shruti

shruti hindu dharm ke sarvochch aur sarvopari dharmagranthon ka samooh hai. shruti ka shaabdik arth hai suna hua, yaani ishvar ki vaani jo praacheen kaal mein rishiyon dvaara suni gayi thi aur shishyon ke dvaara sunakar jagat mein failaai gayi thi. is divya srot ke kaaran inhein dharm ka sabse mahattvapoorn srot maana hai. inke alaave anya granthon ko smruti maana gaya hai - jinka arth hai manushyon ke smaran aur buddhi se bane granth jo vastut: shruti ke hi maanaveeya vivran aur vyaakhya maane jaate hain. shruti aur smruti mein koi bhi vivaad hone par shruti ko hi maanyata milti hai, smruti ko naheen. shruti mein chaar ved aate hain : rigved, saamaved, yajurved aur atharvaved. har ved ke chaar bhaag hote hain : sanhita, braahman-granth, aaranyak aur upanishd. inke alaava baaki sabhi hindu dharmagranth smruti ke antargat aate hain.

smrutiyon, dharmasootron, meemaansa, granthon, nibndhon mahaapuraanon mein jo kuchh bhi kaha gaya hai vah shruti ki mahati maanyata ko sveekaar karke hi kaha gaya hai aisi dhaarana sabhi praacheen dharmagranthon mein milti hai. apne pramaan ke liye ye granth shruti ko hi aadarsh bataate hain hindu paramparaao ke anusaar is maanyata ka kaaran yeh hai ki 'shrutu' brahma dvaara nirmit hai yeh bhaavana jan saamaanya mein prachalit hai chooainki srushti ka niynta brahma hai iseeliye uske mukh se nikle hue vachan purn pramaanik hain tatha pratyek niyam ke aadi srot hain. iski chhaap praacheenakaal mein itni gahari thi ki ved shabd shraddha aur aastha ka dyotak ban gaya. iseeliye peechhe ki kuchh shaastron ko mahatta pradaan karne ke liye unke rachayitaaon ne unke naam ke peechhe ved shabd jod diya. sambhavat: yahi kaaran hai ki dhanush chalaane ke shaastr ko dhanurved tatha chikitsa vishyak shaastr ko aayurved ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. mahaabhaarat ko bhi pancham ved iseeliye kaha gaya hai ki usaki mahatta ko atyadhik bal diya ja sake.


udaaharanaarth manu ki sanhita ko manusmruti maana jaata hai. iske anusaar samaaj, parivaar, vyaapaar dandaadi ke jo praavadhaan hain vah manu dvaara vichaarit aur vedon ki vaani par aadhaarit hain. lekin ye ishvar dvaara kahe gaye shabd (ya niyam) naheen hain. at: ye ek smruti granth hai. leki ishaavaasyopanishd ek shruti hai kyonki ismein ishvar ki vaani ka un rishiyon dvaara shabdaantaran hai.

vedon ko shruti do vajah se kaha jaata hai :

  1. inko param-brahm paramaatma ne praacheen rishiyon ko unke antarman mein sunaaya tha jab ve dhyaanamagn the. arthaat shruti ishvar-rachit hain.
  2. vedon ko pehle likha naheen jaata tha, inko guru apne shishyon ko sunaakar yaad karva dete the aur isi tarah parampara chalti thi.

sandarbh