shreedhar vyankatesh ketakar

dau॰ shreedhar vyankatesh ketakar (02 fravari 1884 - 10 April 1937) maraathi bhaasha ke pratham jnyaaanakosh (mahaaraashtreeya jnyaaanakosh) ke suvikhyaat janak-sampaadak, samaajashaastrajnya, kaadanbareekaar, itihaas-sanshodhak va vichaarak the. maraathi jnyaaanakosh ke mahaneeya kaarya ke kaaran unhein 'jnyaaanakoshakaar ketakar' naam se jaana jaata hai.

parichay

shreedhar veinkatesh ketakar ka janm vartamaan Chhattisgarh ke Raipur mein hua tha. unki aarambhik shiksha amaraavati tatha Mumbai ke Wilson college mein hui jo bade aniyamit dhang se chali. vividh vishyon ka gyaan praapt karne mein unhonne achhi ruchi dikhlaai aur saahitya sambandhi anek kriyaakalaapon mein utsaahapoorvak dilchaspi li, fir bhi ve yahaaain vishvavidyaalaya ki koi upaadhi praapt na kar sake.

san‌ 1906 mein ve amareeka chale gaye. kaurnel vishvavidyaalaya mein paaainch varsh bitaane ke baad 1911 mein unhonne pi-H. di. vi upaadhi praapt ki. unke shodhaprabandh ka sheershak tha 'Bhaarat mein jaatiyon ka itihaas' (the histari of Caste in India). ismein unhonne manusmruti mein parilkshit saamaajik sthitiyon ka vivechanaatmak vishleshan kiya. unhonne manusmruti ka rachanaakaal 227 se 320 E. ke beech mein maana hai. iske parishisht roop mein diye gaye lekh 'jaati aur maanav-jaati-vigyaan' mein unhonne 'varn' tatha 'jaati' ke maulik bhed par bal diya. amareeka mein unhonne apna samay vividh vishyon ka gyaan praapt karne mein bitaaya jo unke jeevan ke mukhya granth maraathi jnyaaanakosh ke nirmaan mein sahaayak hua. lautate samay ek varsh tak ve London mein ruke aur vahaaain bhi saamaajik vishyon sambandhi adhyayan evam gaveshan kaarya jaari rakha. yahaaain unhonne jaatiyon ke itihaas ka doosra khand 'hindutv par nibandh' (a‍aain ese on hindooijham, its faurmeshan aaind future) naam se prakaashit kiya.

Bhaarat aane ke baad ketakar ne kuchh varsh Calcutta vishvavidyaalaya mein raajaneetishaastr tatha arthashaastr padhaane mein vyateet kiye. isi samay unhonne do anya granth prakaashit kiye - bhaarateeya arthashaastr tatha hindu vidhi (hindu law aaind the methads aaind prinsipls of the histaurikl stadi dearaof).

unhonne January, 1916 mein hi vastut: maraathi jnyaaanakosh ke mahaan‌ saahityik anushthaan ka aupachaarik roop se aarambh kiya. unhein ise paaainch varsh mein prakaashit karne ki aasha thi kintu vaastav mein keval pehla khand hi san‌ 1921 mein nikal saka aur ikkeesavaaain khand (anukramanika) 1929 mein prakaashit hua. 1916 se 1929 tak ka 13-14 varsh ka samay ketakar ke liye asaadhaaran daud dhoopavaali sakriyta ka tha, kyonki unhein ek saath hi jnyaaanakosh ke sampaadak, vyavasthaapak, mudrak, prakaashak, yahaaain tak ki sthaan sthaan par jaakar uske graahak banaane ka bhi kaarya karna padta tha. poorn sanlagnata chaahanevaale is kaam ke saath saath aur uske samaapt ho jaane ke baad bhi, ve anyaanya kaaryon mein - saahityik, saamaajik tatha raajaneetik - baraabar jute rahate the. ve ek dainik samaachaarapatr tatha ek saahitya patrika ka sanpaadan karte the aur upanyaas, raajaneetik pustikaaeain tatha samaajavijnyaaan sambandhi nibandh likha karte the. iske atirikt ve apni bhaavi pustak 'praacheen Maharashtra ka itihaas' ke sambandh mein bahut sa gaveshan kaarya bhi karte rahate the. kintu yeh baat hamein maan hi leni padti hai ki san‌ 1930 ke baad ki unki rachanaaeain dekhne se spasht ho jaata hai ki pehle ke kushal lekhak ki maanasik grahanasheelata mein kami aa gayi hai.

san‌ 1920 mein ketakar ne ek jarman mahila, edith khro se vivaah kiya, jo vratyastom ke dvaara hindu dharm mein Dixit kar li gayi thi. isi mahila ne vintaranits dvaara likhit 'bhaarateeya saahitya ka itihaas' ka angreji mein anuvaad prastut kiya. unke jeevan ko sthirta pradaan karne mein is vivaah se badi sahaayata mili.

granthasanpada

  • 'the histari of Caste in India' (Bhaarat mein jaatiyon ka itihaas)
  • kaadambari mein
  • aashaavaadi (1937)
  • gaanvasaasoo (1942)
  • gondavanaateel priyanvada
  • paraaganda (1926)
  • braahmanakanya (1930)
  • bhatakya (1938)
  • vichkshana (1937)
  • saahityavishyak
  • mahaaraashtreeyaanche kaavyapareekshan

baahari kadiyaaain