siddhaant jyotish

'jyotish' (Astrology) shabd ka arth hai - jyoti, arthaat‌ prakaashapunj, sambandhi vivechan. ati praacheen kaal se hi isse us vidya ka bodh hota raha hai, jiska sambandh khagoleeya pindon, arthaat‌ grahanakshatron, ke vivechan se hai. ismein khagoleeya pindon ki sthiti, unke gatishaastr tatha unki bhautik rachana par vichaar kiya jaata hai.

anukram

parichay

atipraacheen kaal mein maanav ka dhyaan in aakaasheeya pindon ki or gaya aur usane sheegra hi yeh samajh liya ki grahanakshatron ki sthiti se vah dik‌, desh tatha kaal ka gyaan praapt kar sakta hai. sabse pehle usaka dhyaan soorya tatha chandrama ki or gaya aur unke saath hi un nakshatron ki or jinhein vah sthir jaanta tha aur jinki prushthabhoomi par vah soorya aur chandrama ki gatiyon ko naap sakta tha. visheshataya usane un kshetrapunjon ka adhyayan kiya jo soorya tatha chandrama drushya kakshaaon (aapparentorbits) ke aaspaas the. soorya ki drushya kaksha ke 27 bhaag karke unka naam ashvini, bharani aadi rakha aur usi ke tees tees anshon ke 12 bhaag karke unka raashinaam mesh, vrush aadi rakh diya. raashichkr ka adhyayan karte samay usane kuchh aise pind jo dekhne mein to taara sareekhe lagte the, kintu ve taaron ke saapeksh poorv ki taraf chalte dikhaai padte the. inka naam usane grah rakha. pruthvi ko sthir maana tatha soorya, chandra sahit paaainch chakshu drushya grahon, mangal, budh, bruhaspati, shukr tatha shani ka gyaan praapt kiya. isi se saptaah ke saat vaaron ka naam pada aur us panchaagapaddhati (calendar) ka janm hua jo abhi tak chali aa rahi hai. itna gyaan vishv ke kuchh deshon, visheshataya Bhaarat tatha grees ke nivaasiyon ko isa ki pehli athva doosari shataabdi tak ho chuka tha. vedh ke sookshm yantron ke abhaav tatha dhaarmik roodhiyon ke kaaran ismein pragati naheen ho saki. aadhunik jyotish ka janm koparniks ki sooryakeindrik pranaali ke siddhaant, gailileeyon ke dooradarshi, kepalar ke anubhoot (emperical) gatiniymon tatha nyootan ke vyaapak gurutvaakarshan siddhaanton se hua.

siddhaant ki drushti se ham jyotish ko teen bhaagon mein baaaint sakte hain :

  • sthitidyotak jyotish (Positional Astrology),
  • gatishaastreeya jyotish (Dynamical Astrology) tatha
  • bhautik jyotish (Physical Astrology).

sthitidyotak jyotish

iske dvaara kisi bhi khagoleeya pind ki bhoomisthit drashta ke saapeksh sthiti ko gyaat kiya jaata hai. iske liye ham ek bhookeindrik sthir khagol ki kalpana karte hain. pruthvi ke aksh ko yadi apni disha mein badha diya jaaya to vah jahaaain par khagol mein lagega use khagoleeya dhruv kaheinge. khagol ke us vrutt ko, jo khagoleeya dhruv tatha shirobindu se hokar jaayaga, yaamyottar vrutt kaheinge. yadi shirobindu se yaamyottar vrutt ke 90o ke chaap donon or kaat lein to un binduon se jaanevaale khagol ke vrutt ko khagoleeya kshitijvrutt tatha yaamyottar vrutt ke us sanpaat bindu ko, jo khagoleeya dhruv ki or hai, uttarabindu tatha doosari or ke sanpaatabindu ko dakshinbindu kaheinge. yadi khagoleeya dhruv se yaamyottar ke donon or 90o ko chaap kaatkar unase kisi khagoleeya vrutt ko kheenchein, to use khagoleeya vishuvadvrutt kehte hain. soorya ki drushya kaksha athva pruthvi ki vaastavik kaksha ko kraantivrutt kehte hain. kraantivrutt tatha khagoleeya vishuvad vrutt se 23o 28' ka kon banaata hai. kraantivrutt tatha khagoleeya vishuvadvrutt ke sanpaat ko vishuvabindu kehte hain. jis vishuvabindu par soorya lagbhag 21 March ko dikhaai padta hai. use vasantavishuv kehte hain. kisi bhi khagoleeya pind ki sthiti uske nirdeshaankon se gyaat heti hai. nirdeshaankon ke liye ek mool bindu, khagol ka vah bruhadavrutt jispar vah bindu hai, bruhadvrutt ka dhruv, tatha nirdeshaank ki dhan, rin dishaaon ka gyaan aavashyak hai. maan lein, hamein kisi taare ke niyaamak gyaat karne hain. yadi yaamyottaravrutt tatha khagoleeya vishuvadvrutt ke oopar abheesht taaraagaami ek samakonavrutt kheenche, to is vrutt par yaamyottar tatha vishuvadvrutt ke sapaat se pashchim ki or dhan disha maanane par jitna chaap ka ansh hoga vah usaka hora kon (Hour angle) tatha samakon vrutt ke mool se abheesht taara tak samakoneeya vrutt ke chaap ko kraanti kaheinge. kraanti yadi khagoleeya dhruv ki or hai to, dhan anyatha rin, hogi. yadi basantavishuv ko moolabindu maanein aur khagoleeya dhruv se vishuvadvrutt par samakon vrutt kheenchein to vishuvabindu se samakonavrutt ke mool tak, ghadi ki sooi ki ulti disha mein, jitne chaap ke ansh honge unhein vishuvaansh kaheinge. vishuvaansh tatha kraanti ke dvaara bhi khagoleeya pind ki sthiti ka gyaan hota hai. yeh nirdeshaank paddhati bahut mahatvapoorn hai. yadi shirobindu se isht khagoleeya pind par samakon vrutt kheenche to uttarabindu se ghadi ki sooi ki disha mein khagoleeya kshitij vrutt tatha samakonavrutt ke sanpaat ki doori (chaapeeya anshon mein) dirgash (azimuth) tatha samakon vrutt ke chaap ki kshitijvrutt se khagoleeya pind tak doori unnataansh hogi. yadi taara ke oopar kraantivrutt ke dhruv se ek samakonavrutt kheenche to vah jahaaain kraantivrut se lagega yahaaain tak vasantasanpaat se lekar ghadi ki sooi ki viruddh disha mein kraantivrutt ke chaap ke anshon ka bhogaansh tatha kataanabindu se taara tak samakonavrutt ke chaap ke anshon ko vikshep kaheinge. isi dhan disha kraanti ki tarah hogi. yadi vishuvasanpaat ke sthaan par aakaashaganga ke vishuvad tatha khagoleeya vishuvad ka sanpaatabindu lein tatha kraantivrutt ke dhruv ke sthaan par aakaashaganga ke vishuvadvrutt ka dhruv lein to hamein aakaashagangeeya bhogaansh tatha vikshep praapt honge. yadi vasantavishuv ko sthir maan lein, to soorya ke vasantabindu se chalakar pun: vahaaain pahuainchane ke samay ko naakshatr varsh kehte hain. yeh 365.25636 din ka hota hai. pruthvi ka aksh chal hone ke kaaran vishuvasanpaat prati varsh 50.2 ke lagbhag peechhe hat jaata hai. soorya ke chal vishuvasanpaat ki ek parikrama ke samay ko saayan varsh kehte hain. yeh 365.2422 din ka hota hai. vaastavik soorya ki gati ek si naheen dikhlaai deti. at: kaalaganana ke liye vishuvadvrutt mein ek gati se chalanevaale jyotish-maadhya-soorya ki kalpana ki jaati hai. uske ek yaamyottar gaman se doosare yaamyottar gaman ko maadhya-soorya-din kehte hain. hamaari ghadiyaaain yahi samay deti hain. vaastavasoorya tatha jyotish-maadhya-soorya ke horaakon ke antar ko kaalasameekaar kehte hain. vaayumandaleeya vartan, aperan, bhookeindrik lanban aur ayan tatha vidolan gati ke kaaran hamein ganit dvaara upalabdh sthaan se aakaashapind kuchh hate se dikhlaai dete hain. at: vaastavik sthiti ka gyaan karne ke liye hamein usamein upayukt sanshodhan karne padte hain.

gatishaastreeya jyotish

gatishaastreeya jyotish mein ham nyootan ke vyaapak gurutvaakarshan siddhaant ke prayog dvaara khagoleeya pindon ki gatiyon, kakshaaon aadi ka gyaan praapt karte hain. ismein ham saapeksh (relativistic) sanshodhan kar dete hain. iska safalataapoorvak prayog saur parivaar, yugm taara, tatha bahutaara paddhatiyon mein ho chuka hai.

bhautik jyotish

bhautik jyotish mein ham aakaasheeya pindon ki bhautik sthitiyon ka gyaan praapt karte hain. iske liye hamaare mukhya yantr varnakramadarshi, prakaashamaapi, tatha radio dooradarshi hain. varnakram vishleshan se ham aakaasheeya pind ke vaayumandal, taapamaan, moolatatv aadi ka gyaan praapt karte hain.

aakaasheeya pind

aakaasheeya pindon ko ham praaya: teen bhaagon mein baaaintate hain :

(1) soorya tatha uske parivaar ke sadasya,

(2) taare tatha

(3) aakaashagangaaeain

soorya

soorya hamaara niktatam taara hai. yeh gaison se bana gola hai, jiska vyaas 13,93,000 kilometer hai. iska maadhya (mean) vyaas 31' 59.3 0.1 hai, yeh saur parivaar ke kendra mein hai tatha iski dravyamaatra atyadhik hone ke kaaran yeh apne parivaar ke sadasyon ki gatividhi par poorn niyantran rakhata hai. iski pruthvi se doori nau karod 30 lakh meal ke lagbhag, athva (1.4960 ± .0003) ´ 108, kilometer ke tulya hai. ise jyautish ikaai kehte hain tatha saur parivaar ki kakshaaon ki dooriyaaain praaya: isi ikaai mein vyakt ki jaati hain. iski dravyamaatra (1.991 ± .002) ´ 1033, gram hai. iska saamaanya avastha mein ghanatv paani ke saapeksh 1.410 ± .002 hai. iske dharaatal ka gurutvaakarshan pruthvi ke gurutvaakarshan ka 27.89 guna hai. iske prushthatal ka taap 6,000 seino, kendra ka taap lagbhag 2,00,00,000 seino tatha prakaashamandal (Photosphere) ka lagbhag 5,000 seino hai. iska photo drusht (photovisual) kaantimaan (magnitude) - 26.73 ± .03 hai. soorya ke prushthatal ki chamak prati varg inch 15,00,000 kaindal power hai. iska nirpeksh kaantimaan 4.84 ± .03 hai. iske ghoornaaksh (axis of rotation) ka aanatikon 7° 15' hai. yeh prati second (3.86 ± 03)1033 arg oorja (energy) prasaarit karta hai. palaayan veg (velocityof escape) pruthvi ke prushthatal par 11 kilometer prati second tatha soorya ke prushth par 618 kilometer prati second hai. soorya ke tal par, apekshaakrut dhuaindhali prushtheebhoomi par, asankhya prakaashakan se dikhlaai dete hain, jo chaaval ke kanon sareekhein prateet hote hain. vastut: ve bahut ushn baadal hain jo apekshaakrut dhuaindhali prushthabhoomi par uda karte hain. soorya ke prakaash mandal mein dooradarshi se dekhne par bade bade kaale rang ke dhabbe dikhaai padte hain. ye prakaashamandal ke kam taap ke sthaan hain. inka taap lagbhag 4,000 keo hota hai. inhein sooryakalank kehte hain. inke vedh se pata chalta hai ki soorya pruthvi ke saapeksh apni dhuri ki 27.25 din mein parikrama karta hai. soorya ki apne aksh ke saapeksh parikrama ka nakshatrakaal 25.35 din hai. sooryakalankon ke paas kuchh chamakate bhaag bhi dikhlaai dete hain, inhein atibha (faculae) kehte hain. jahaaain sooryakalank hote hain vahaaain atibha avashya hote hain. soorya ka vaayumandal utkraman parat (Reversing layers) se praarambh hota hai. ise soorya ke vaastavik vaayumandal ka bhaag samajhna chaahiye. yeh sainkadon meal ghana hai tatha iska taap prakaashamandal se kam hai. ismein haaidrojan tatha heeliym ka aadhikya hai, nyoon maatra mein silikn, aaksajeen tatha anya parichit gaisein bhi mileingi. utkraman paraton ke oopar varnamandal (chromosphere) hai. yeh poorn grahan ke avsar par hi dikhlaai deta hai. iska vistaar 6,000 meal tak hai. ismein kailsiym, haaidrojan tatha heeliym paae jaate hain. iska vista ekaroop naheen hai. varnamandal mein soorya ki kuchh mahatvapoorn aakrutiyaaain hain jinmein se ek udti hui aag ki lapatein hain, jinhein saur jvaala kehte hain. kabhi kabhi ye soorya ke prakaashamandal se hajaaron meal oopar uthi dikhaai deti hain. poorn grahan ke avsar par jab soorya ka binb chandrama se poornataya dhak jaata hai tab varnamandal se oopar atyujval shubhr prakaash ka jo parivesh (halo) dikhaai deta hai use sooryakireet (corona) kehte hain.

saur parivaar

jo khagoleeya pind soorya ki parikrama karte hain ve saur parivaar ke sadasya hain. inmein grah (Planet), upagrah, kshudragrah (Asteroids), ghoomaketu (Comets) tatha ulkaaeain (Meteors) hain.

grah

ve khagoleeya laghu thos pind jo kisi taare ki, visheshataya soorya ki, parikrama karte hain grah hain. saur parivaar ke grah hain : budh, shukr, pruthvi, mangal, guru shani, vaaruni (Uranus) tatha varun (Neptune). inmein budh, shukr, pruthvi, mangal tatha yam chhote hain tatha guru, vaaruni aur varun vishaal hain. budh tatha shukr ki kakshaaeain soorya ke saapeksh pruthvi ki kaksha ke bheetar padti hai. at: inhein antargrah kehte hain. shesh bahirgrah hain.

grahon ki kakshaaeain

grah aisi deerghavruttaakaar kakshaaon mein bhraman karte hain, jinki ek naabhi mein soorya hai. donon naabhiyon se paridhi tak jaanevaali saral rekha ko deergh aksh (major axis) tatha deerghavrutt ke kendra se deergh aksh par lanb rekha ke paridhi paryant bhaag ko laghu aksh (minor axis) kehte hain. deerghavrutt paridhi ka vah bindu jo ravi ke nikat deergh aksh par sthit hai use ravineech, tatha jo bindu deergh aksh ke doosari or hai use sooryochch kehte hain. deergh aksh par sooryochch tatha ravineech sthiti hain, isaliye ise neechochch rekha kehte hain. ravineech se naabhi sthit soorya par paridhi ka kon konikaantar (Anomaly) kahalaata hai. grah ke ravineech athva sooryochch ke saapeksh parikrama kaal ko parivrsh kehte hain. grahon ki kakshaaeain kraantivrutt ke dharaatal mein naheen hain, kintu usase jhuki hui hain. grah ki kaksha tatha kraantivrutt ke sanpaatabindu ko paat kehte hain. jahaaain se grah kraantivrutt se oopar ki or jaata hai vah bindu arohapaat kahalaata hai tatha doosra aavarohapaat. aakaash mein grah ki sthiti jaanane ke liye hamein grah ka deergh aksh, utkeindrata (eccentricity), kaksha ki kraantivrutt se nati (inclination), nirdeshakshan (epoch), sooryochch ki sthiti tatha paat ki sthiti ka gyaan karna aavashyak hai. grahon mein ghoornan (rotation) tatha parikraman (revolution) ki do prakaar ki gatiyaaain pai jaati hain. ek to ve apne kaksha mein chalte hue soorya ki parikrama karte hain, ise unka parikraman kehte hain. jab koi grah kisi taare ke saapeksh soorya ki parikrama karta hai, to use usaka naakshatr kaal kehte hain. grah ke pruthvi ke saapeksh parikraman kaal ko sanyuti kaal kehte hain.

grahon ki pruthvi ke saapeksh gati

pruthvi ke nivaasiyon ko bahirgrah to pruthvi ki parikrama karte dikhlaai dete hain, kintu antargrah soorya se poorv tatha pashchim dolan (oscillation) karte dikhlaai dete hain. yeh unki kakshaaon ki vishesh sthiti ke kaaran hai. pruthvi ke saapeksh antargrah ki soorya se charamakoneeya doori ko charam vitaan (maximum elongation) kehte hain. jab antargrah soorya tatha pruthvi ko milaanevaali saral rekha mein hota hai to use grah ki antaryuti tatha jab antargrah tatha pruthvi ko milaanevaali saral rekha soorya ke kendra se hokar jaati hai to use bahiryuti kehte hain. bahirgrah ko pruthvi se milaanevaali rekha jab soorya mein se hokar jaati hai, to use sanyuti (conjuction) tatha jab grah pruthvi aur soorya ko milaanevaali rekha ke beech mein rahata hai to use grah ki viyuti (opposition) kehte hain. grah ki ek sanyuti se doosari sanyuti tak ke samay ko sanyutikaal kehte hain bahirgrahon ka yahi, pruthvi ke saapeksh, raashichkr ki parikrama ka kaal hota hai. antargrah praaya: pruthvi ki parikrama kaal mein hi raashichkr ki parikrama karte hain. apni kakshaaon mein gati ki disha ek hi hone ke kaaran antargrah antaryuti ke aasann tatha bahirgrah viyuti ke aasann kaal mein pruthvi ke saapeksh viruddh disha mein chalte prateet hote hain. is kaaran ye hamein raashichkr mein pashchim ki or jaate dikhlaai dete hain. yeh grahon ki vakragati hai. grahon ki, vakragati praapt karne ke kuchh samay poorv, pruthvi ke saapeksh gati sthir ho jaati hai. isse grah sthir se prateet hote hain. antaryuti athva viyuti ke samay mein grah ki vakr gati paramaadhik hoti hai1 uske kuchh kaal baad yeh kam hone lagti hai, fir grah sthir prateet hokar riju gati se chalte lagta hai.

grahakalaaeain

antargrahon ke prakaashit bhaag chandrama ki tarah kam tatha adhik prakaashit hote rahate hain aur ye kalaaeain praapt karte hain. inke aakaaron ke ati chhota hone ke kaaran bina yantr ke inki kalaaeain dikhlaai naheen padteen. bahirgrahon ki kalaaeain sada ardhaadhik rahati hai.

upagrah

jas prakaar grah soorya ke gurutvaakarshan ke kaaran soorya ki parikrama karte hain, usi prakaar upagrah grahon ki parikrama karte hain. vyaapak gurutvaakarshan niyam se yeh spasht hai ki inki dravyamaatraaeain apne grahon se kam hoti hain. pruthvi ke upagrah ka chandrama kehte hain. chandrama ka hamaare jeevan se bahut sambandh hai. dhaarmik krutyon ke liye abhi bahut se deshon mein chaandr maason ka vyavahaar kiya jaata hai. chandrama ko praacheen kaal mein grah maana jaata tha. pruthvi ke atirikt mangal ke do, guru ke 12, shani ke 9, vaaruni (yoorenas) ke 5, tatha varun (nepchoon) ke 2 upagrah hain. budh, shukr tatha yam ka koi bhi upagrah naheen hai1

grahan tatha taaraaprachhaadan

jab chandrama pruthvi aur soorya ke beech mein aa jaata hai to amaavasya ke din pruthvi par drushya soorya ka bhaag usase dhak jaata hai. ise sooryagrahan kehte hain. isi prakaar jab poornima ki raat mein chandrama pruthvi ki chhaaya mein pravisht hokar prakaashaheen ho jaata hai to use chandragrahan karte hain. soorya tatha chandrama ke grahan bahut prasiddh hain. soorya ke grahanon se soorya ke vaayumandal tatha kireet ki prakruti ke adhyayan mein bahut sahaayata milti hai. guru ke upagrahon ke grahanon ke adhyayan se sarvapratham prakaash ke veg ko gyaat kiya gaya. chandrama dvaara taaraaon ke dhake jaane ko taaraaprachhaadan (occulation) kehte hain (dekhein - grahan)!

kshudragrah

bode ne grahon ki soorya se dooriyaaain jyautisheeya ikaai mein gyaat karne ke liye nimnalikhit niyam bataaya tha--

doo 0.4 + 0.3 ´ 2n, jahaaain na = - ¥, 0,1,2,3,4,........isse budh ki doori 0.4, shukr ki doori = 0.7, pruthvi ki doori --1.0 tatha mangal ki doori 1.6 praapt hui.

yahaaain tak to praaya: theek hai, kintu guru ki doori is niyam se theek naheen baithati. parantu yadi ham beech mein kisi aur grah ki kalpana kar lein, to shesh grahon ki dooriyaaain is niyam se theek baith jaati hain. isaliye jyotishiyon ne mangal tatha guru ki kaksha ke beech anya grah ki khoj shuroo ki. isse unhein bahut se kshudragrah mile. sarvapratham kshudragrah seeto ka aavishkaar January, 1801 isavi mein Italy ke jyotishi piyaaji ne kiya tha. san‌ 1950 mein kshudragrahon ki sankhya 1,600 tak pahuainch gayi thi. anumaan hai ki inki sankhya 1,00,000 hogi.

dhoomaketu

ye ati nyoon ghanatvavaali dravyamaatra ke bane aakaasheeya pind hain, jo soorya ke sameep aane par soorya se vipreet disha mein bahut door tak puchh jaise apne bhaag ko prakaashit karte hain. inke aakaar ko mukhyataya do bhaagon mein baaainta jaata hai. golaakaar ghane prakaashit bhaag ko sir tatha halake prakaashit bhaag ko puchh kehte hain. sir mein inka naabhik hota hai. ye soorya ke niyantran mein shaankav maargon mein jaate hain. inmein kuchh ki kakshaaeain paravalayaakaar tatha atipravalayaakaar dikhlaai padti hain, jisse prateet hota hai ki kadaachit‌ guru ne apne aakarshan ke kaaran inhein saur parivaar ka sadasya bana liya. bahut se dhoomaketu deerghavruttaakaar kakshaaon mein niytakaal mein parikraman karte hain. inmein haili (Halley) ka dhoomaketu prasiddh hai. dhoomaketuon ki gati par guru ka atyadhik prabhaav padta hai. iske kaaran inki kaksha badal jaati hai. praacheen kaal mein dhoomaketu ka dikhaai padna anisht ka soochak maana jaata tha.

ulkaaeain

bahudha raatri ke samay kuchh chamakeele padaarth pruthvi ki or ativeg se aate dikhaai dete hain. inhein taara ka tootana ya ulkaapaat kehte hain. ulkaaeain hamein tabhi dikhlaai deti hain jab ye ativeg se pruthvi ke vaayumandal mein ghusati hain. inka veg 11 se lekar 62 kilometer prati second tak rahata hai. ye jab hamaare dharaatal se 100 tatha 120 kilometer ki doori ke bheetar hoti hain to hamein pratham baar dikhlaai padti hain aur 50 ya 60 kilometer ki doori tak aane par adrushya ho jaati hain. vastut: pruthvi ke ghane vaayumandal mein ativeg se ghusne par inke dravya mein aag utpann ho jaati hai aur ye jal jaati hain. inki dravyamaatra atyalp hoti hai. kabhi kabhi ulkaaeain jab pruthvi par girti hain to bade bade gaddhe bana deti hain. yadi hamaara vaayumandal hamaari raksha na kare, to ulkaapaat se pruthvi tatha hamaari bahut haani ho (dekhein ulka).

taare

ye garam gaison se svayanprakaashit khagoleeya pind hain, jo apne dravya ko niji gurutvaakarshan se sambaddh rakhate hain. taaron ke samooh ek vishesh aakruti dhaaran kar lete hain, inhein taaraamandal (constellations) kehte hain. kraantivrutt ke kshetr ke taaraamandalon ko raashi kehte hain, jo mesh, vrush, mithun aadi 12 hain. sarpadhar (Ophiuchus) ka kuchh bhaag vrushchik tatha dhanu raashiyon ke beech mein hai. kraantivrutt tatha khagoleeya dhruv ke beech 21 tatha sarpadhar ke shesh bhaag aur kraantivrutt tatha dakshini khagoleeya dhruv ke beech 47 taaraamandal hain. antararaashtreeya pranaali mein inke kuchh naam greek puraanakathaaon par aadhaarit hain tatha kuchh ke naam arabi ke hain. nakshatron ke ashvini, bharani, mrugashira aadi ke bhaarateeya naam bhi puraanakathaaon se sambaddh hain. raashiyon mein taarein ki chamak ke kram ko bataane ke liye greek varnamaala ka prayog kiya jaata hai. jis taaraamandal mein taaron ki sankhya varnamaala ke aksharon se adhik hoti hai, unki chamak ke kram ko ankon dvaara bhi vyakt kiya jaata hai. pratyek kaantimaan (magnitude) apne agale kaantimaan se 2.5 guna adhik chamakeela hota hai. kaantimaan jitna kam hoga utana hi taaron ki saapeksh chamak 2.5 guna badh jaaegi. is prakaar 1 se 6 tak kaantimaan ke taaron ki chamak ka anupaat 100 : 40 : 16 : 6.3 : 2.5 : 1 hoga. taaron ke rang se unke taap ka gyaan hota hai. bina yantr ke dekhne se bhi rang ka pata chal jaata hai, kintu sookshm gyaan ke liye rangaprabhaavi (colour sensitive) lep (emulsion) waali fotograafi ki pleton, filmon tatha varnakramadarshi fotograafi ka prayog kiya jaata hai. keval aaainkh se drushya taaron ki sankhya lagbhag 6,500 hai. inmein lagbhag 20 taare 1 se 1.5 kaantimaan ke lagbhag, 50 taare dviteeya, 150 taare truteeya, 500 taare chaturth, 1,500 taare pancham tatha shesh taare chhathe kaantimaan ke hain. keval aaainkh se, chhathe kaantimaan se kam chamakeele taare naheen dekhe ja sakte. 200 inch vyaas ke dooradarshi ki sahaayata se 23vein kaantimaan tak ke taare dekhe ja sakte hain. ab tak bade dooradarshiyon dvaara dekhe gaye hamaari aakaashaganga ke taaron ki sankhya 1011 hai. taaron ki gatiyon ko do bhaagon mein baaaint dete hain. ek to vah, jisse hamaare dekhne ki disha mein aage peechhe hatate hain, doosari vah, jisse taare atidooravarti taaron ke saapeksh kisi disha mein hatate dikhaai dete hain. pratham ko trijyaaveg (radial velocity) tatha dviteeya ko niji gati (proper motion) kehte hain. donon vegon ka labdhaveg taara ka vaastavik veg hota hai. trijyaaveg ko varnakram ki laal rekhaaon ke vichlan se daupalar ke niyam dvaara jaana jaata hai, tatha niji gati ko kuchh varshon ke antaraal se liye gaye fotograafon dvaara. taaron ki niji gati bahut kam hoti hai. jyotishi barnaard ne sabse adhik niji gativaale taare ki vaarshik niji gati 10.3 gyaat ki hai. taaron ki dooriyaaain naapane ke liye vaarshik lanban ka prayog kiya jaata hai. pruthvi ki kaksha ka vyaas yadi aadhaar maan lein aur sheershabindu par taare ko maanein to sheershabindu par bana kon dvigun vaarshik lanban hoga. iske liye ek taare ke, chh: maheene ke antar par, do vedh lene padte hain. kisi bhi taare ka vaarshik lanban 1.00 se adhik naheen. jis taare ka lanban 1.00 ho vah hamse pruthvi ki kaksha ke ardhavyaas ke 2,06,265 guna doori par hota hai. is doori ko ek paarasek kehte hain. taaron ki dooniyaaain itni adhik hain ki unke liye paarasek ikaai ka kaam deta hai. taaron ki dooriyaaain naapane ke liye prakaashavarsh bhi ikaai ke roop mein prayukt hota hai. prakashavarsh vah doori hai jise prakaash apni gati (1,86,000 meal prati second) se ek varsh mein tay karta hai. yeh 58,60,00,00,00,000 meal hai tatha paarasek ka 0.307 hai. ati sameep ke nakshatron ka vaarshik lanban soorya ke saapeksh niji gati ke gyaan dvaara, yugm taaron ka gatishaastr dvaara tatha shesh ka varnakramadarshi vidhi dvaara gyaat kiya jaata hai. taaron ke aakaar ke adhaar par unke atidaanavaakaar (supergiant), danavaakaar (giant), saamaanyakram (main sequence) tatha vaamanaakaar (dwarf) bhed kiye jaate hain. inka aakaar uttarottar chhota hota jaata hai. navataara (Nova) navajaat taara hota hai. vastut: yeh pehle se vidyamaan hota hai, jismein visfot ho chuka hota hai. navataara ki visheshata yeh hai ki ekaaek ati prakaashit hokar visfutit ho jaata hai. kuchh taaron ka prakaash niyat kram se badhta ghatata rahata hai. inhein chal taare kehte hain. inmein sifiys chaturth (d-cepheus) tatha aar aar laaira kram ke taare mahatvapoorn hain. sifiys chaturth ki shreni ke taaron ko sifeed kehte hain. inmein prakaash ke utaar chadhaav ka unke kaal se nishchit sambandh (period luminosity relation) rahata hai. jahaaain aise taare paae jaate hain yahaaain is sambandh se taaraapunj ki doori gyaat karna saral hota hai. aar aar laaira taare praaya: samaan ooainchaai par rahate hain. inse aakaashaganga pranaali ki doori gyaat karne mein sahaayata mili hai. nakshatron ke tal (surface) ka taap gyaat karne ke liye jyotirmiti (fotometri) dvaara varnajnyaaan praapt kiya jaata hai. is prakaar laal rang ke taaron ke tal ka taap 2,000o-3,000o keo, naarangi rang ke taaron ka 3,000o-5000o keo aur neele rang ke taaron ka 12,000o-20,000o-30,000o keo athva aur oopar hota hai. vastut: rangon ka theek gyaan varnakramadarshi (spectroscopic) vidhi se hota hai. iseeliye taap ke liye varnakramadarshi ke aadhaar par taaron ke bhed ko angreji varnamaala ke bade aksharon se vyakt karte hain. is prakaar taaron ke varnadarshi kram se O, bi, A, ef, ji, ke M, aar, N, S, bhed kiye jaate hain. inke upabhedon ko vyakt karne ke liye angreji varnamaala ke A se i tak ke laghu aksharon, athva shoonya se 9 tak ke ankon, ka prayog karte hain. kuchh taare jodon (doubles) mein hote hain. inmein saathi taare par saamaanya gurutvaakarshan niyam ka prayog karke uske akaar, dravyamaatra aadi ka gyaan praapt kiya ja sakta hai. kisi bhi vaamanaakaar taare ki dravyamaatra soorya ki dravyamaatra ke 0.1 se kam naheen pai gayi. soorya ki dravyamaatra se dasaguni dravyamaatra vaale daanavaakaar taare bhi ine gine hi hain. shesh ki dravyamaatra in do seemaaon ke bheetar rahati hai. taaron ka ghanatv aayatan ka vyutkramaanupaati hota hai. isi kaaran daanavaakaar taaron ka ghanatv kam hota hai. jyeshtha taare ka ghanatv, jiska vyaas soorya ke vyaas ka 480 guna hai aur jiski dravyamaatra soorya ke 20 gune se adhik naheen hai, saadhaaran vaayu ke 0.0001 ke baraabar hai. ausat taaron ke mool tatvon mein 70% haaidrojan, 28% heeliym, 1.5% kaarban, naaitrojan, okseejan tatha niyon aur .5% lauh varg ke bhaari tatv hote hain. taaron ke kendra ki bheeshan garmi se haaidrojan ke anu heeliym ke anuon mein parivrtit hote rahate hain. is aanavik pratikriya mein kuchh dravyamaatra oorja mein parivrtit ho jaata hai, jisse taaron ko aseem oorja praapt hoti rahati hai. iska ye prakaash ke roop mein vitran karte rahate hain. isi prakriya ke aadhaar par taaron ki aayu ka nirnaya kiya jaata hai. atyadhik prakaashamaan taaron ki ausat aayu 106 varsh, saamaanya kram ke taaron ki 1010 se lekar 1013 varsh tak ki hoti hai.

hamaari aakaashaganga

yeh krushnapaksh ki kisi raatri mein uttar se dakshin ki or faili hui, dhuaindhale chamakeele nakshatron ki ek chaudi mekhala si dikhlaai deti hai. aakaashaganga ka poorvaardh hans (Cygnus), dhanu (Sagittarius) mein se hota hua Kareena (Carina) tak faila hai aur doosare ardhaansh ki apeksha, jo hans, mrugashira (Orion) tatha Kareena ya nautal tak faila hai, atyadhik chamakeela hai. aakaashaganga dhanu ke sameep adhiktam chaudi tatha adhiktam chamakeeli hai.

aakaashaganga ki mekhala ke beech se khagol ka jo bruhadvrutt jaata hai use aakaashagangeeya vishudvrutt kehte hain. aikvila, athva garud, naamak taaraamandal ke sameep khagoleeya vishuvadvrutt se lagbhag 62o ka kon banaata hai. isi bindu ko ham aakaashagangeeya niyaamakon ka mool bindu maanate hain (dekhein - aakaashaganga).

aakruti

hamaari aakaashaganga sarpil (spiral) aakaar ki hai. iska naabhik (nucleus) soorya se lagbhag 2,700 prakaashavarsh ki doori par dhanu raashi mein sthit hai. iske aakaashagangeeya niyaamak, bhogaank 328o tatha vikshep 0o athva - 2o, hain. soorya usaki baahari bhuja mein hai. iske vishuvadvrutt ka vyaas lagbhag 10,00,000 prakaashavarsh hai. iske keindreeya bhaag mein taaron ki sankhya bahut adhik hai. jyon jyon kendra se door hatate jaate hain, taaron ki sankhya kam hoti jaati hai. aakaashaganga mein lagbhag 1011 taare honge. iski dravyamaatra soorya ki dravyamaatra ki 1011 hai. atishktishaali dooradarshi se dekhne par bahut se khagoleeya padaarth, paryaapt bhaag mein, chamakadaar chhote chhote prakaashakanon se prakaashit dikhlaai dete hain. inmein se kuchh hamaari aakaashaganga ki tarah swayam vishvadveep hain. isaliye inka adhyayan karna bhi aavashyak hai. in padaarthon ko ham in bhaagon me baaaint sakte hain : neehaarikaaeain, taaraaguchh, taaraamegh tatha aakaashagangaaeain. neehaarikaaeain gas se bane megh hoti hain, jinke anu paas ke kisi bahut ushn taare ke prakhar prakaash ke kaaran aayaneekrut (ionised) hokar chamakane lagte hain. ye prakaashit neehaarikaaeain kahalaati hain, jaise mrugashira ki neehaarika. jin gas meghon ko kisi ushn nakshatr ki oorja naheen milti unke anu prakaashit naheen ho paate aur ve anya taaron ke prakaash ke avarodhak ho jaate hain. paas ke prakaashit bhaag ki apeksha ve bhaag andhakaarapoorn hote hain. aisi kaali aakruti ko kaali neehaarika kehte hain, jaise ashvasir (Horse head) neehaarik. praarambh mein neehaarika shabd ka arth aspasht tha tatha bade dooradarshi se kisi bhi dhuaindhale, ya adhik prakaashit kshetr, ko neehaarika kah dete the, jaise devayaani (Andromeda) neehaarika. kintu vah neehaareeka na hokar swayam aakaashaganga hai.

taaraaguchh

kuchh taaron ke samooh yantr bina dekhne par prakaash ke dhabbe se prateet hote hain, jinse kuchh chhote taare tatha ekaadh chamakeela taara dikhlaai padta hai. dooradarshi yantr se dekhne par inmein saikadon taare tatha ek do neehaarika jaise padaarth bhi dikhlaai dete hain, jaise kruttika taaraaguchh. taaraaguchh ke taare praaya: ek si niji gati se chalte dikhlaai dete hain. taaraaguchh do prakaar ke hote hain : aakaashagangeeya taaraaguchh tatha goleeya (globular) taaraaguchh. kruttika taaraaguchh aakaashagangeeya taaraaguchh hai tatha bina yantr ke dikhlaai pad jaata hai. ek aakaashagangeeya taaraaguchh mein kuchh sau se lekar kuchh hajaar tak chamakeele taare dikhlaai pad jaate hain. aakaashagangeeya taaraaguchh aakaashaganga ke dharaatal mein ya uske paas rahate hain. chamakeele taaraaguchh aakaashaganga ke dharaatal se 100 se lekar 1,000 prakaashavarshon tak ki doori par sthit hain, kintu adhikaansh 1,000 se 15,000 prakaashavarshon ki doori par sthit hain. goleeya (globular) taaraaguchh aakaashaganga ke dharaatal se door hote hain. niktatam goleeya taaraaguchh 20,000 prakaashavarsh ki doori par hoga. inmein hajaaron taare hote hain, jo gol ke kendra ke paas lagbhag is prakaar ikatthe rahate hain ki inhein bade dooradarshi se dekhne par bhi unki aakruti spasht naheen dikhlaai padti. goleeya taaraaguchh ki aakruti lagbhag golaakaar rahati hai, jiska vyaas lagbhag 100 prakaashavarsh hota hai. inka ghana keindreeya bhaag 5 prakaashavarshon ke lagbhag hota hai. (dekhein - taaraaguchh).

taaraamegh

khagol mein kaheen kaheen chamakeele bhaag meghaakaar prateet hote hain. bade dooradarshi se dekhne par inmein asankhya taare dikhlaai padte hain. inmein se kuchh aakaashagangaaeain hain. do taaraamegh prasiddh hain. bada megalaanik taaraamegh tatha chhota megalaanik. megh vastut: aakaashagangaaeain hain, jo hamaari apni aakaashaganga ke niktatam hain. apni aakaashaganga ke adhyayan se hamein anya aakaashagangaaon ka pata chala hai evam hamaari kuchh galat dhaaranaaeain bhi door hui hain. pratyek neehaarika aakaashaganga naheen hai, yadyapi kuchh aakaashagangaaeain aisi bhi hain jinhein ham neehaarika samajhe baithe the.

aakaashagangaaeain kai prakaar ki hoti hai : sarpil, deerghavruttaakaar tatha aniyamit. devayaani (Andromeda) aakaashaganga hamaari aakaashaganga ki hi bhaaainti sarpil aakaar ki hai. aakaashaganga ke adhyayan se hamein vishv ki seema tatha usaki utpatti evam vikaas ke gyaan mein sahaayata milti hai. hamaare bade se bade dooradarshak bhi vishv ki antim seema tak naheen pahuainch sake hain, tathaapi aakaashaganga ke trijyaavegon ke adhyayan se humne itna jaan liya hai ki abhi vishv ka vistaar ho raha hai. yeh lemitre tatha edingatan ka mat hai. isi siddhaant ke aadhaar par anumaan hai ki vishv ki utpatti kadaachit‌ 10 varsh poorv hui hogi.

hamaara jyotish ka vartamaan gyaan bhootal par lage yantron se praapt hua hai. inki apni seema hai. iseeliye hamaara gyaan bhi seemit hai. pichhle kuchh varshon se vigyaan mein nae nae prayog ho rahe hain. gubbaaron par dooradarshiyon ko bahut ooaincha bhejane ka prayaas kiya ja raha hai. raaainket tatha krutrim upagrah pruthvi ke vaayumandal ke agyaat tatvon tatha saur parivaar ke sookshm padaarthon ke adhyayan ka saadhan ban rahe hain. bade bade rediyon dooradarshi tatha raadaar yantr jyotish ko nai disha dikhla rahe hain. isse yeh aasha ki ja rahi hai ki hamein nikat bhavishya mein khagol ke bahut se naveen rahasyon ka gyaan praapt ho sakega.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain