shukr


shukr The Venusian symbol, a circle with a small equal-armed cross beneath it
Venus in approximately true-color, a nearly uniform pale cream, although the image has been processed to bring out details.[1] The planet's disk is about three-quarters illuminated. Almost no variation or detail can be seen in the clouds.
shukr vaastavik rang mein, satah baadalon ki ek moti chaadar se chhip gaya hai.
upanaam
visheshan Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean, Venerean
yug J2000
upasaur
  • 10,89,39,000 kimi
  • 0.728213 AU
apasaur
  • 10,74,77,000 kimi
  • 0.718440 AU
ardh mukhya aksh
  • 10,82,08,000 kimi
  • 0.723327 AU
vikendrata 0.006756
parikraman kaal
  • 224.698 diwas
  • 0.615 190 varsh
  • 1.92 shukr saur diwas
sanyuti kaal 583.92 days[3]
ausat parikraman gati 35.02 kimi/second
maadhya konaantar 50.115°
jhukaav
  • 3.394 58° kraantivrutt se
  • 3.86° soorya ke vishuvavrutt se
  • 2.19° avikaari tal se[4]
aaroh paat ka anulamb 76.678°
Argument of perihelion 55.186°
upagrah koi naheen
bhautik visheshataaeain
maadhya trijya
  • 6,051.8 ± 1.0 km[5]
  • 0.9499 pruthvi
sapaatata 0[5]
tal-kshetrafal
  • 4.60 x 108 kimi2
  • 0.902 pruthvi
aayatan
  • 9.28 x 1011 kimi3
  • 0.866 pruthvi
dravyamaan
  • 4.868 5×a1024 kigra
  • 0.815 pruthvi
maadhya ghanatv 5.243 gram/semi3
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan
  • 8.87 meter/second2
  • 0.904 gram
palaayan veg 10.36 kimi/second
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
−243.018 diwas (pratigaami)
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg 6.52
aksheeya naman 177.3°[3]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan
  • 18 ghante 11 minute 2 second
  • 272.76°[6]
uttari dhruvavanaman 67.16°
albedo
  • 0.67 (jyaamiteeya)[7]
  • 0.90 (baand)[7]
satah ka taapamaan
Kelvin
Celsius
nyoon maadhya adhi
735 K[3][11][12]
462 °aC
spasht parimaan
  • sarvaadhik chamak −4.9[8][9] (ardhachandr)
  • −3.8[10] (poornachandr)
koneeya vyaas 9.7"–66.0"[3]
vaayu-mandal
satah par daab 92 bar (9.2 MPa)
sanghatan

shukr (Venus), soorya se doosra grah hai aur pratyek 224.7 pruthvi dinon me soorya parikrama karta hai |[13] grah ka naamakaran prem aur saundarya ki roman devi par hua hai | chandrama ke baad yeh raatri aakaash mein sabse chamakeeli praakrutik vastu hai | iska aabhaasi parimaan -4.6 ke star tak pahuainch jaata hai aur yeh chhaaya daalne ke lae paryaapt ujjavalata hai |[14] chooainki shukr ek avar grah hai isliye pruthvi se dekhne par yeh kabhi soorya se door nazar naheen aata hai: iska prasarakon 47.8 degree ke adhiktam tak pahuainchata hai | shukr sooryodaya se pehle ya sooryaast ke baad keval thodi der ke lae hi apni adhiktam chamak par pahuainchata hai | yaheen kaaran hai jiske liye yeh praacheen sanskrutiyon ke dvaara subah ka taara ya shaam ka taara ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya gaya hai |

shukr ek sthaleeya grah ke roop mein vargeekrut hai aur samaan aakaar, gurutvaakarshan aur sanrachana ke kaaran kabhi kabhi use pruthvi ka "bahan grah" kaha gaya hai | shukr aakaar aur doori donon me pruthvi ke niktatam hai | haalaanki anya maamalon mein yeh pruthvi se ekdam alag nazar aata hai | shukr salfyoorik esid yukt atyadhik paraavartak baadalon ki ek apaaradarshi parat se dhainka hua hai| jisne iski satah ko drushya prakaash mein antariksh se nihaarane se bacha rakha hai | iska vaayumandal chaar sthaleeya grahon me saghanatam hai aur adhikaaainshat: kaarban daaioksaaid se bana hai | grah ki satah par vaayumandaleeya dabaav pruthvi ki tulana me 92 guna hai | 735° K (462°aC,863°aF) ke ausat satahi taapamaan ke saath shukr saur mandal me ab tak ka sabse tapt grah hai | kaarban ko chattaanon aur satahi bhooaakrutiyon mein vaapas jakadne ke liye yahaaain koi kaarban chakr maujood nahi hai aur na hi jeevadravya ko isame avashoshit karne ke liye koi kaarbanik jeevan yahaaain nazar aata hai | shukr par ateet mein mahaasaagar ho sakte hai[15]lekin anvarat greenahaaus prabhaav ke kaaran badhte taapamaan ke saath vah vaashpeekrut hote gaye honge |[16] paani ki adhikaansh sambhaavana prakaash-viyojit (Photodissociation) rahi hone ki, va, graheeya chunbakeeya kshetr ke abhaav ki vajah se, mukt haaidrojan saur vaayu dvaara grahon ke beech antariksh mein baha di gayi hai.[17]shukr ki bhoomi bikhre shilaakhandon ka ek sookha marudyaan hai aur samay-samay par jvaalaamukheekaran dvaara tarotaaja ki hui hai.

anukram

bhautik lakshan

shukr chaar saur sthaleeya grahon mein se ek hai | jiska arth hai ki pruthvi ki hi tarah yeh ek chattaani pind hai | aakaar va dravyamaan mein yeh pruthvi ke samaan hai aur aksar pruthvi ki "bahan" ya "judva " ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai |[18] shukr ka vyaas 12,092 kimi (pruthvi ki tulana mein keval 650 kimi kam) aur dravyamaan pruthvi ka 81.5% hai | apne ghane kaarban daaioksaaid yukt vaataavaran ke kaaran shukr ki satahi paristhitiyaaain pruthvi par ki tulana me bilkul bhinn hai | shukr ke vaayumandaleeya dravyamaan ka 96.5% kaarban daaioksaaid aur shesh 3.5% ka adhikaansh naaitrojan raha hai |[19]

bhoogol

20 veen sadi mein graheeya vigyaan dvaara kuchh satahi rahasyon ko ujaagar karne tak shukr ki satah atkalon ka vishay thi | antat: iska 1990-91 mein maigalan pariyojana dvaara vistaar mein maapan kiya gaya | yahaaain ki bhoomi vistrut jvaalaamukheekaran ke pramaan pesh karti hai aur vaataavaran mein salfar vahaaain haal hi mein hue kuchh udagaar ka sanket ho sakti hai |[20][21]

shukr ki satah ka kareeban 80% hissa chikne aur jvaalaamukheeya maidaanon se aachhaadit hai | jinmein se 70% salavati choteedaar maidaanon se va 10% chikni ya lodaar maidaanon se bana hai.[22]do uchchabhoomi " mahaadveep " iske satahi kshetr ke shesh ko sanvaarata hai jisme se ek grah ke uttari golaardh aur ek anya bhoomadhyarekha ke bas dakshin mein sthit hai. uttari mahaadveep ko bebeelon ke pyaar ki devi ishtaar ke naam par ishtaar tera kaha gaya hai aur aakaar takareeban Australia jitna hai. shukr ka sarvochch parvat Maxwell montes ishtaar tera par sthit hai. iska shikhar shukr ki ausat satahi uchchataansh se 11 kimi oopar hai. dakshini mahaadveep efrodaait tera greek ki pyaar ki devi ke naam par hai aur lagbhag dakshin America ke aakaar ka yeh mahaadveep donon uchchabhoom kshetron mein bada hai. daraaron aur bhransho ke sanjaal ne is kshetr ke adhikaaainsh bhaag ko ghera hua hai.[23]

shukr par drushyamaan kisi bhi jvaalaamukh-kund ke saath laava pravaah ke pramaan ka abhaav ek paheli bana hua hai | grah par kuchh prahaar kretar hai jo satah ke apekshaakrut yuva hone ka pradarshan karte hai aur lagbhag 30-60 karod saal puraane hai |[24][25] aamtaur par sthaleeya grahon par paae jaane vaale prahaar kretaron, pahaadon aur ghaatiyon ke alaava, shukr par anekon adviteeya bhaugolik sanrachanaaen hai. in sanrachanaaon mein, chapate shikhar waali jvaalaamukhi sanrachanaaen "fera" kahalaati hai, yeh kuchh maalapuaa jaisi dikhti hai aur aakaar mein 20-50 kimi vistaar mein hoti hai. 100-1,000 meter ooainchi daraar yukt sitaara-sadrushya chakreeya pranaali ko "nova" kaha jaata hai. chakreeya aur sankeindrit daraaron, donon ke saath makadi ke jaale se milti-julati sanrachanaaen "arkanoid" ke roop mein jaani jaati hai. "korona" daraaron se saje vruttaakaar chhalle hai aur kabhi-kabhi gaddhon se ghire hote hai. in sanrachanaaon ke mool jvaalaamukhi mein hain.[26]

shukr ki adhikaansh satahi aakrutiyon ko aitihaasik aur pauraanik mahilaaon ke naam par rakha gaya hain |[27] lekin James Clark Maxwell par naamit Maxwell montes aur uchchabhoomi kshetron alfa reejiyo, beeta reejiyo aur ovada reejiyo kuchh apavaad hai | poorv ki in teen bhooaakrutiyon ko antaraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh dvaara apnaai gayi maujooda pranaali se pehle naamit kiya gaya hai | antaraashtreeya khagoleeya sangh graheeya naamakaran ki dekharekh karta hai |[28]

shukr par bhautik aakrutiyon ke deshaantaron ko unki pradhaan madhyaahn rekha ke saapeksh vyakt kiya gaya hai | mool pradhaan madhyaahn rekha alfa reejiyo ke dakshin me sthit ujjval andaakaar aakruti "ev" ke kendra se hokar gujarati hai |[29] venara mission poora hone ke baad, pradhaan madhyaahn rekha ko eriyaadan kretar se hokar paarit karne ke liye nae sire se paribhaashit kiya gaya tha |[30][31]

bhootal bhoovijnyaaan

A false color image of Venus: Ribbons of lighter color stretch haphazardly across the surface. Plainer areas of more even colouration lie between.
1990-1994 ke beech maigalan radaar se pratichitrit satah ki vaishvik radaar chhavi

shukr ki adhiktar satah jvaalaamukhi gatividhi dvaara nirmit najar aati hai. shukr par pruthvi ki tarah anekaanek jvaalaamukhi hai aur iske pratyek 100 kimi ke daayare me kuchh 167 ke aaspaas bade jvaalaamukhi hai | pruthvi par is aakaar ki jvaalaamukhi jatilta keval havaai ke bade dweep par hai |[26] yeh isliye naheen ki shukr jvaalaamukhi najriye se pruthvi ki tulana mein adhik sakriya hai, balki iski parpati puraani hai | pruthvi ki samudri parpati vivrtanik pleton ki seemaaon par bhoogarbhiya prakriya dvaara nirantar punarnaveekrut kar di jaati hai aur kareeb 10 karod varsh ausat umr ki hai,[32] jabki shukr ki satah 30-60 karod varsh puraani hone ka anumaan hai |[33]

shukr par avirt jvaalaamukheeta ke liye anek pramaan bindu maujud hai | soviyt venera kaaryakram ke dauraan, venera 11 aur venera 12 prob ne bijli ke ek nirantar pravaah ka pata lagaaya aur venera 12 ne apne avataran ke baad ek shaktishaali garjan ki karataal darj ki | Europeeya antariksh agency ke Venus express ne uainche vaayumandal mein prachur maatra mein bijli darj ki |[34] jabki pruthvi par baarish garaj-toofaan laati hai, vaheen shukr ki satah par koi varsha naheen hoti hai (haalaanki upari vaayumandal mein yeh varsha salfyurik aml karta hai jo satah se kareeb 25 kimi upar vaashpeekrut kar di jaati hai). ek sambhaavana hai ek jvaalaamukhi visfot se udi raakh ne bijli paida ki thi | ek anya pramaan vaayumandal mein maujud salfar daaioksaaid saandrata ke maap se aata hai, jise 1978 aur 1986 ke beech ek 10 ke kaarak ke saath bundon se paaya gaya tha. This may imply the levels had earlier been boosted by a large volcanic eruption.[35]

shukr ke satah par prahaar kretar (chhavi radaar deta se punarnirmit hai.

shukr par samooche hajaar bhar prahaar kretar satah bhar me samaan rup se vitrit hai | pruthvi aur chandrama jaise anya kretarayukt nikaayon par, kretar giraavat ki avasthaaon ki ek range dikhaate hai | chandrama par giraavat ka kaaran uttarottar tkkar hai, to vaheen pruthvi par yeh hava aur baarish ke kataav ke kaaran hoti hai | shukr par lagbhag 85% kretar praacheen haalat mein hain | kretaron ki sankhya, apni susanrakshit paristhiti ke saanidhya ke saath, kareeb 30-60 karod varsh poorv ki ek vaishvik punarsataheekaran ghatna ke adheen is grah ke gujarane ka sanket karti hai,[36][37] jvaalaamukheekaran me patan ka anusaran karti hai |[38] jahaan ek or pruthvi ki parpati nirantar prakriyaarat hai, vaheen shukr ko is tarah ki prakriya ke poshan ke liye asamarth samjha gaya hai | bina plate vivrtaniki ke baavajud apne meintal se garmi failaane ke liye shukr ek chakreeya prakriya se hokar gujarata hai jismein meintal taapamaan vruddhi parpati ke kamjor hone ke liye aavashyak charam star tak pahunchane tak jaari rahati hai | fir, lagbhag 10 karod varshon ki avadhi mein dabaav ek vishaal paimaane par hota hai jo parpati ka poori tarah se punarnaveekaran kar deta hai |[26]

shukr kretaron ke paraas vyaas mein 3 kimi se lekar 280 kimi tak hai. aagantuk nikaayon par ghane vaayumandal ke prabhaav ke kaaran 3 kimi se kam koi kretar naheen hai. ek nishchit gatij oorja se kam ke saath aane waali vastuon ko vaayumandal ne itna dheema kiya hain ki vein ek prahaar kretar naheen bana paate hai |[39] vyaas me 50 kimi se kam ke aane vaale prakshyep khand-khand ho jaaenge aur satah par pahunchane se pehle hi vaayumandal mein bhasm ho jaaenge.[40]

aantarik sanrachana

bhookampeeya deta ya jadtvaaghoorn ki jaankaari ke bagair shukr ki aantarik sanrachana aur bhoo-rasaayan ke baare mein thodi hi pratyaksh jaankaari upalabdh hai.[41] shukr aur pruthvi ke beech aakaar aur ghanatv mein samaanata bataati hai, vein samaan aantarik sanrachana saajha karti hai: ek kor, ek meintal aur ek krast. pruthvi par ki hi tarah shukr ka kor kam se kam aanshik roop se taral hai kyonki in do grahon ke thande hone ki dar lagbhag ek samaan rahi hai.[42] shukr ka thoda chhota aakaar bataata hai, iske gahre aantarik bhaag mein dabaav pruthvi se kaafi kam hain. in do grahon ke beech pramukh antar hai, shukr par plate tektoniks ke liye pramaan ka abhaav, possibly because its crust is too strong to subduct without water to make it less viscous. This results in reduced heat loss from the planet, preventing it from cooling and providing a likely explanation for its lack of an internally generated magnetic field.[43] baavajud, shukr pramukh punarsataheekaran ghatnaaon mein apni aantarik ooshma beech beech mein kho sakta hain.[36]

vaataavaran aur jalavaayu

1979 mein pioneer Venus orbitr se paraabaingani prekshanon se pragat shukr ki vaayumandaleeya meghaakruti
pruthvi ke vaayumandal ke anurup ek saral gas mishran ka sinthetik stick avashoshan spectrum
shukr ki vaayumandaleeya sanrachana HITRAN deta par aadhaarit hai,[44] jo web pranaali par Hitran ka upayog kar banaai gayi hai.[45] hara rang-jal vaashp, laal rang-kaarban daaioksaaid, WN - tarang sankhya (chetaavani: anya rangon ke bhinn arth hai, nimn tarang dairdhya daanye par aur uchch baain taraf hai.)

shukr ka vaayumandal atyant ghana hai, jo mukhya roop se kaarban daaioksaaid aur naaitrojan ki ek chhoti maatra se milkar bana hai | vaayumandaleeya dravyamaan pruthvi par ke vaayumandal ki tulana me 93 guna hai, jabki grah ke satah par ka dabaav pruthvi par ke satahi dabaav ki tulana me 92 guna hai- yeh dabaav pruthvi ke mahaasaagaron ki ek kilometer kareeb ki gaharaai par paaye jaane vaale dabaav ke baraabar hai | satah par ghanatv 65 kilo/ghanameetar hai (paani ki tulana mein 6.5%) | yahaan ka CO2-bahul vaayumandal, salfar daaioksaaid ke ghane baadalon ke saath-saath, saur mandal ka sabse shaktishaali green house prabhaav utpann karta hai aur kam se kam 462 °aC (864 °aF) ka satahi taapamaan paida karta hai |[11][46] yeh shukr ki satah ko budh ki tulana mein jyaada tapt banaata hai | budh ka nyoonatam satahi taapamaan −220 °aC aur adhiktam satahi taapamaan 420 °aC hai |[47] shukr grah soorya se doguni ke kareeb doori par hone ke baavajud budh saur vikirn (irradiance) ka keval 25% praapt karta hai | praay: shukr ki satah naarakeeya roop mein varnit hai |[48] This temperature is even higher than temperatures used to achieve sterilization. (See also: Hot air oven)

adhyayanon ne bataaya hai ki shukr ka vaataavaran haal ki tulana mein arabon saal pehle pruthvi ki tarah bahut jyaada tha aur vahaan satah par taral paani ki paryaapt maatra rahi ho sakti hai | lekin, 60 karod se lekar kai arab varshon tak ki avadhi ke baad,[49] mool paani ke vaashpeekaran ke kaaran ek daudata-bhaagata greenahaaus prabhaav hua, jisne vahaan ke vaataavaran mein ek mahatvapoorn star ki green house gaison ko paida kiya |[50] haalaanki grah par satahi haalaat kisi bhi pruthvi-sadrushya jeevan ke liye lambi mehmaan navaaji yogya naheen hai, jo is ghatna ke pehle rahe ho sakte hai | yeh sambhaavana ki ek rahane yogya doosari jagah nichle aur madhyam baadal paraton mein maujud hai, shukr ab bhi daud se baahar naheen hua hai |[51]

taapeeya jadta aur nichle vaayumandal mein havaaon dvaara ushma ke hastaantaran ka matlab hai ki shukr ki satah ke taapamaan raat aur din ke pakshon ke beech kaafi bhinn naheen hote hai, baavajud iske ki grah ka ghoornan atyadhik dheema hai. satah par havaaen dheemi hain, prati ghante kuchh hi kilometer ki doori chalti hai, lekin shukr ke satah par vaataavaran ke uchch ghanatv ki vajah se, ve avarodhon ke khilaaf ullekhaneeya maatra ka bal daalati hai aur satah bhar mein dhool aur chhote pattharon ka parivhan karti hai. yeh akela hi isse hokar maanaveeya chahal kadami ke liye mushkil khadi karta hoga, anyatha garmi, dabaav aur okseejan ki kami koi samasya naheen thi.[52]

saghan CO2 parat ke oopar ghane baadal hain jo mukhya rup se salfar daaioksaaid aur salfyoorik aml ki boondon se milkar bane hai.[53][54] ye baadal lagbhag 90% soorya prakaash ko paraavartit va bikherate hai jo ki vaapas antariksh mein un par girta hai aur shukr ki satah ke drushya prekshan ko rokate hai. baadalon ke sthaayi aavaran ka arth hai ki bhale hi shukr grah pruthvi ki tulana mein soorya se najadeek hai, par shukr ki satah achhi tarah se tapi naheen hai. baadalon ke sheersh par ki 300 kimi/ghanta ki shaktishaali havaaen har chaar se paanch pruthvi divso mein grah ka chakkar lagaati hai.[55] shukr ki havaaen usaki ghoornan ke 60 gune tak gatisheel hai, jabki pruthvi ki sabse tej havaaen ghoornan gati ki keval 10% se 20% hain.[56]

shukr ki satah prabhaavi dhang se samataapeeya hai, yeh na sirf din aur raat ke beech balki bhoomadhya rekha aur dhruvon ke madhya bhi ek sthir taapamaan banaae rakhata hai |[3][57] grah ka alp aksheeya jhukaav (kam se kam teen degree, tulana ke liye pruthvi ka 23 degree) bhi mausami taapamaan vividhta ko kam karta hai |[58] taapamaan mein ullekhaneeya bhinnata keval oonchaai ke saath milti hai | In 1995, the Magellan probe imaged a highly reflective substance at the tops of the highest mountain peaks that bore a strong resemblance to terrestrial snow. This substance arguably formed from a similar process to snow, albeit at a far higher temperature. Too volatile to condense on the surface, it rose in gas form to cooler higher elevations, where it then fell as precipitation. The identity of this substance is not known with certainty, but speculation has ranged from elemental tellurium to lead sulfide (galena).[59]

shukr ke baadal pruthvi par ke baadalon ki hi tarah bijli paida karne mein saksham hain.[60] bijli ki maujudagi vivaadit rahi hai jab se soviyt venera prob dvaara pratham sandehaaspad bauchhaar ka pata lagaaya gaya tha. 2006-07 mein Venus express ne spasht roop se vhistalar mod tarangon ka pata lagaaya, jo bijli ka chinhak hai | unki aantaraayik upasthiti mausam gatividhi se jude ek paitarn ko ingit karta hai. bijli ki dar pruthvi par ki tulana mein kam se kam aadhi hai.[60] 2007 mein Venus express prob ne khoj ki ki ek vishaal dohara vaayumandaleeya bhanvar grah ke dakshini dhruv par maujood hai.[61][62]

2011 mein Venus express prob dvaara ek anya khoj ki gayi aur vah hai, shukr ke vaataavaran ki oonchaai mein ek ojon parat maujood hai |[63]

29 January 2013 ko iesae ke vaigyaaniko ne bataaya ki shukr grah ka aayanamandal baahar ki or bahata hai, jo is maayane mein samaan hai "isi tarah ki paristhitiyon mein ek dhoomaketu se aayan poonchh ki bauchhaar hoti dekhi gayi"."[64][65]

chunbakeeya kshetr aur kor

sthaleeya grahon ke aakaar ki tulana (baaen se daaen) budh, shukr, pruthvi aur mangal vaastavik rango mein

1967 mein venera 4 ne shukr ke chunbakeeya kshetr ko pruthvi ki tulana mein bahut kamjor paaya. yeh chunbakeeya kshetr ek aantarik daainemo, pruthvi ke andaruni kor ki tarah, ki bajaay aayanamandal aur saur vaayu ke beech ek ant:kriya dvaara prerit hai.[66][67] shukr ka chhota sa prerit chunbakeeya kshetr vaayumandal ko brahmaandeeya vikirn ke khilaaf naganya suraksha pradaan karta hai | yeh vikirn baadal dar baadal bijli nirvahan ka parinaam ho sakta hai.[68]

aakaar mein pruthvi ke baraabar hone ke baavajud shukr par ek aantarik chunbakeeya kshetr ki kami hona aashcharya ki baat thi | yeh bhi ummeed thi ki iska kor ek daainemo rakhata hai. ek daainemo ko teen cheejon ki jarurat hoti hai: ek suchaalak taral, ghoornan aur sanvahan. kor ko vidyut pravaahakeeya hona maana gaya hai, jabki iske ghoornan ko praay: bahut jyaada dheemi gati ka hona maana gaya hai, simuleshan dikhaate hai ki ek daainemo nirmaan ke liye yeh paryaapt hai.[69][70] iska taatparya hai, daainemo gum hai kyonki shukr ke kor mein sanvahan ki kami hai. pruthvi par, sanvahan kor ke baahari parat me paaya jaata hai kyonki tali ki taral parat sheersh ki tulana mein bahut jyaada tapt hai. shukr par, ek vaishvik punarsataheekaran ghatna ne plate vivrtaniki ko band kar diya ho sakta hai aur yeh bhoopatal se hokar ushma pravaah ke ghataav ka kaaran bana. isne meintal taapamaan ko badhne ke liye prerit kiya, jisse kor ke baahar ushma pravaah badh gaya. nateejatan, ek chunbakeeya kshetr chalaane ke liye koi aantarik bhoodaainemo upalabdh naheen hai | iske bajaay, kor se nikalne waali taapeeya oorja bhoopatal ko dobaara garm karne ke liye baar-baar istemaal hui hai.[71]

ek sambhaavana yeh ki shukr ka koi thos bheetari kor naheen hai,[72] ya iska kor vartamaan mein thanda naheen hai, isliye kor ka poora taral hissa lagbhag ek hi taapamaan par hai. ek aur sambhaavana ki iska kor pehle se hi poori tarah jam gaya hai. kor ki avastha gandhak ke saandran par atyadhik nirbhar hai, jo filhaal agyaat hai.[71]

shukr ke irdagird durbal chunbakeeya aavaran ka matlab hai saur vaayu grah ke baahya vaayumandal ke saath seedhe sampark karti hai. yahaan, haaidrojan va okseejan ke aayan paraabaingani vikirn se nikle tatasth anuon ke viyojan dvaara banaaye gaye hai. saur vaayu fir oorja ki aapoorti karti hai jo inmein se kuchh aayanon ko grah ke chunbakeeya kshetr se palaayan ke liye paryaapt veg deti hai. is ksharan prakriya ka parinaam nimn-dravyamaan haaidrojan, heeliym aur okseejan aayanon ki haani ke rup me hoti hai, jabki uchch-dravyamaan anuon, jaise ki kaarban daaioksaaid, ko usi tarah se jyaada banaaye rakhane ke liye hoti hai. saur vaayu dvaara vaayumandaleeya ksharan grah ke gathan ke baad ke arabon varshon ke daramyaan jal ke khone ka shaayad sabse bada kaaran bana. is ksharan ne upari vaayumandal mein uchch-dravyamaan dyooteriym se nimn-dravyamaan haaidrojan ke anupaat ko nichle vaayumandal mein anupaat ka 150 guna badha diya hai.[73]

parikrama evam ghoornan

shukr ki kaksha (peeli) aur pruthvi ki kaksha (neeli) ki aapas me tulana I

shukr kareeban 0.72 eyoo (10,80,00,000 kimi; 6,70,00,000 meal) ki ek ausat doori par soorya ki parikrama karta hai aur har 224.65 diwas ko ek chakkar poora karta hai. yadyapi sabhi graheeya kakshaaen deerghavrutteeya hain, shukr ki kaksha 0.01 se kam ki ek vikendrata ke saath, vruttaakaar ke jyaada kareeb hai.[3] jab shukr grah, pruthvi aur soorya ke beech sthit hota hai, yeh sthiti avar sanyojan kahalaati hai, jo usaki pahunch ko pruthvi se niktatam banaati hai, anya grah 4.1 karod ki ausat doori par hai.[3] shukr ausatan har 584 dinon mein avar sanyojan par pahuainchata hai.[3] pruthvi ki kaksha ki ghatati vikendrata ke kaaran, yeh nyoonatam doori daseeyon hajaaron varsh uparaant sarvaadhik ho jaaegi. san 1 se lekar 5383 tak, 4 karod kimi se kam ki 526 pahunch hai, fir lagbhag 60,158 varshon tak koi pahunch naheen hai.[74] sarvaadhik vikendrata ki avadhi ke dauraan, shukr kareeb se kareeb 3.82 karod kimi tak aa sakta hai.[3]

sauramandal ke sabhi grah soorya ki parikrama ek vaamaavart disha mein karte hai, jaisa ki soorya ke uttari dhruv ke upar se dekha gaya. adhikaansh grah apne aksh par bhi ek vaamaavart disha mein ghoomate hai, lekin shukr har 243 pruthvi divson mein ek baar dakshinaavart ( "pratigaami" ghoornan kaha jaata hai) ghoomta hai, yeh kisi bhi grah ki sarvaadhik dheemi ghoornan avadhi hai. is prakaar ek shukr naakshatr diwas ek shukr varsh (243 banaam 224.7 pruthvi diwas) se lambe samay tak rahata hai | shukr ki bhoomadhya rekha 6.5 kimi/ghanta ki gati se ghumati hai, jabki pruthvi ki bhoomadhya rekha par ghoornan lagbhag 1,670 kimi/ghanta hai.[75] shukr ka ghoornan 6.5 minute/shukr naakshatr diwas tak dheema ho gaya hai, jab se maigalan antariksh yaan ne 16 saal pehle usaka daura kiya hai |[76] pratigaami ghoornan ke kaaran, shukr par ek saur diwas ki lanbaai iske naakshatr diwas ki tulana mein kaafi kam hai, jo ki 116.75 pruthvi diwas hai (yeh shukr saur diwas ko budh ke 176 pruthvi divson ki tulana mein chhota banaata hai). shukr ka ek varsh lagbhag 1.92 shukr saur diwas lamba hai |[12] shukr ki dharati se ek prekshak ke liye, soorya pashchim mein udit aur poorv mein ast hoga.[12]

shukr grah, vibhinn ghoornan avadhi aur jhukaav ke saath ek saur neehaarika se gathit hua ho sakta hai. saghan vaayumandal par jvaareeya prabhaav aur graheeya udvignata dvaara prerit astavyast ghoornan badlaav ke kaaran vah vahaan se apni vartamaan sthiti tak pahuncha hai. yeh badlaav jo ki arabon varshon ki kriyaavidhi uparaant ghatit hua hoga. shukr ki ghoornan avadhi sambhavat: ek santulan ki avastha ko darshaati hai jo, soorya ke gurutvaakarshan ki or se jvaareeya jakadn jiski pravrutti ghoornan ko dheema karne ki hoti hai aur ghane shukr vaayumandal ke saur taapan dvaara banaai gayi ek vaayumandaleeya jvaar, ke madhya banti hai.[77][78] shukr ki kaksha aur usaki ghoornan avadhi ke beech ke 584-divseeya ausat antaraal ka ek rochak pahaloo yeh hai ki shukr ki pruthvi se uttarottar najadeeki pahunch kareeb-kareeb paanch shukr saur divso ke theek baraabar hai.[79] tathaapi, pruthvi ke saath ek ghoornan-kaksheeya anunaad ki parikalpana chhoot gayi hai.[80]

shukr ka koi praakrutik upagrah naheen hai,[81] haalaanki kshudragrah 2002 VE68 vartamaan mein iske saath ek ardh kaksheeya sambandh rakhata hai |[82][83] is ardh upagrah ke alaava, iske do anya asthaayi sah kaksheeya 2001 CK32 aur 2012 XE33 hai | 17 veen sadi mein giyovanni kaisini ne shukr ki parikrama kar rahe chandrama ki soochana di jo neith se naamit kiya gaya tha | agale 200 varshon ke uparaant anekon drashtavyon ki soochana di gayi | parantu adhikaansh ko aaspaas ke sitaaron ka hona nirdhaarit kiya gaya tha. California praudyogiki sansthaan mein, Alex elami va David steevensan ke poorv saur pranaali par 2006 ke modelon ke adhyayan bataate hai ki shukr ka hamaare jaisa kam se kam ek chaand tha jise arabo saal pehle ek badi takaraav ki ghatna ne banaaya tha.[84] adhyayan ke mutaabik kareeb ek karod saal baad ek anya takkar ne grah ki ghoornan disha ulat di. isne shukr ke chandrama ke ghumaav ya kaksha ko dheere dheere andar ki or sikudne ke liye prerit kiya jab tak ki vah shukr ke saath takaraakar usamein vileen naheen ho gaya.[85] yadi baad ki takkaron ne chandrama banaaye hai to vein bhi usi tarah se kheench liye gaye. upagrahon ke abhaav liye ek vaikalpik vyaakhya shaktishaali saur jvaar ka prabhaav hai jo bheetari sthaleeya grahon ki parikrama kar rahe bade upagrahon ko asthir kar sakte hai.[81]

paryavekshan

shukr ke charan aur iske spasht vyaas ka vikaas
A photograph of the night sky taken from the seashore. A glimmer of sunlight is on the horizon. There are many stars visible. Venus is at the center, much brighter than any of the stars, and its light can be seen reflected in the ocean.
shukr sada hamaare sauramandal se baahar ke sabse chamakeele taaron se bhi jyaada chamakadaar raha hai, jaisa prashaant mahaasaagar ke oopar yahaan dekha ja saka hai I

shukr kisi bhi taare (soorya ke alaava) ki tulana mein hamesha ujjaval hai. sarvaadhik kaantimaan, saapeksh kaantimaan −4.9,[9] arddhachandr charan ke dauraan hoti hai jab yeh pruthvi ke nikat hota hai. shukr kareeb −3 parimaan tak mand pad jaata hai jab yeh soorya dvaara chhupa liya jaata hai.[8] yeh grah dopahar ke saaf aasmaan me kaafi ujjaval dikhaai deta hai,[86] aur aasaani se dekha ja sakta hai jab soorya kshitij par neecha ho. ek avar grah ke roop mein, yeh hamesha soorya se lagbhag 47° ke bheetar hota hai.[10]

soorya ki parikrama karte hue shukr pratyek 584 divson par pruthvi ko paar kar jaata hai.[3] jaisa ki yeh dikhaai deta hai, yeh sooryaast ke baad "saanjh ka taara" se lekar sooryodaya se pehle "bhor ka taara" tak badal jaata hai. ek anya avar grah budh ka prasarakon maatr 28° ke adhiktam tak pahuainchata hai aur godhooli mein praay: mushkil se pahachaana jaata hai, jabki shukr ko apni adhiktam kaanti par chuk jaana kathin hai. iske adhik se adhik adhiktam prasarakon ka matlab hai yeh sooryaast ke ekdam baad tak andhere aasmaan mein najar aata hai. aakaash mein ek chamakadaar bindu sadrushya vastu ke rup mein shukr ko ek "agyaat udn tastari" maan lene ki sahaj galat bayaani hui hai. ameriki raashtrapati Jimmy Carter ne 1969 mein ek udn tastari dekhe jaane ki soochana di, jiske vishleshan ne baad mein grah hone ki sambhaavana ka sujhaav diya tha | anginat anya logon ne shukr ko asaadhaaran maanane ki bhool ki hai.[87]

jaise hi shukr ki apni kaksha ke irdagird halachal hoti hai, doorabeen drushyaavali mein yeh chandrama ki tarah kalaaon ka pradarshan karta hai: shukr ki kalaaon mein, grah ek chhoti si "poorn" chhavi prastut karta hai jab yeh soorya ke vipreet disha mein hota hai, jab yeh soorya se adhiktam kon par hota hai ek badi "chaturthaans kala" pradarshit karta hai, evam ratri aakaash mein apni adhiktam chamak par hota hai, tatha jaise hi yeh pruthvi aur soorya ke madhya sameepasth kaheen aaspaas aata hai doorabeen drushyaavali mein ek bahut bada "patala arddhachandr" prastut karta hai. shukr jab pruthvi aur soorya ke beechobeech hota hai, apne sabse bade aakaar par hota hai aur apni "nav kala" prastut karta hai. iske vaayumandal ko grah ke chaaron or ke apavartit prakaash ke prabhaamandal dvaara ek doorabeen mein dekha ja sakta hain.[10]

shukr paaragaman

shukr paaragaman, 2004

shukr ki kaksha pruthvi ki kaksha ke saapeksh thodi jhuki hui hai; isliye, jab yeh grah pruthvi aur soorya ke beech se gujarata hai, aamtaur par soorya ke mukhaakruti ko paar naheen karta. shukr paaragaman karna tab paaya jaata hai jab grah ka avar sanyojan pruthvi ke kaksheeya tal mein upasthiti ke saath mel khaata hai. shukr ke paaragaman 243 saal ke chakron mein hote hain | paaragaman ki vartamaan paddhati me, pehle do paaragaman aath varshon ke antaraal mein hote hai, fir kareeb 105.5 varsheeya ya 121.5 varsheeya lamba viraam aur fir se vaheen aath varsheeya antaraal ke nae paaragaman jodo ka daur shooroo hota hai. is svarup ko sabse pehle 1639 mein angrej khagolavid yirmayaah horoks ne khoja tha.[88]

naveenatam joda 8 June,2004 aur 5-6 June 2012 ko tha. paaragaman ka anekon online aautalets se seedhe athva uchit upakaran aur paristhitiyon ke saath sthaaneeya roop se dekha jaana ho saka.[89]

paaragaman ki poorvavarti jodi December 1874 aur December 1882 mein hui; aagaami jodi December 2117 aur December 2125 mein ghatit hogi.[90] aitihaasik rup se, shukr ke paaragaman mahatvapoorn the, kyonki unhone khagolavidon ko khagoleeya ikaai ke aakaar ke seedhe nirdhaaran karne ki anumati di hai, saath hi sauramandal ke aakaar ki bhi, jaisa ki 1639 mein horoks ke dvaara dekha gaya[91] captain cook ki Australia ki poorvi tat ki khoj tab sambhav ho pai jab vein shukr paaragaman ke prekshan ke liye peechha karte hue jalayaatra kar 1768 mein taahiti aa gaye.[92][93]

bhasmavarn prakaash

tathaakathit bhasmavarn prakaash lambe samay se chala aa raha shukr prekshanon ka ek rahasya hai. bhasmavarn prakaash shukr ke andhakaar paksh ki ek sukshm roshani hai aur najar aati hai jab grah arddh chandraakaar charan mein hota hai. is prakaash ko sarvapratham dekhne ka daava bahut pehle 1643 mein hua tha, parantu roshani ke astitv ki bharosemand pushti kabhi naheen ho pai. paryavekshakon ne anumaan lagaaya hai, yeh shukr ke vaayumandal mein bijli ki gatividhi se nikla parinaam ho sakta hai, lekin yeh bhraamak ho sakta hai. ho sakta hai yeh ek ujjval, arddh chandraakaar aakaar ki vastu dekhne ke bhram ka nateeja ho.[94]

adhyayan

poorv adhyayan

ek "black draap ifekt", jaisa ki 1769 ke paaragaman daramyaan darj kiya gaya.

shukr grah ko "subah ke taare" aur "shaam ke taare" donon hi roopon mein praacheen sabhyataaon ne jaan liya tha. naam se hi poorv samajh jaahir hoti hai ki vein do alag-alag vastuen thi | ammeesaaduka ki shukr patalika, dinaankit 1581 ipoo, yoonaani samajh dikhaati hai ki donon vastu ek hi thi. is patalika mein shukr ko "aakaash ki ujjval raani" ke roop mein nirdisht kiya gaya hai aur vistrut prekshanon ke saath is drushtikon ka samarthan kiya ja saka hai.[95] chhathi shataabdi isa poorv mein paaithaagoras ke samay tak, yoonaaniyon ki avadhaarana, fosforas aur hesperas, ke roop mein do alag-alag sitaaron ki thi.[96] romanon ne shukr ke subah ki pahaloo ko loosifer ke roop mein aur shaam ke pahaloo ko vesper ke rup mein naamit kiya hai.

shukr ke paaragaman ke pratham darj avlokan ka sanyog 4 December 1639 (24 November us samay prachalit jooliyn calendar antargat) ko yirmayaah horoks dvaara, unke mitr William krebatri ke saath-saath, bana tha.[97]

gaileeliyo ki khoj ki shukr kalaaon ke pradarshan (jab hamaare aasmaan mein soorya ke kareeb rahata hai) ne saabit kiya hai ki vah soorya ki parikrama karta hai, na ki pruthvi ki.

17 veen sadi ki shuruaat mein jab itaalavi bhautik vigyaani gaileeliyo gaileeli ne grah ka pratham avlokan kiya, unhone use chandrama ki tarah kalaaon ko dikhaaya hua paaya, ardhachandr se unnatodar se lekar poornachandr tak aur theek iske ulat. jab yeh soorya se sarvaadhik door hota hai apna ardhachandr rup dikhaata hai aur jab soorya ke sabse najadeek hota hai yeh arddh chandraakaar ya poornachandr ki tarah dikhta hai. yeh sambhav ho saka keval yadi shukr ne soorya ki parikrama ki aur yeh taulemi ke bhookendreeya model, jismein sauramandal sankeindrit tha aur pruthvi kendra par thi, ke spasht khandan karne ke pratham avalokanon mein se tha.[98]

shukr ke vaayumandal ki khoj 1761 mein roosi bahushrut mikhaail lomonosov dvaara hui thi.[99][100] shukr ke vaayumandal ka avlokan 1790 mein jarman khagolashaastri yohaan shrotar dvaara hua tha. shrautar ne paaya ki grah jab ek patala arddhachandr tha, katori 180° se adhik tak vistaarit hui. unhone sahi anumaan lagaaya ki yeh ghane vaataavaran mein soorya prakaash ke bikhrane ki vajah se tha. baad mein, jab grah avar sanyojan par tha, ameriki khagolashaastri chestar smith leeman ne iske andhakaar taraf vaale hisse ke irdagird ek poorn chhalle ka nirikshan kiya aur isne vaayumandal ke liye pramaan pradaan kiye.[101] The atmosphere complicated efforts to determine a rotation period for the planet, and observers such as Italian-born astronomer Giovanni Cassini and Schröater incorrectly estimated periods of about 24 hours from the motions of markings on the planet's apparent surface.[102]

bhoo-aadhaarit anusandhaan

pruthvi se shukr ka aadhunik doorabeen drushya.

20 veen sadi tak shukr ke baare mein thodi bahut aur khoj hui thi. iski kareeb-kareeb aakrutiheen deesk ne koi suraag naheen diya ki iski satah aakhir kis tarah ki ho sakti hai. iske aur adhik rahasyon ka pardaafaas, spektroskopi, radaar aur paraabaingani prekshanon ke vikaas ke saath hi hua. pehle paraabaingani prekshan 1920 ke dashak mein kiye gaye jab Frank E Ross ne paaya ki paraabaingani tasveeron ne kaafi vistrut byora dikhaaya jo drushya aur avarakt vikirn mein anupasthit tha. unhone sujhaav diya aisa nichle peele vaataavaran ke saath uske upar ke pakshaabh megh ke atyadhik ghanepan ki vajah se tha.[103]

1900 ke dashak mein spektroskopi prekshanon ne shukr ke ghoornan ke baare mein pehla suraag diya. vesto slifr ne shukr se nikle prakaash ke dauplar shift ko maapane ki koshish ki, lekin paaya ki vah kisi bhi ghoornan ka pata naheen laga sake. unhone anumaan lagaaya grah ki ek bahut lambi ghoornan avadhi honi chaahiye.[104] 1950 ke dashak mein baad ke kaarya ne dikhaaya ki ghoornan pratigaami tha. shukr ke radaar prekshan sarvapratham 1960 ke dashak mein kiye gaye the, isne ghoornan avadhi ki pehli maap pradaan ki, jo aadhunik maan ke kareeb thi.[105]

1970 ke dashak mein radaar prekshanon ne pehli baar shukr ki satah ko vistrut rup se ujaagar kiya. eresibo vedhashaala par 300 meter ki radio doorabeen ka prayog kar grah par radio tarangon ke spandan prasaarit kiye gaye aur gooainj ne alfa aur beeta kshetron se naamit do atyadhik paraavartak kshetron ka pata lagaaya. prekshanon ne parvaton ke liye uttaradaayi thaharaaye gaye ek ujjval kshetr bhi pata lagaaya, ise Maxwell montes kaha gaya tha.[106] shukr par ab akeli keval yeh teen hi bhooaakrutiyaan hai jiske mahila naam naheen hai.[107]

anveshan

aaranbhik prayaas

merinr 2,1962 mein prakshepit

shukr ke liye, vaise hi kisi bhi anya grah ke liye, pehla robotik antariksh yaan mission, 12 fravari 1961 ko venera 1 yaan ke prakshepan ke saath aarambh hua. soviyt venera kaaryakram antargat yeh pehla yaan tha. venera 1 ne mission ke saatave din sampark kho diya, tab vah pruthvi se 20 lakh kimi ki doori par tha.[108]

shukr ke liye sanyukt raajya America ka anveshan bhi prakshepan sthal par hi merinr 1 yaan ko khone ke saath bure haal me shuroo hua. par iske anuvarti merinr 2 ne safalta pai. 14 December 1962 ko apne 109-divseeya kakshaantaran ke saath hi yeh shukr ki dharati se 34,883 kimi upar se gujarane wala duniya ka pehla safalatam antargraheeya mission ban gaya. iske maaikrovev aur infraared rediyomeetar se pata chala ki shukr ke sabse upari baadal shaant the jabki poorv ke bhoo-aadhaarit maapano ne shukr ki satah ke taapamaan ko atyadhik garm (4250 senteegred) hone ki pushti ki hai,[109] aur aakhirkaar yeh ummeed bhi khatm ho gayi ki yeh grah bhoomi-aadhaarit jeevan ka thikaana ho sakta hai. merinr 2 ne shukr ke dravyamaan aur khagoleeya doori ko aur behtar praapt kiya, par vah chunbakeeya kshetr ya vikirn belt ka pata lagaane mein asamarth tha.[110]

vaayumandaleeya pravesh

paayoniyr, shukr ka bahu-yaan

soviyt venera 3 yaan 1 March 1966 ko shukr par utarate vakt durghatanaagrast ho gaya | vaayumandal me pravesh karne waali aur kisi anya grah ki satah se takaraane waali yeh pehli maanav-nirmit vastu thi | bhale hi iski sanchaar pranaali vifal ho gayi par isse pehle yeh tamaam graheeya deta ko preshit karne mein saksham tha | [111] 18 October 1967 ko venera 4 ne safalataapoorvak vaayumandal mein pravesh kiya aur aneko vaigyaanik upakarano ko tainaat kiya | venera 4 ne satah ke taapamaan ko merinr 2 dvaara maape gaye lagbhag 5000 C adhiktam se bhi jyaada bataaya aur vaayumandal ko lagbhag 90 se 95% kaarban daaioksaaid ka hona dikhaaya | venera 4 ke rachanaakaaro dvaara lagaaye gaye anumaano ki tulana me shukr ka vaayumandal kaafi ghana tha | isne pairaashut ko utarane ke tayashuda samay ki tulana me dheema kar diya | iska matlab tha satah tak pahunchane se pehle yaan ki baitariyo ka mand ho jaana | 93 meenat tak avataran deta preshit karne ke baad, 24.96 kimi ki oochaai par venera 4 ki dabaav ki antim reeding 18 baar thi |[111]

ek din baad 19 October 1967 ko merinr 5 ne baadalon ke sheersh se 4000 kimi se kam ki oonchaai par ek gujaarein ka aayojan kiya | daraasal merinr 5 ko mool roop se mangal se jude merinr 4 ke liye ek baikaap ke roop mein banaaya gaya tha | lekin jab mission safal raha to yaan ko shukr mission ke liye tabdeel kar diya gaya | iske upakaranon ke jode merinr 2 par ki tulana mein adhik samvedansheel the. vishesh roop mein iske radio prachhaadan prayog ne shukr ke vaayumandal ki sanrachana, dabaav aur ghanatv ke deta preshit kiye.[112] venera 4-merinr 5 ke sanyukt deta ka ek sanyukt soviyt-ameriki vigyaan dal dvaara aupachaarik vaartaalaap ki ek shrrunkhala mein agale varsh bhar mein vishleshan kiya gaya.[113] yeh antariksh sahayog ka ek praarambhik udaaharan hai.[114]

venera 4 se seekhe sabak ke baad soviyt union ne January 1969 ko ek paanch divseeya antaraal me judavein yaan venera 5 aur venera 6 ko prakshepit kiya. shukr se inka saamana usi saal ek din ke aad mein 16 va 17 May ko hua. yaan ke kuchalane ki daab seema ko badhaakar 25 baar tak sudrudh kiya gaya aur ek tej avataran praapt karne ke liye chhote pairaashoot ke saath susajjit kiya gaya. baad ke, shukr ke haal ke vaayumandaleeya modelon ne satah ke dabaav ko 75 aur 100 baar ke beech hone ka sujhaav diya tha. isliye in yaanon ke satah par jeevit bache rahane ki koi ummeed naheen thi | 50 meenat ke ek chhote antaraal ka vaayumandaleeya deta preshit karne ke baad donnon yaan shukr ke raatri paksh ki satah par takaraane se pehle takareeban 20 kimi ki oonchaai par tabaah ho gaye.[111]

bhootal aur vaayumandaleeya vigyaan

A stubby barrel-shaped spacecraft is depicted in orbit above Venus. A small dish antenna is located at the centre of one of its end faces
pioneer Venus orbitr

venera 7 ko grah ke satah se nikle deta ko vaapas laane ke prayaas ke liye pesh kiya gaya. ise 180 baar ke dabaav ko bardaasht karne mein saksham ek majaboot avataran maudyool ke saath nirmit kiya gaya tha. maudyool ko pravesh se pehle thanda kiya gaya, saath hi 35 minute ke tej avataran ke liye ise ek vishesh rup se sametane vaale pairaashoot ke saath lais kiya gaya tha. 15 December 1970 ko yeh vaayumandal mein pravesh karta raha, jabki maana gaya hai pairaashoot aanshik roop se fat gaya aur prob ne satah ko ek jor ki takkar maari, par ghaatak naheen. shaayad yeh apni jagah par jhuk gaya, kuchh kamjor sanket preshit kiye aur 23 minute ke liye taapamaan deta ki aapoorti ki jo kisi anya grah ki satah se praapt ki gayi pehli dooramiti thi.[111]

venera 8 ke saath venera kaaryakram jaari raha | isne 22 July 1972 ko vaayumandal me pravesh karne ke baad 50 meenat tak satah se aankade bheje | venera 9 ne 22 October 1975 ko vaayumandal mein pravesh kiya | jabki venera 10 ne iske theek teen din baad 25 October ko vaayumandal mein pravesh kar shukr ke paridrushya ki pehli tasveerein bheji | donnon hi yaanon ne apne avataran sthalon ke aaspaas ke tatkaalik ekdam alag hi paridrushya prastut kiye. venera 9 ek 20 degree ki aisi dhalaan par utara tha jahaan chaaron or 30-40 semi ke patthar bikhre hue the | venera 10 ne mausami saamagri sahit besaalt-prakaar ke betarateeb shilaakhandon ko dikhaaya.[115]

is beech, sanyukt raajya America ne merinr 10 ko us gurutveeya gulel prakshepavakr par bheja jiski raah shukr se hokar budh grah ki or jaati thi. 5 fravari 1974 ko merinr 10 shukr se 5,790 kimi najadeek se gujara aur 4,000 se jyaada tasveeron ke saath vaapas lauta. isne tab ki sabse achhi tasveerein haasil ki thi jismein drushya prakaash mein shukr ko lagbhag aakrutiheen dikhaaya gaya tha. lekin paraabaingani prakaash ne baadalon ko vistaar me dikhaaya jise pruthvi-aadhaarit avalokanon ne pehle kabhi naheen dikhaaya tha.[116]

ameriki pioneer Venus pariyojana ne do alag-alag abhiyaanon ko shaamil kiya tha.[117] pioneer Venus orbitr ko 4 December 1978 ko shukr ke aaspaas ki ek deerghavruttaakaar kaksha mein sthaapit gaya tha. yeh 13 saal se adhik samay tak vahaan bana raha. isne radaar ke saath satah ki naap-jokh ki tatha vaayumandal ka adhyayan kiya. pioneer Venus malteeprob ne kul chaar jaanch-yaan chhode jisne 9 December 1978 ko vaayumandal mein pravesh kiya aur iski sanrachana, havaaon aur ooshma apashishton par deta preshit kiya.[118]


agale chaar varshon mein chaar aur venera laindar missiono ne apni jagah le li. jinmein se venera 11 aur venera 12 ne shukr ke vidyuteeya tufaanon ka pata lagaaya[119] tatha venera 13 aur venera 14, chaar dinon ki aad mein 1 aur 5 March 1982 ko neeche utare aur satah ki pehli rangeen tasveerein bheji. sabhi chaar missiono ko oopari vaayumandal mein gatirodh ke liye pairaashoot ke saath tainaat kiya gaya tha, lekin 50 kimi ki oonchaai par unako mukt kar diya gaya, kyonki shukr ka ghana nichla vaayumandal bina kisi atirikt saadhan ke aaraamadaayak avataran ke liye paryaapt gharshan pradaan karta hai. venera 13 aur 14 donon ne ex-re pratideepti spektromeetar ke saath on-board mitti ke namoonon ka vishleshan kiya aur pravishthi takkar ke saath ki mitti ki sanpeedata maapane ka prayaas kiya.[119] venera 14 ne, haalaanki, khud se alag ho chuke apne hi kaimarein ke leins ka dhakkan gira diya aur iski pravishthi mitti ko chhune me vifal rahi.[119] October 1983 mein venera kaaryakram ko band karne ka tab samay aa gaya, jab venera 15 aur venera 16 ko sinthetik eparchar radaar ke saath shukr ke ilaakon ke maanachitran sanchaalan ke liye kaksha mein sthaapit kiya gaya.[120]

1985 mein soviyt sangh ne, shukr aur usi varsh andaruni sauramandal se hokar gujar rahe haili dhoomaketu, se mile avsar ka sanyukt abhiyaanon se bharpoor faayda uthaaya. 11 aur 15 June 1985 ko haili ke padane vaale raaste par vega kaaryakram ke do antariksh yaanon se venera-shaili ki ek-ek pravishthi giraai gayi (jismein vega 1 aanshik rup se asafal raha) aur upari vaayumandal ke bheetar ek gubbaara-samarthit eyarobot chhoda gaya. gubbaaron ne 53 kimi ke kareeb ek santulit oonchaai haasil ki, jahaan dabaav aur taapamaan tulanaatmak rup se pruthvi ki satah par jitna hota hain. donon takareeban 46 ghanton ke liye parichaalan bane rahe aur shukr ke vaataavaran ko poorv dhaarana se jyaada ashaant paaya | yahaan ashaant vaataavaran ka taatparya uchch havaaon aur shaktishaali sanvahan kakshon se hai |[121][122]

radaar maanachitran

shukr ka maigalan radaar sthalaakrutik naksha (krutrim rang)

praarambhik bhoo-aadhaarit radaar ne satah ki ek buniyaadi samajh pradaan ki. pioneer Venus aur venera ne behtar samaadhaan pradaan kiye.

sanyukt raajya America ke maigalan yaan ko radaar se shukr ke satahi maanachitran ke liye ek mission ke saath 4 May 1989 ko prakshepit kiya gaya tha.[28] apne 4½ varsheeya kaaryakalaapon ke daramyaan praapt ki gayi uchch-spashtata ki tasveerein poorv ke sabhi nakshon se kaafi aage nikal gayi aur yeh anya grahon ki drushya prakaash tasveeron ke baraabar thi. maigalan ne radaar dvaara shukr ki 98% se adhik bhoomi ko pratibinbit kiya,[123] aur uske 95% gurootv kshetr ko pratichitrit kiya. 1994 mein apne mission ke ant mein, maigalan ko shukr ke ghanatv ke andaaj ke liye vaayumandal mein tabaah hone bhej diya gaya tha.[124] shukr grah ko gaililiyo aur kaisini antariksh yaan dvaara baahari grahon ke liye apne sambandhit missiono ke gujaare ke dauraan avalokit kiya gaya hai. lekin maigalan ek dashak se bhi jyaada tak ke liye shukr ka antim samarpit mission ban gaya.[125][126]

vartamaan aur bhavishya ke mission

naasa ke budh ke meseinjar mission ne October 2006 aur June 2007 mein shukr ke liye do flaaibaai ka aayojan kiya. dheema karne ke liye iske prakshepavakr ka March 2011 mein budh ki ek sambhaavit kaksha mein samaavesh hua | meseinjar ne un donon flaaibaai par vaigyaanik deta ekatr kiya.[127]

Venus express prob Europeeya antariksh agency dvaara design aur nirmit kiya gaya tha. ise staarasem ke maadhyam se praapt ek roosi soyuj-fregat rocket dvaara 9 November 2005 ko pramochit kiya gaya. 11 April 2006 ko isne safalataapoorvak shukr ke irdagird ek dhruveeya kaksha grahan ki.[128] prob shukr ke vaayumandal aur baadalon ka ek vistrut adhyayan kar raha hai. ismein grah ka plaajma vaataavaran aur satahi visheshataaon, vishesh roop se taapamaan, ke maanachitran shaamil hai. Venus express se ujaagar praathamik parinaamon se ek yeh khoj hai ki vishaal dohara vaayumandaleeya bhanvar grah ke dakshini dhruv par maujood hai.[128]

kala avadhaarana : naasa dvaara taiyaar ek Venus rovar

[129]]]

Japan eyarospes eksaploreshan agency (JAXA) ne ek shukr parikrama yaan akaatsuki (aupachaarik rup se "Planet-C") ko taiyaar kiya, jo 20 May 2010 ko prakshepit hua tha, par yeh yaan December 2010 mein kaksha mein pravesh karne mein asafal raha | aashaaen abhi baaki hai, kyonki yaan safalataapoorvak seetanidra mein hai aur chhah saal mein ek aur pravishti ka prayaas kar sakta hai. niyojit jaanch-padtaal ne bijli ki upasthiti ki pushti hetoo satahi pratichitran ke liye design kiya gaya ek infraared camera aur upakaranon ko, saath hi vartamaan bhoopatal ke jvaalaamukheekaran ke astitv ke nirdhaaran ko, shaamil kiya hai.[130]

Europeeya antariksh agency ko 2014 mein budh ke liye ek bepikolambo naamak mission shuroo karne ki ummeed hai. 2020 mein budh ki kaksha tak pahunchane se pehle yeh shukr ke liye do flaaibaai ka pradarshan kareinge |[131]

naasa ne apne new frantiyrs kaaryakram ke tahat, satah ki sthiti ka adhyayan karne aur regolith ke taatvik aur khanijeeya lakshanon ki jaanch karne ke liye, shukr grah par utarane ke liye ek Venus in-seetu eksaplorar naamak laindar mission ka prastaav kiya hai. yeh yaan, satah mein dril karne aur un praacheen chattaan ke namoonon ke adhyayan ke liye jo kathor satahi paristhitiyon se apaksheen naheen hue hai, ke liye ek kor sempalar se lais kiya jaaega. shukr ka vaayumandaleeya aur satahi anveshi mission "sarfes end etamosfeyar jiyokemikl eksaploral" (SAGE) ko 2009 new frontier chayan mein ek mission adhyayan ummeedavaar ke roop mein naasa dvaara chuna gaya tha.[132] lekin mission ko udaan ke liye naheen chuna gaya.

venera di (roosi: Вaaеaaнaaеaaрaaа-Д) anveshi shukr ke liye ek prastaavit roosi antariksh yaan hai | ise shukr grah ke irdagird remote-seinsing prekshan aur ek laindar ki tainaati karne ke apne lakshya ke saath 2016 ke aaspaas chhoda jaaega. yeh venera design par aadhaarit hai. jo grah ki dharati par lambi avadhi tak jeevit rahane mein saksham hai. anya prastaavit shukr anveshan avadhaaranaaon mein rovar, gubbaare aur eyarobot shaamil hain |[133]

maanavayukt udaan avadhaarana

ek maanavayukt shukr flaaibaai mission, Apollo kaaryakram haardaveyar ka prayog kar, 1960 ke dashak ke ant mein prastaavit kiya gaya tha.[134] mission ko October ke ant ya November 1973 ki shuruaat mein shuru karne ki yojana banaai gayi aur takareeban ek varsh tak chalne waali is udaan mein teen logon ko shukr ke paas bhejane ke liye ek setarn V rocket ka prayog kiya gaya. kareeb chaar maheene baad, antariksh yaan shukr ki satah se lagbhag 5,000 kilometer ki doori se gujar gaya.[134]

antariksh yaan samay-soochi

yeh shukr grah ko aur adhik baareeki se anveshan ke liye pruthvi se chhode gaye prayaasarat aur safal antariksh yaan ki ek soochi hai.[135] shukr ko pruthvi ki kaksha mein sthit habal space teleeskop dvaara bhi pratibinbit kiya gaya hai. soodoor doorabeen prekshan shukr ke baare mein jaankaari ka ek anya srot hai.

naasa godaard space flaait center dvaara banaai gayi samay-soochi (2011 tak ki)[135]
uttaradaayitv abhiyaan prakshepan tatv aur parinaam nots
USSR सोवियत संघ sputanik 7 01961-02-04 fravari 4, 1961 sampark (prayaas kiya)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 1 01961-02-12 fravari 12, 1961 flaaibaai (sampark khoya)
USA संयुक्त राज्य merinr 1 01962-07-22 July 22, 1962 flaaibaai (prakshepan vifal)
USSR सोवियत संघ sputanik 19 01962-08-25 August 25, 1962 flaaibaai (prayaas kiya)
USA संयुक्त राज्य merinr 2 01962-08-27 August 27, 1962 flaaibaai
USSR सोवियत संघ sputanik 20 01962-09-01 sitmbar 1, 1962 flaaibaai (prayaas kiya)
USSR सोवियत संघ sputanik 21 01962-09-12 sitmbar 12, 1962 flaaibaai (prayaas kiya)
USSR सोवियत संघ kausamaus 21 01963-11-11 November 11, 1963 Attempted Venera test flight?
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 1964A 01964-02-19 fravari 19, 1964 flaaibaai (prakshepan vifal)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 1964B 01964-03-01 March 1, 1964 flaaibaai (prakshepan vifal)
USSR सोवियत संघ kausamaus 27 01964-03-27 March 27, 1964 flaaibaai (prayaas kiya)
USSR सोवियत संघ jond 1 01964-04-02 April 2, 1964 flaaibaai (sampark khoya)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 2 01965-11-12 November 12, 1965 flaaibaai (sampark khoya)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 3 01965-11-16 November 16, 1965 laindar (sampark khoya)
USSR सोवियत संघ kausamaus 96 01965-11-23 November 23, 1965 laindar (prayaas kiya ?)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 1965A 01965-11-23 November 23, 1965 flaaibaai (prakshepan vifal)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 4 01967-06-12 June 12, 1967 prob
USA संयुक्त राज्य merinr 5 01967-06-14 June 14, 1967 flaaibaai
USSR सोवियत संघ kausamaus 167 01967-06-17 June 17, 1967 prob (prayaas kiya)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 5 01969-01-05 January 5, 1969 prob
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 6 01969-01-10 January 10, 1969 prob
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 7 01970-08-17 August 17, 1970 laindar
USSR सोवियत संघ kausamaus 359 01970-08-22 August 22, 1970 prob (prayaas kiya)
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 8 01972-03-27 March 27, 1972 prob
USSR सोवियत संघ kausamaus 482 01972-03-31 March 31, 1972 prob (prayaas kiya)
USA संयुक्त राज्य merinr 10 01973-11-04 November 4, 1973 flaaibaai budh flaaibaai
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 9 01975-06-08 June 8, 1975 orbitr aur laindar
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 10 01975-06-14 June 14, 1975 orbitr aur laindar
USA संयुक्त राज्य pioneer Venus 1 01978-05-20 May 20, 1978 orbitr
USA संयुक्त राज्य pioneer Venus 2 01978-08-08 August 8, 1978 prob
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 11 01978-09-09 sitmbar 9, 1978 flaaibaai bas aur laindar
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 12 01978-09-14 sitmbar 14, 1978 flaaibaai bas aur laindar
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 13 01981-10-30 October 30, 1981 flaaibaai bas aur laindar
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 14 01981-11-04 November 4, 1981 flaaibaai bas aur laindar
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 15 01983-06-02 June 2, 1983 orbitr
USSR सोवियत संघ venera 16 01983-06-07 June 7, 1983 orbitr
USSR सोवियत संघ vega 1 01984-12-15 December 15, 1984 laindar aur gubbaara haili dhoomaketu flaaibaai
USSR सोवियत संघ vega 2 01984-12-21 December 21, 1984 laindar aur gubbaara haili dhoomaketu flaaibaai
USA संयुक्त राज्य maigalan 01989-05-04 May 4, 1989 orbitr
USA संयुक्त राज्य gaililiyo 01989-10-18 October 18, 1989 flaaibaai bruhaspati orbitr/prob
USA संयुक्त राज्य kaiseeni 01997-10-15 October 15, 1997 flaaibaai shani orbitr
USA संयुक्त राज्य meseinjar 02004-08-03 August 3, 2004 flaaibaai (x2) budh orbitr
ESA Venus express 02005-11-09 November 9, 2005 orbitr
JPN जापान akaatsuki 02010-12-07 December 7, 2010 orbitr (prayaas kiya) 2016 mein prayaas sambhaavit
ESA
JPN जापान
bepikolambo 02014-07-ekspreshan truti: anpekshit < oparetar.ekspreshan truti: anpekshit < oparetar. July truti: krupaya sankhya pradaan karein., 2014 flaaibaai (x2, yojana bani) budh orbitr ki yojana

aupanivesheekaran

apne behad pratikool paristhitiyon ke kaaran shukr ki dharati par upanivesh maujooda praudyogiki ke bas ke baahar hai | haalaanki, satah se lagbhag pachaas kilometer oopar vaayumandaleeya dabaav aur taapamaan pruthvi ki satah par jitna hi hain. shukr ke vaayumandal mein vaayu (naaitrojan aur okseejan) ek halki gas hogi jo adhikaanshat: kaarban daaioksaaid hai. isne shukr ke vaayumandal mein vyaapak "asthaayi shaharon" ke prastaavon ke liye prerit kiya hai.[136] eyarostet (hava ke gubbaare se bhi halka) ko praarambhik anveshan ke liye evam antim rup se sthaayi bastiyon ke liye istemaal kiya ja sakta hai |[136] kai engineering chunautiyon mein se ek in oonchaaiyon par salfyoorik esid ki khatarnaak maatra hain.[136]

sandarbh

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  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; horizons naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
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  5. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Seidelmann2007 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  6. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; iauwg_ccrsps2000 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  7. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; MallamaVenus naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
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saur mandal
सूर्य बुध शुक्र चन्द्रमा पृथ्वी Phobos and Deimos मंगल सीरिस) क्षुद्रग्रह बृहस्पति बृहस्पति के उपग्रह शनि शनि के उपग्रह अरुण अरुण के उपग्रह वरुण के उपग्रह नेप्चून Charon, Nix, and Hydra प्लूटो ग्रह काइपर घेरा Dysnomia एरिस बिखरा चक्र और्ट बादलSolar System XXVII.png
soorya · budh · shukr · pruthvi · mangal · seerees · bruhaspati · shani · Arun · varun · yam · haumeya · maakemaake · eris
grah · bauna grah · upagrah - chandrama · mangal ke upagrah · kshudragrah · bruhaspati ke upagrah · shani ke upagrah · Arun ke upagrah · varun ke upagrah · yam ke upagrah · eris ke upagrah
chhoti vastueain: ulka · kshudragrah (kshudragrah gheraa‎) · kinnar · varun-paar vastueain (kaaipar gheraa‎/bikhra chakr) · dhoomaketu (aurt baadal)