shuturamurg

shuturamurg
jeevaashm kaal: pleistocene–present
PreЄ
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Pleistocene to Recent
नर व मादा
nar va maada
sanrakshan sthiti
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: jantu
sangh: rajjuki
upasangh: kasheruki
varg: pakshi
suparaordar: pailioganathi
gan: struthiofaurmees
kul: struthionidi
prajaati: struthio
jaati: ऍs. kaimils
(leeniys, 1758)[2]
dvipd naam
struthio kaimils
(leeniys, 1758)
शुतुरमुर्ग का आवास क्षेत्र
shuturamurg ka aavaas kshetr

ऍs. si. ostrailas (garni,1868)[2]
dakshini shuturamurg
ऍs. si. kaimils (leeniys, 1758)[2]
uttar afreeki shuturamurg

ऍs. si. masaikas
(nyumaan, 1898)[2]
masaai shuturamurg

ऍs. si. siriऍkas
(rauthachaaild, 1919)[2]
arabi shuturamurg

ऍs. si. maulibdaufainees
(raaikhanaau, 1883)[2]
somaali shuturamurg

shuturamurg (Struthio camelus) pehle madhya poorv aur ab Africa ka nivaasi ek bada udaan rahit pakshi hai. yeh struthionidi (en:Struthionidae) kul ki ekamaatr jeevit prajaati hai, iska vansh struthio (en:Struthio) hai. shuturamurg ke gan, struthiofaurm ke anya sadasya emu, kiwi aadi hain. iski gardan aur pair lambe hote hain aur aavashyakta padne par yeh 70 kimi/ghanta[3] ki adhiktam gati se bhaag sakta hai jo is pruthvi par paaye jaane vaale kisi bhi anya pakshi se adhik hai.[4]shuturamurg pakshion ki sabse badi jeevit prajaatiyon me se hai aur yeh kisi bhi anya jeevit pakshi prajaati ki tulana mein sabse bade ande deta hai.
praay: shuturamurg shaakaahaari hota hai lekin uske aahaar mein akasheruki bhi shaamil hote hain. yeh khaanaabadosh guton mein rahata hai jiski sankhya paaainch se pachaas tak ho sakti hai. sankat ki avastha mein ya to yeh jameen se sat kar apne ko chhupaane ki koshish karta hai ya fir bhaag khada hota hai. fains jaane par yeh apne pairon se ghaatak laat maar sakta hai. sansarg ke tareeke bhaugolik ilaakon ke mutaabik bhinn hote hain, lekin kshetreeya nar ke haram mein do se saat maadaaeain hoti hain jinke liye vah jhagada bhi karte hain. aamtaur par yeh ladaaiyaaain kuchh minute ki hi hoti hain lekin sar ki maar ki vajah se inmein vipakshi ki maut bhi ho sakti hai.
aaj duniya bhar mein shuturamurg vyaavasaayik roop se paale ja rahe hain mukhyat: unke pankhon ke liye, jinka istemaal sajaavat tatha jhaadoo banaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. iski chamadi charm utpaad[5] tatha iska maans vyaavasaayik taur se istemaal mein laaya jaata hai.[6]

anukram

vivran


praay: shuturamurg ka vajn 60 se 130 ki. ka hota hai,[7][8]lekin kuchh nar ko 160 ki. tak ka bhi paaya gaya hai.[8]vayask nar ke pankh praay: kaale hote hain aur mukhya tatha pooainchh ke par safed hote hain, haalaanki ek upajaati ki pooainchh baadaami rang ki hoti hai. maada tatha avayask ke sleti-bhoore ya safed hote hain. nar aur maada ka sar kreeb-kreeb ganja hota hai, siva paron ki ek patali si part ke.[7][9] maada ki gardan aur jangha ki tvacha gulaabi-sleti hoti hai,[9]jabki nar ki — upajaati ke anusaar — neeli-sleti, sleti ya gulaabi ho sakti hai.
lambi gardan aur taangon ke kaaran iski lanbaai 1.8 se 2.75 mi. tak ho sakti hai, tatha iski aaainkhein jmeeni kasheruki jeevon mein sabse badi bataayi jaati hain – 50 mi.mi. ki. at: yeh door se hi parabhakshiyon ko dekh leta hai aur unase bachane ki kaarravaai kar leta hai. oopar se aane vaale soorya prakaash se iski aaainkhon ka bachaav hota hai, kyonki iski aaainkhon ki oopari palakein bahut ghani hoti hain.[10][11]
upajaati ke anusaar inki tvacha ka rang bhinn hota hai. inki taangon mein baal athva par naheen hote hain. ghutne se neeche inki tvacha mein shalkanuma dhaariyaaain hoti hain - nar mein laal tatha maada mein kaali.[8]shuturamurg ke paanv mein keval do hi anguliyaaain hoti hain (anya pakshiyon mein yeh sankhya chaar hai). keval andar waali anguli mein naakhoon hota hai, jo ki khur ke samaan prateet hota hai. baahar waali anguli bina naakhoon ke hoti hai.[12]shaayad kam anguliyon ka hona shuturamurg ko tej daudne mein madad karta ho kyonki shuturamurg lagbhag 30 minute tak 70 ki॰mee॰ prati ghanta ki raftaar se lagaataar bhaag sakta hai. pankhon ka failaav lagbhag do meter ka hota hai[13] aur sansarg nrutya tatha choojon ko dhoop se bachaane mein istemaal kiye jaate hain. praay: sabhi udne vaale pakshiyon ke paron mein chhote huk hote jo udte samay saare paron ko ekabaddh kar lete hain, lekin shuturamurg ke paron mein inka abhaav hota hai aur iske par mulaayam tatha royeindaar hote hain aur mausam rodhak ka kaam karte hain. iski poonchh mein 50-60 par hote hain aur pankhon mein 16 pradhaan par, 4 krutrim par tatha 20-23 gaun par hote hain.[8] shuturamurg ki urosthi chapati hoti hai aur ismein ubhaar naheen hote jinki madad se udne vaale pakshiyon ke pankhon ke snaayu jude hote hain.[14] chonch chapati aur chaudi hoti hai tatha sire par gol hoti hai.[7]anya thalachar pakshiyon ki tarah shuturamurg ke na to kraup (gale ke neeche bhojan sanyachaya thaili) hoti hai aur na hi pittaashaya.[15] iske teen pet hote hain. anya vartamaan jeevit pakshiyon ke vipreet shuturamurg peshaab aur mal ka tyaag alag-alag karta hai.[16]
yaun paripkvata do se chaar saal ki umr mein hoti hai. is umr mein nar kareeb 1.8 se 2.8 mi. tatha maada kareeb 1.7 se 2 mi. ooainche ho jaate hain. jeevan ke pehle varsh chooje prati maah ausatan 25 se.mi. ki dar se badhte hain. ek varsh ki umr ka shuturamurg ausatan 45 ki. ka hota hai. iska jeevanakaal 40 se 45 varsh ka hota hai.

vyavahaar

saamaajik aur mausami vyavahaar

naachate huye joda

shuturamurg sardiyaaain praay: ekaaki ya jodon mein gujaarate hain. keval 16 pratishat aise maamale hain jinmein do se adhik pakshi ek saath dekhe gaye hon.[8] prajanan kaal mein ya atyadhik sukhe ki avastha mein yeh khaanaabadosh samooh bana lete hain jinmein pakshiyon ki sankhya 5 se 50 tak ho sakti hai jo mukhya maada ke netrutv mein anya charane vaale jeevon, jaise jeebra aur hirn ke saath ghoomate hain.[13] shuturamurg praay: din mein vichran karne wala jeev hai, lekin isko chaaaindani raaton ko bhi khaane ki talaash karte huye dekha ja sakta hai. subah tadke ya godhuli vela mein yeh sabse sakriya hota hai.[8] nar shuturamurg ka ilaaka 2 se 20 varg ki. mi. ka hota hai.[9]
apni teekshn drushti aur shravan shakti ke kaaran yeh parabhakshiyon, jaise Singh, ko door se hi bhaanp leta hai. parabhakshiyon dvaara peechha kiye jaane par shuturamurg 70 ki. mi. prati ghanta ki adhik gati se bhaagte huye bataaye gaye hain aur 50 ki. mi. prati ghanta ki niyamit gati bana sakte hain jo inko dvipd charit jeevon mein sabse gativaan bana deta hai.[17] jab shuturamurg jameen par letata hai ya parabhakshiyon se chhupata hai to vah apne sar aur gardan jameen se sapaat kar leta hai aur door se parabhakshiyon ko aisa prateet hota hai ki vah mitti ka ek dher hai. aisa nar ke saath bhi hota hai ki vah apne pankh aur pooainchh jameen se itna sata le ki mrug mareechika mein — jahaaain garm aur umas ka vaataavaran ho aur jahaaain shuturamurg ka aamtaur par vaas hota hai — vah ek aspasht dhele ke samaan nazar aata hai.
chunauti mein shuturamurg bhaag jaata hai, kintu bhaagte-bhaagte vah apne shaktishaali pairon se ghaatak vaar bhi kar sakta hai.[13] iski taangein keval aage ko hi vaar kar sakti hain.[18] maanyata ke vipreet shuturamurg apna sar ret ke andar naheen chhupaata hai.[19]

bhojan

mukhyat: yeh beej, ghaas, chhote ped-paudhe, fal aur fool khaata hai.[8][9] lekin kabhi kabhaar vah keet bhi kha leta hai. daaaint naheen hone ke kaaran vah khaana saabut nigl jaata hai. usako pachaane ke liye use kankad khaane padte hain taaki khaana pet mein jaakar bhali-bhaaainti pis jaaye. ek vayask shuturamurg apne pet mein lagbhag 1 ki. kankad lekar chalta hai. yeh bina paani ke kai din tak jeevit rah sakta hai kyonki jo paudhe ityaadi isne khaaye hote hain unase hi yeh apne shareer ke jal ki aapoorti kar leta hai, lekin jab bhi paani upalabdh hota hai to yeh use peene ke liye laalaayit rahata hai aur mauka milne par snaan bhi kar leta hai.[13]
shuturamurg taapamaan ka bheeshan utaar-chadhaav bardaasht kar lete hain. inke aavaas ke adhiktar kshetr mein din aur raat ke taapamaan mein 40° se. tak badlaav dekhne ko milta hai.

prajanan

sereingeti, tanjaaniya mein ek maada ande seti huyi

shuturamurg 2 se 4 varsh ki aayu mein yaun paripkvata praapt kar lete hain. maada nar se lagbhag chh: maas pehle hi paripakva ho jaati hai. yeh prajaati apne jeevan kaal mein baar-baar prajanan karne mein saksham hai – bilkul manushyon ki tarah. inka prajanan kaal March ya April mein praarambh hokar sitmbar ki shuruaat mein khtm ho jaata hai. vibhinn bhaugolik kshetron mein prajanan vidhi alag hoti hai. kshetreeya nar vishisht roop se apne kshetr aur apne haram ki 2 se 7 maadaaon ke liye ladaai karte hain.[20] safal nar fir us kshetr ki kai maadaaon ke saath sambandh banaata hai lekin joda keval mukhya maada ke saath hi banaata hai.[20]
nar apne pankhon ka pradarshan karta hai; aur taal mein tab tak baari-baari se pehle ek fir doosra pankh fadfadaata hai jab tak vah kisi maada ko rijha naheen leta hai. fir vah joda sansarg kshretr mein jaata hai aur nar kisi bhi aagantuk ko vahaaain se khaded deta hai. vah charana shuru karte hain jab tak unamein taalamel na ban jaaye aur fir charane ki kriya gaun ho jaati hai aur rijhaana maano ek rasm ka roop le leta hai. nar fir se baari-baari se pehle ek fir doosra pankh fadfadaata hai aur apni chonch jameen par maarta hai. fir vah jor-jor se apne pankh fadfadaata hai taaki jameen mein ghonsale ke liye jagah saaf kar sake. fir jab maada apne pankh neeche karke usaka chakkar kaatati hai to vah apna sar peinchadaar saleekhe se ghumaata hai. fir maada jameen par baith jaati hai aur nar uske saath sansarg karta hai.[8]jin shuturamurgon ko paala gaya hai vah apna sansarg aacharan anya shuturamurgon ke bajaay apne manushya rakhavaalon ki or jataate hain.[21]
maada apne ande ek saamudaayik ghonsale mein deti hai jo 30 se 60 se. mi. gahra aur takareeban 3 mi. chauda hota hai[22] aur jise nar ne jameen se mitti khod ke banaaya hota hai.

shuturamurg ka anda
shuturamurg maada choojon ke saath

mukhya maada sarvapratham ande deti hai aur jab unako sene ka samay aata hai to vah anya kamzor maadaaon ke atirikt ande ghonsale se baahar kar deti hai aur amooman ghonsale mein 20 ande hi rahate hain.[8] maada saamudaayik ghonsale mein apne ande pahachaanane ka jbardast hunar rakhati hai.[23]shuturamurg ke ande saare praani jagat mein sabse bade ande hote hain aur usi aadhaar par unke andon ki jrdi sabse badi koshika hoti hai,[24] haalaanki pakshi ke aakaar ki tulana mein anya pakshiyon ke mukaabale mein vah sabse chhote ande hote hain;[25] ausatan vah 15 se. mi. lambe, 13 se. mi. chaude aur 1.4 ki. vajni hote hain – murgi ke ande se 20 guna se bhi zyaada vajni! ande kreem ke rang ke chamakeele hote hain, mote khol vaale hote hain aur unamein gaulf ki geind ke samaan chhote-chhote gaddhe hote hain.[14]andon ko maada din mein tatha nar raat mein sete hain.[20]is vidhi se ghonsale ki raksha ho jaati hai kyonki maada ka rang din ke samay ret ke rang se mel khaata hai jabki raat ke samay nar ko kaale rang ke kaaran dekh paana lagbhag naamumkin hota hai.[14] ande sene ki avadhi lagbhag 35 se 45 din tak ki hoti hai. aamtaur par nar choojon ki raksha karta hai aur unako bhojan khaana sikhaata hai haalaanki bachchon ko bada karne mein nar aur maada ek doosare ki aapas mein madad karte hain. choojon ki bache rahane ki dar kaafi kam hoti hai, ek ghonsale se sirf ek hi bachcha vayask avastha tak pahuainch paata hai.

sandarbh

  1. BirdLife International ({{{year}}}). Struthio camelus. 2008 sankatagrast prajaatiyon ki IUCN laal soochi. IUCN 2008. Retrieved on 06-06-2012.aankadaakosh ki pravishti mein laghu vyaakhya hai ki kyon yeh jaati khtare se baahar hai
  2. a aa i E u oo Brands, Sheila (August 14, 2008). "Systema Naturae 2000 / Classification, Genus Struthio". Project: The Taxonomicon. http://www.taxonomy.nl/Main/Classification/51244.htm. abhigman tithi: 6 June 2012.
  3. "shuturamurg ki gati". http://www.speedofanimals.com/animals/ostrich. abhigman tithi: 6 June 2012.
  4. trails.com "thalachar pakshi". http://www.trails.com/arts/amazing-bird-records.aspx trails.com. abhigman tithi: 6 June 2012.
  5. "shuturamurg charm". British Domesticated Ostrich Association. http://www.ostrich.org.uk/products/leather.html. abhigman tithi: 6 June 2012.
  6. "shuturamurg ka maans". British Domesticated Ostrich Association. http://www.ostrich.org.uk/products/meat.html. abhigman tithi: 6 June 2012.
  7. a aa i Gilman, Daniel Coit; et al. (1903).
  8. a aa i E u oo A ai O Davies, S. J. J. F.; Bertram, B. C. R. (2003). Perrins, Christopher. ed. Ostrich Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, Ltd.. pp. 34–37. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-55297-777-3.
  9. a aa i E “aOstrich”. Firefly Encyclopedia of Birds: 34–37. (2003). Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, Ltd..
  10. Martin, G. R.; Katzir, G. (Dec 2000). "Sun Shades and Eye Size in Birds". Brain Behavior and Evolution 56 (6): 340–344. doi:10.1159/000047218.
  11. Martin, G. R.; Ashash, U.; Katzir, Gadi (2001). "Ostrich ocular optics". Brain Behavior and Evolution 58 (2): 115–120. doi:10.1159/000047265.
  12. Fleming, John (1822). Canterbury brings the Middle East to the Midwest. 2. Edinburgh, UK: Archibald Constable & Co.. pa॰ 258. http://www.letsgosouthwest.com/canterbury-brings-middle-east-midwest.
  13. a aa i E Donegan, Keenan (2002). "Struthio camelus". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Struthio_camelus.html. abhigman tithi: 07-06-2012.
  14. a aa i Nell, Leon (2003). The Garden Route and Little Karoo. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. pa॰ 164. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-86872-856-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=Sjatn8zolvsC&pg=PA164.
  15. Marshall, Alan John (1960). Biology and Comparative Physiology of Birds. Academic Press. pa॰ 446. http://books.google.com/books?id=fsE9AAAAIAAJ&q=.
  16. Skadhauge, E.; Erlwanger, K. H.; Ruziwa, S. D.; Dantzer, V.; Elbrøand, V. S.; Chamunorwa, J. P. (2003). "Does the ostrich (Struthio camelus) have the electrophysiological properties and microstructure of other birds?". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 134 (4): 749–755. doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(03)00006-0. PMID 12814783.
  17. Desert USA (1996). "shuturamurg". Digital West Media. http://www.desertusa.com/animals/ostrich.html. abhigman tithi: 07-06-2012.
  18. Halcombe, John Joseph (1872). Halcombe, John Joseph. ed. Mission life. 3 Part 1. W. Wells Gardner. pa॰ 304. http://books.google.com/books?id=nkEEAAAAQAAJ&dq=Ostrich+%2B+kick.
  19. * Canadian Museum of Nature (Dec 2010). "Ostrich". Natural History Notebooks. Canadian Museum of Nature.. http://nature.ca/notebooks/english/ostrich.htm. abhigman tithi: 7 June 2012.
  20. a aa i Bertram, Brian C.R. (1992). "The Ostrich Communal Nesting System". Princeton University Press. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xaNiQgAACAAJ&dq=ostrich+communal+nesting&hl=en&sa=X&ei=xFtST9WqN8bN8QO93eDwBQ&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAQ. abhigman tithi: 07-06-2012.
  21. BBC News (March 2003). "Ostriches "Flirt With Farmers"". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/2834025.stm. abhigman tithi: 07-06-2012.
  22. Harrison, C.; Greensmith, A. (1993). Bunting, E.. ed. Birds of the World. New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley. pa॰ 39. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-56458-295-7.
  23. Bertram, B.C.R. (1979). "Ostriches recognise their own eggs and discard others". Nature 279: 233–234. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v279/n5710/pdf/279233a0.pdf.
  24. Hyde, Kenneth (2004). Zoology: An Inside View of Animals (3rd san॰). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt Publishing. pa॰ 475. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7575-0170-2.
  25. Trails.com (1999). "Amazing Bird Records". http://www.trails.com/arts/amazing-bird-records.aspx. abhigman tithi: 07-06-2012.

vaahya kadiyaaain

Wikisource
vikisors mein jangali shuturamurg ko pakadne ke arabi tareeke ka vivran lekh se sambandhit mool saahitya hai.

Neeraj arora