Am J Public Health 91 (2): 288–91. doi:10.2105/AJPH.91.2.288. PMC 1446522. PMID 11211641. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1446522&blobtype=pdf.

baahya kadiyaan