shulk-mukt dukaan

tel aveev, ijaraail mein ben guriyn havaai adde par shulk mukt dukaanein
shulk mukt dukaanein aamtaur par sharaab ki ek vistrut shrrunkhala ko bechati hain
kartavya torafyaanonovka-vaalima seema par free dukaan (E18)

shulk mukt dukaanein (ya bhandaar) khudara dukaan hain, jinpar sthaaneeya ya raashtreeya kar aur shulk laagoo naheen hote hain. shulk mukt khareedaari thoda mithya naam hai, kyonki, yadyapi khareedaaron ko apne gruh desh mein ek shulk mukt dukaan se khareedi gayi vastuon par shulk ka bhugataan karna padta hai. ve aksar antararaashtreeya kshetr ke antararaashtreeya havaai addon, samudri bandaragaahon mein ya yaatri jahaajon ke board par paaye jaate hain. ve saamaanya roop se sadak ya rel yaatriyon ke liye upalabdh naheen hote hain, yadyapi sanyukt raajya America aur Canada ke beech seema ke kai krausingon par car yaatriyon ke liye shulk mukt dukaanein hain.

in dukaanon ko Europeeya sangh ke bheetar yaatra karne ke liye san 1999 mein samaapt kar diya gaya tha, lekin jin yaatriyon ka antim gantavya Europeeya sangh ke baahar hai unke liye ise banaae rakha gaya, ve antar Europeeya sangh ke yaatriyon ko bhi saaman bechate hai lekin upayukt karon ke saath. kuchh vishesh sadasya raajya pradeshon jaise ki aalaind, livigno aur kaineri dweep Europeeya sangh ke bheetar hai, parantu Europeeya sangh ke kar ke daayare ke baahar hain aur is prakaar abhi bhi sabhi yaatriyon ke liye shulk mukt bikri jaari rakhe hue hai.

anukram

Europeeya sangh mein havaai addon ke baahar shulk-mukt

Europeeya sangh ke vait kshetr ke baahar kisi desh mein rahane wala koi yaatri Europeeya sangh ki dukaanon mein kar mukt khareedaari karne ka hakdaar hai. yaatri hamesha ki tarah dukaan mein vastuon par vait bhugataan karte hain aur maal ka niryaat karte samay vaapasi ka anurodh kar sakte hain. arhata praapt karne ke liye, yaatri ke paas:

  • gair Europeeya sangh ke kisi deshamein mein rahane ki jagah honi chaahiye.
  • Europeeya sangh ke bheetar adhiktam 6 maheene rahana hoga.
  • niryaat karne se teen maheenon se adhik pehle khareed naheen karna.
  • dukaan se ek firm praapt karna jahaan se vah khareedaari karta hai.
  • firm upasthit karna aur kuchh maamalon mein maal ko seema shulk adhikaari ke saamane prastut karna, jab Europeeya sangh chhod rahe ho. jahaaain unapar muhar lagaai jaayegi.

keval niji istemaal ke liye bane saamaan vaapasi ke paatr hain. muhar lagi prapatron aur raseedein tab khudara vikretaaon, ya unke agenton ko pratidaaya ke liye vaapas bheji ja sakti hain.

jyaadaatar maamalon mein, kar mukt khareedaari yojana ka upayog karne ke liye ek nyoonatam khareed karna hota hai. vait ki vaastavik raashi ko pun: praapt karne ka daava us vishesh desh mein mall ki khareed ke liye laagoo vait ki dar par nirbhar karti hai aur vah prashaasan ki fees ka katauti karne ke liye vishay ho sakta hai.

itihaas

duniya ki pehli duty free dukaan Ireland mein shaannon havaai adde par dau॰ breindan oreegan dvaara 1947[1] mein sthaapit ki gayi thi jo aaj ki taareekh tak sevaarat hai. iska nirmaan traans atalaantik airlines ke yaatriyon ko seva pradaan karne ke liye kiya gaya tha, jo aamtaur par Europe aur uttari America ke madhya yaatra karte hai aur jinki udaane baahari yaatra aur bheetari yaatra ke liye indhan bharne ke liye rookati hai. yeh ek taatkaalik safalta thi aur iska vishvavyaapi nakal kiya gaya hai.

shulk mukt khareedaari apni praarambhik avastha mein thi, jab do ameriki udyamiyon, Charles feene aur Robert Miller, ne 7 November 1960 ko usaka nirmaan kiya, jise aaj shulk mukt dukaan (duty free shaupars (deeefaes)) kaha jaata hai. deeefaes ne Hongkong mein kaarya shuroo kiya aur Europe aur vishv bhar ke anya sthaanon mein fail gaya. jaldi hi 1960 ke shurooaat mein shulk mukt havaai mein bikri ke liye vishesh riyaayat surakshit kar liya aur isne deeefaes ke liye ek vyaapaarik safalta sthaapit karne ka kaarya kiya hai aur uske baad company ne ubharate Japani yaatriyon par dhyaan keindrit karne ka faisala liya tha. deeefaes ne kuchh naya karna jaari rakha, band havaai adde ki shulk mukt dukaanon aur bade shaharon ki gaileriya dukaanon mein vistaar karte hue yeh duniya ki sabse badi yaatri khudara dukaan ban gayi. san 1996 mein, elaveeemaech moet henesi looi veetaun ne shri feeni aur do anya sheyaradhaarakon ke hiton ko haasil kiya aur aaj shri Miller ke saath sanyukt roop se deeefaes ke maalik hai.

isi avadhi mein, kai sthaan shulk mukt khareedaari ke gantavya sthaan ke roop mein ubhare. unka vistaar seint Martin aur America ke varjin dweep caribbean mein, Hongkong aur Singapore mein hua. abhi bhi doosare shulk mukt karne ke liye pratispardhi keematon ka daava karte hain. aam taur par, maal duty aur tax se mukt hote hai khareedaari ke kisi bhi gantavya mein kaheen bhi bikri ke liye aayaat par kar lagaaya jaata hai. vyaapaariyon ko saamaan / vyaapaar ya anya karon ka bhugataan karna hota hai, lekin unke graahakon ko aamtaur par koi bhi kar seedhe bhugataan naheen karna hota hai. khareedaaron ko sabhi khareed (shulk mukt ya anyatha) ki ghoshana karni hogi jaise hi ve kisi bhi shulk lagaane vaale desh mein pravesh karte hai.

shulk aur anya karon ki anupasthiti yeh naheen sunishicht karti hai ki ve mol-bhaav kar rahe hai. alag shulk mukt sroton se samaan maal ki laagat vyaapak roop se bhinn ho sakti hain. ve aksar aaspaas ke pratispardha, jaise, havaai adde par dukaanon ki upasthiti anupasthiti par nirbhar karti hai, khaaskar agar kisi bhi havaai adde par sabhi dukaane ek hi farm dvaara jaise ki, dafri[2] ke svaamitv waali hain. iske alaava, aksar khareedaar ki suvidha ke anusaar keematein badalti rahati hain, jaise ki eyaralaainon dvaara udaan mein bikri karna.

bandaragaahon se door shulk mukt khareedaari

kuchh shulk mukt dukaanein kendreeya vyaapaarik jilon mein kaarya karti hain, jo havaai addon ya anya bandaragaahon se door hote hain. udaaharan ke liye, Japan mein, kisi bhi aagantuk ka passport yeh sanket karta hai ki vah desh mein chhah maheene se kam rah raha hai, to vah shulk mukt item khareed sakta hain. shulk mukt dukaanein tokyo ki akihbara electronic khareedaari jile mein ek mukhya aadhaar hain.

Thailand mein, King power shrrunkhala ki dukaanein hai, jahaan shulk mukt vastuon ko poorv mein khareed kar havaai adde ke liye alag se bheja ja sakta hai jise prasthaan karne ke samay liya ja sakta hai. kuchh anya khareedaari ke liye, vait ki dhan vaapasi ka daava havaai adde par prasthaan ke samay kiya ja sakta hai.[3]

fileepeens mein, havaai addon mein dukaan ke aautalet ke alaava vahaaain anya duty free mall hai duty free fiyesta mall kaha jaata hai jo kuchh hi ninoya ekvino havaai adde se kuchh hi meal door sthit hai. is maal mein bechi jaane waali vastueain praaya: aayaatit utpaad hote hai jinka aayaat sansaar ke bhinn bhaagon se kiya jaata hai, (mukhya roop se America, Asia aur aastreleshiya se) jo desh ke kisi bhi anya shopping mall mein duty free mall ko chhod kar naheen milte hai. adhikaansh paryatakon, aagantukon aur ghar vaapas jaane vaale fileepeens vaasi aksar in maalon mein aate hai, (chooainki, keval pahunchane vaale yaatri hi mall ke liye pravesh praapt kar sakte hain).[4] mall mein pravesh paane ke kram mein, ek passport prastut karna hota haiaur graahak panjeekaran kaauntar, jo mall ke pravesh dwaar par sthit hai par panjeekrut hona jaroori hai. tab graahak to ek shopping card jaari kiya jaata hai, is shopping card ko khareedaari ki bikri ke satyaapan ke liye khajaanchi ke samaksh prastut kiya jaana chaahiye. pehle shulk mukt mall keval Amreeki dollar aur Philippine peso ko hi sveekaar karte the, lekin haal ke varshon mein, duty free mall Japani yen, Brunei dollar, Australiaee dollar, british pound, kainediyn dollar, Swiss Frank, saudi riyaal, bahareen dinaar aur thai bahat ko sveekaar karna shuroo kar diya hai. mudra vinimay booth bhi mall ke andar upalabdh hain, agar ek graahak filipeen peeso ya Amreeki dollar mein mudraaon ka vinimay chaahate hai. kredit card bhi vastuon ke kraya ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai.[5]

Australia mein, shulk mukt dukaanein thi, lekin 2000 mein jeeesati ki shuruaat ke baad se ve gaayab ho gaye hain. vartamaan mein, shulk mukt dukaanein lagbhag sabhi antararaashtreeya havaai addon ke bheetar sthit hain. nivaasiyon aur paryatakon koab vaastav mein prasthaan karne ke 30 dinon ke bheetar kisi bhi vaastu ki bhautik khareed ki anumati hai, jo baahar ki or udaan par le jaane ki aavashyakta ke hai aur paryatak vaapasi yojana ke maadhyam se GST ghatak vaapas ka daava seema shulk se gujarte samay kar sakte hai. upabhoktaaon ko ab prasthaan ke karne se pehle apne item ke upayog karne ki aajaadi hai. yeh san 2000 ke theek vipreet hai, jab sabhi khareedaari karne ke baad saaman ko shulk mukt dukaan se ek moharaband spasht plastic bag mein paik kiya jaata tha aur use keval seema shulk ke karmachaariyon dvaara ravaana hone se theek pehle toda ja sakta tha.[6]

suraksha kaaran

lambe maargon par yaatra karne vaale yaatriyon ko jinke kam se kam apne prasthaan havaai adde aur gantavya havaai adde ke beech ek paaragaman hone yaatriyon ko apne shulk mukt yaaantim paaragaman bandargaah par sharaab- itr ki khareed karte samay saavdhaan rahana chaahiye, anyatha ve suraksha karmoyon dvaara paaragaman bandargaah par savaar hote samay haath ke saamaan mein taral padaarth par vartamaan seema se adhik ho hone ke kaaran jabt kar liya jaayega. yeh Europeeya sangh, Singapore aur kroeshiya ke bheetar sthaanaantarit ho rahe yaatriyon par laagoo naheen hota hai, jab tak taral vastu bag mein raseed ke saath ek plastic ki thaili mein band hai. shulk mukt dukaanon ka aagaman ab aur adhik aam hota ja raha hain. dakshin aur madhya America aur caribbean deshon mein is tarah ki jyaadaatar dukaanein hain, jaisi ki dakshini poorv Asia aur oshiniya mein hai. Switzerland aur Canada unhein varsh 2010 mein shuroo karta hua dekh rahe hain, khudara ki yeh paddhati taral padaarth ke paaragaman ke liye suraksha ki samasyaaon ko samaapt karti hain, kyonki unhein vimaan par naheen le jaaya jaata hai.[7]

bheetar shulk mukt

kuchh deshon mein vishesh roop se Australia, aaisalaind, Bhaarat, kenya, New Zealand, naarve, Sri Lanka aur fileepeens, andar ki or shulk mukt suvidhaaye hai, jahaan pahunchane vaale yaatriyon ko seema shulk ke maadhyam se jaane se pehle turant shulk mukt vastuon ki khareed kar sakta hai. yeh na keval liye duniya bhar mein in item le jaane ke liye hone waali asuvidha se bachaata hai, balki suraksha ki uparokt samasya ko hal karti hai. ijaraayal ke madon mein havaai jahaaj mein chadhne se pehle khareeda gaye saamaanon ko vishesh bhandaaran ikaaiyon mein sangrahit kiya ja sakta hai, taaki unhein apne raaste par vaapas pun: praapt kiya ja sakta hai aur is prakaar uparokt samasyaaon ko sulajhaane ka prayaas kiya gaya hai.

oslo havaai adde gardermoeain Europe mein sabse badi shulk mukt dukaan hai.

Canada, sveedan aur Switzerland tatha anya deshon mein aagaman par shulk mukt dukaanon ke baare mein vichaar kar rahi hai.

kaanooni aadhaar

yeh adhikaansh kar pranaaliyon ki ek aam suvidha hai ki karon ko maal ke niryaat par naheen uthaaya jaata hai. aisa karne se maal ko doosare deshon mein nuksaan hoga. ya to kar pranaali maal ko karon ke bina niryaat karne ki anumati deta hai, (ek bandhuaa godaam mein niryaat poorv sangraheet karne ke liye), ya karon ke vaapasi ka daava kiya ja sakta hai, jab unka niryaat kiya jaata hai. (dekhein vait).

aisi chhoot jahaajon aur vimaanon par istemaal ke liye aapoorti ki jaane waali vastuon par bhi laagoo hota hai, kyonki ve desh ke baahar khapat hoti hai. aise maal ki aapoorti ko to vyaapaar kar aur shulk mukt kar sakte hain.

jo saamaan jahaaj ya vimaan mein yaatra par yaatriyon ko becha jaata hai vah bhi shulk mukt hota hai. yaatri ya to unhein board par upabhog kar sakte hain, ya ve jis desh ke liye yaatra kar rahe hain, mein unhein kar mukt aayaat karte hain, jab tak ve yaatri shulk mukt seema ke bheetar hain. adhikaansh kar shaasan bhi yaatriyon ko ek desh mein pravesh karne par niji istemaal ke liye maal ki ek nishchit maatra rakhane ki anumati dete hai, tathaakathit "shulk mukt bhatta", kyonki yeh aarthik roop se nyaayochit naheen hai ki kar ki kam maatra ko vasool kar, yaatriyon ko asuvidha pahunchaai jaaye.

ek shulk mukt dukaan ek hi vyavastha ke tahat kaam karti hai. maal ko akshunn niryaat kiya jaana chaahiye (ve havaai adde mein upayog naheen kar sakte hain) aur ve gantavya desh mein desh ke swayam ke kar niyamon ke tahat aayaat kar rahe hain. kuchh deshon mein maal ko akshunn niryaat karna sunishit karne ke liye yeh vyavastha hai ki yaatri ke ticket ka scan karne ke baad saamaan ek band bag mein yaatri ko gate par haath se diya jaata hai. sanyukt raajya America mein, kuchh shulk mukt dukaanein apna maal ghareloo yaatriyon ko uchit karon ko shaamil karke bechati hain. sharaab aur tanbaakoo utpaadon ko antararaashtreeya yaatriyon ke liye pratibandhit kiya gaya hai aur keval 21 aur 18 ki umr seemaaon ke liye. bhale hi umr doosare deshon mein kam ho jahaaain un vastuon ka aayaat kiya ja raha hai.

America yaatra par jaane vaale sanrakshak

ameriki naagrikon ko saamaanya se kaafi adhik shulk chhoot praapt hoti hai, jab ve in sthalon, jaise, guaam, varjin aailainds ki yaatra ya paaragaman karte hain. sateek jaankaari ke liye [2] dekhein.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • indhan kar, jet udaanon mein indhan ka istemaal antararaashtreeya svatantr hai, aksar becha kartavya

sandarbh

baahya kadiyaan