shraavasti

bhaaratavarsh ke uttar pradesh praant ke gonda-baharaaich jilon ki seema mein par yeh prasiddh bauddh teerth sthaan hai. gonda-balaraamapur se 12 meal pashchim me aaj ka sahet-mahet gaanv hi shraavasti hai. praacheen kaal mein yeh kaushal desh ki doosari rajdhani thi. Bhagwan Ram ke putr love ne ise apni rajdhani banaaya tha. shraavasti bauddh va jain dono ka teerth sthaan hai. tathaagat deergh kaal tak shraavasti me rahe the. yahaan ke shreshthi anaathapindik asankhya svarn mudraayein vyaya karke Bhagwan buddh ke liye jetavan Bihar banavaaya tha. ab yahaan bauddh dharmashaala, math aur mandir hain.

anukram

parichay

maana gaya hai ki shraavasti ke sthaan par aaj aadhunik sahet mahet gram hai jo ek doosare se lagbhag dedh farlaang ke antar par sthit hain. yeh buddhakaaleen nagar tha, jiske bhagnaavashesh uttar pradesh raajya ke, baharaaich evam gonda jile ki seema par, raapti nadi ke dakshini kinaare par faile hue hain.

in bhagnaavasheshon ki jaaainch san‌ 1862-63 mein jenanaral kaningham ne ki aur san‌ 1884-85 mein iski poorn khudaai dau॰ dabloo. hui (Dr. W. Hoey) ne ki. in bhagnaavasheshon mein do stoop hain jinmein se bada mahet tatha chhota sahet naam se vikhyaat hai. in stoopon ke atirikt anek mandiron aur bhavanon ke bhagnaavashesh bhi mile hain. khurda ke dauraan anek utkeern moortiyaaain aur pakki mitti ki moortiyaaain praapt hui hain, jo namoone ke roop mein pradesheeya sangrahaalaya (Lucknow) mein rakhi gayi hain. yahaaain sanvat‌ 1176 ya 1276 (1119 ya 1219 E.) ka shilaalekh mila hai, jisse pata chalta hai ki bauddh dharm is kaal mein prachalit tha. bauddh kaal ke saahitya mein shraavasti ka varnan anekaanek baar aaya hai aur Bhagwan buddh ne yahaaain ke jetavan mein anek chaaturmaans vyateet kiye the. jain dharm ke pravartak mahaaveer ne bhi shraavasti mein vihaar kiya tha. cheeni yaatri faahiyaan 5veen sadi E. mein Bhaarat aaya tha. us samay shraavasti mein lagbhag 200 parivaar rahate the aur 7veen sadi mein jab huen siyaang Bhaarat aaya, us samay tak yeh nagar nashtabhrasht ho chuka tha. sahet mahet par ankit lekh se yeh nishkarsh nikaala gaya ki 'bal' naamak bhikshu ne is moorti ko shraavasti ke vihaar mein sthaapit kiya tha. is moorti ke lekh ke aadhaar par sahet ko jetavn maana gaya. kaningham ka anumaan tha ki jis sthaan se uparyukt moorti praapt hui vahaaain 'kosanbakuti vihaar' tha. is kuti ke uttar mein praapt kuti ko kaningham ne 'gandhakuti' maana, jismein bhagavaan‌ buddh varshaavaas karte the. mahet ki anek baar khudaai ki gayi aur vahaaain se mahatvapoorn saamagri praapt hui, jo use shraavasti nagar siddh karti hai. shraavasti naamaankit kai lekh sahet mahet ke bhagnaavasheshon se mile hain.

praacheen nagar

yeh kosal-janapad ka ek pramukh nagar tha. yahaaain ka doosra prasiddh nagar ayodhya tha. shraavasti nagar achiraavati nadi ke tat par basa tha, jiski pehchaan aadhunik raapti nadi se ki jaati hai. is sarita ke tat par sthit aaj ka sahet-mahet praacheen shraavasti ka pratinidhi hai. is nagar ka yeh naam kyon pada, is sambandh mein kai tarah ke varnan milte hain. bauddh dharm-granthon ke anusaar is samruddh nagar mein dainik jeevan mein kaam aane waali sabhi chhoti-badi cheejein bahutaayat mein badi suvidha se mil jaati theen. yahaaain manushyon ke upabhog-paribhog ki sabhi vastueain sulabh theen; at: ise saavatthi (sabb atthi) kaha jaata tha.

sthiti

praacheen shraavasti ke avashesh aadhunik 'sahet'-'mahet' naamak sthaanon par praapt hue hain. yeh nagar 27°a51' uttari akshaansh aur 82°a05' poorvi deshaantar par sthir tha. 'sahet' ka sameekaran 'jetavan' se tatha 'mahet' ka praacheen 'shraavasti nagar' se kiya gaya hai. praacheen teela evam bhagnaavashesh gonda evam baharaaich jilon ki seema par bikhre pade hain, jahaaain balaraamapur station se pahuaincha ja sakta hai. baharaaich evam balaraamapur se iski doori kramash: 26 evam 10 meal hai. aajkal 'sahet' ka bhaag baharaaich jile mein aur 'mahet' gonda jile mein padta hai. balaraamapur - baharaaich maarg par sadak se 800 foot ki doori par 'sahet' sthit hai jabki 'mahet' 1/3 meal ki doori par sthit hai. Vincent smith ne sarvapratham shraavasti ka sameekaran charada se kiya tha jo 'sahet-mahet' se 40 meal uttar-pashchim mein sthit hai. lekin jetavan ke utkhanan se govind chand gahadvaal ke 1128 E. ke ek abhilekh ki praapti se iska sameekaran 'sahet-mahet' se nishchit ho gaya hai. praacheen shraavasti nagar achiraavati nadi, jiska aadhunik naam raapti hai, ke tat par sthit tha. yeh nadi nagar ke sameep hi bahti thi. bauddh yug mein yeh nadi nagar ko gher kar bahti thi. bauddh saahitya mein shraavasti ka varnan koshal janapad ki rajdhani aur raajagruh se dakshin-pashchim mein kaalak aur assak tak jaane vaale raajamaarg par saavatthi naamak do mahattvapoorn padaavon ke roop mein milta hai.

naam ki utpatti

  • shraavasti koshal ka ek pramukh nagar tha. Bhagwan buddh ke jeevan kaal mein yeh koshal desh ki rajdhani thi. ise buddhakaaleen Bhaarat ke 6 mahaanagaron, chanpa, raajagruh, shraavasti, saaket, koshaanbi aur Varanasi mein se ek maana jaata tha. iske naam ki vyutpatti ke sambandh mein kai mat pratipaadit hai.
  • saavatthi, sanskrut shraavasti ka paali aur arddhamaagadhi roop hai. bauddh granthon mein is nagar ke naam ki utpatti ke vishay mein ek anya ullekh bhi milta hai. inke anusaar savatth (shraavast) naamak ek rishi yahaaain par rahate the, jinki badi ooainchi pratishtha thi. inheen ke naam ke aadhaar par is nagar ka naam shraavasti pad gaya tha.
  • paanini (lagbhag 500 E.poorv) ne apne prasiddh vyaakaran-granth 'ashtaadhyaayi' mein saaf likha hai ki sthaanon ke naam vahaaain rahane vaale kisi vishesh vyakti ke naam ke aadhaar par pad jaate the.
  • mahaabhaarat ke anusaar shraavasti ke naam ki utpatti ka kaaran kuchh doosra hi tha. shraavast naamak ek raaja huye jo ki pruthu ki chhatheen peedhi mein utpann huye the. vahi is nagar ke janmadaata the aur unheen ke naam ke aadhaar par iska naam shraavasti pad gaya tha. puraanon mein shraavastak naam ke sthaan par shraavast naam milta hai. mahaabhaarat mein ullikhit yeh parampara uparyukt anya paramparaaon se kaheen adhik praacheen hai. ataev usi ko praamaanik maanana uchit baat hogi. baad mein chal kar kosal ki rajdhani, ayodhya se hataakar shraavasti la di gayi thi aur yahi nagar kosal ka sabse pramukh nagar ban gaya.
  • braahman saahitya, mahaakaavyon evam puraanon ke anusaar shraavasti ka naamakaran shraavast ya shraavastak ke naam ke aadhaar par hua tha. shraavastak yuvanaashv ka putr tha aur pruthu ki chhathi peedhi mein utpann hua tha. vahi is nagar ke janmadaata the aur unheen ke naam ke aadhaar par iska naam shraavasti pad gaya tha.
  • puraanon mein shraavastak naam ke sthaan par shraavast naam milta hai.
  • mahaabhaarat mein ullikhit yeh parampara uparyukt anya paramparaaon se kaheen adhik praacheen hai. ataev usi ko praamanik maanana uchit baat hogi.
  • matsya evam brahmapuraanon mein is nagar ke sansthaapak ka naam shraavastak ke sthaan par shraavast milta hai. baad mein chal kar kosal ki rajdhani, ayodhya se hataakar shraavasti la di gayi thi aur yahi nagar kosal ka sabse pramukh nagar ban gaya.
  • ek bauddh granth ke anusaar vahaaain 57 hajaar kul rahate the aur kosal-nareshon ki aamdani sabse zyaada isi nagar se hua karti thi. Gautam buddh ke samay mein bhaaratavarsh ke 6 bade nagaron mein shraavasti ki ganana hua karti thi. yeh chaudi aur gahari khaai se ghira hua tha. iske atirikt iske ird-gird ek suraksha-deevaar bhi thi, jismein har disha mein daravaaje bane huye the. hamaari praacheen kala mein shraavasti ke daravaajon ka ankan hua hai. usase gyaat hota hai ki ve kaafi chaude the aur unase kai badi savaariyaaain ek hi saath baahar nikal sakti theen. kosal ke naresh bahut saj-dhaj kar bade haathiyon ki peeth par kase huye chaaaindi ya sone ke haudon mein baith kar bade hi shaan ke saath baahar nikla karte the.
  • cheeni yaatri faahiyaan aur huyenasaang ne bhi shraavasti ke daravaajon ka ullekh kiya hai. shraavasti ek samruddh, janaakeern aur vyaapaarik mahattv waali nagari bhi. yahaaain manushyon ke upabhog-paribhog ki sabhi vastueain sulabhi theen at: ise saavatthi kaha jaata tha.

pehle yeh keval ek dhaarmik sthaan tha, kintu kaalaantar mein is nagar ka samutkarsh hua. jain saahitya mein iske liye 'chandrapuri' tatha 'chandrikaapuri' naam bhi milte hain.

  • mahaakaavyon evam puraanon mein shraavasti ko Ram ke putr love ki rajdhani bataaya gaya hai.
  • kaalidaas ne ise 'sharaavati' naam se abhihit kiya hai. uchchaaran sambandhi samaanata ke aadhaar par 'shraavasti' aur 'sharaavati' donon ek hi prateet hote hain aur ek nishchit sthaan ki taraf ingit bhi karte hain.
  • shraavasti na keval bauddh aur jain dharmon ka ek mahattvapoorn kendra tha apitu yeh braahman dharm evam ved vidya ka bhi ek mahattvapoorn kendra tha. yahaaain vaidik shiksha kendra ke kulapati ke roop mein 'jaanussoni' ka naamollekh milta hai. kaalaantar mein buddh ke jeevan-kaal se sambandhit tatha pramukh vyaapaarik maargon se jude hone ke kaaran shraavasti ki bhautik samruddhi mein vruddhi hui.

nagar ka vikaas

jetavan stoop ke avashesh, shraavasti

hamaare kuchh praacheen granthon ke anusaar kosal ka yeh pradhaan nagar sarvada ramaneek, darshaneeya, manoram aur dhanadhaanya se sampann tha. ismein sabhi tarah ke upakaran maujood the. isko dekhne se lagta tha, maano devapuri alakananda hi saakshaat dharaatal par utar I ho. nagar ki sadkein chaudi theen aur in par badi savaariyaaain bhali bhaaainti aa sakti theen. naagrik shrrungaar-premi the. ve haathi, ghode aur paalaki par savaar hokar raajamaargon par nikla karte the. ismein raajakeeya koshthaagaar bane huye the jinmein ghi, tel aur khaane-peene ki cheejein prabhoot maatra mein ekatr kar li gayi theen.

bauddh dharm anuyaayi

vahaaain ke naagrik Gautam buddh ke bahut bade bhakt the. 'milindaprashn' naamak granth mein chadhaav-badhaav ke saath kaha gaya hai ki ismein bhikshuon ki sankhya 5 karod thi. iske alaava vahaaain ke teen lakh sattaavan hajaar gruhasth bauddh dharm ko maanate the. is nagar mein 'jetavan' naam ka ek udyaan tha jise vahaaain ke jet naamak Rajkumar ne aaropit kiya tha. is nagar ka anaathapindik naamak seth jo buddh ka priya shishya tha, is udyaan ke shaantimya vaataavaran se bada prabhaavit tha. usane ise khreed kar bauddh sangh ko daan kar diya tha. bauddh granthon mein katha aati hai ki is pooainjeepati ne jetavan ko utani mudraaon mein khreeda tha jitni ki bichhaane par iske poore frsh ko bhali prakaar dhak deti theen. usane iske bheetar ek math bhi banava diya jo ki shraavasti aane par buddh ka vishraamagruh hua karta tha. ise log 'kosal mandir' bhi kehte the. anaathapindik ne jetavan ke bheetar kuchh aur bhi math banava diye jinmein bhikshu log rahate the. inmein pratyek ke nirmaan mein ek lakh mudraayein khrch hui theen. iske atirikt usane kueain, taalaab aur chabootare aadi ka bhi vahaaain nirmaan kara diya tha. bauddh granthon mein varnan milta hai ki jetavan mein rahane vaale bhikshu subah aur shaam raapti nadi mein nahaane ke liye aate the. lagta hai ki yeh udyaan iske tat ke sameep hi kaheen sthit tha. anaathapindik ne apne jeevan ki saari kamaai bauddh sangh ke hit mein laga di thi. uske ghar par shramanon ko bahusankhya mein prati din yathesht bhojan karaaya jaata tha. Gautam buddh ke prati shraddha ke kaaran shraavasti nareshon ne is nagar mein daanagruh banava rakha tha, jahaaain par bhikshuon ko bhojan milta tha.

mahaakaavyon tatha puraanon mein varnit shraavasti

mahaakaavyon mein shraavasti ka vishd varnan milta hai.

vaayu puraan aur vaalmeeki raamaayan mein varnan hai ki raamachandr ji ne (dakshin kosal ka apne putr kush ko aur uttar kosal ka love ko raaja banaaya tha. raamaayan ke anusaar love ki rajdhani shraavasti mein thi, madhupuri mein shatrughn ko soochana mili ki love ke liye shraavasti naamak nagari Ram ne basaai hai aur ayodhya ko janaheen karke unhonne svarg jaane ka vichaar kiya hai. is varnan se prateet hota hai ki shreeraam ke svargaarohan ke pashchaat ayodhya ujad gayi thi aur kosal ki nai rajdhani shraavasti mein banaai gayi theen. raamaayan mein do koshal nagaron ki charcha hai:- uttar koshal jiski rajdhani shraavasti thi, dakshin koshal jiski rajdhani kushaavati thi. Ram ke shaasan kaal mein in donon raajadhaaniyon ka varnan milta hai. Ram ne apne putr love ko shraavasti ka aur kush ko kushaavati ka raaja banaaya tha. vartamaan samay mein shraavasti balaraamapur se 10 meal, ayodhya se 58 meal tatha raajageer se 720 meal door sthit hai.

matsya, ling aur koorm puraanon mein shraavasti ko gonda mein sthit batalaaya gaya hai, jiska sameekaran kaningham ne aadhunik gonda se kiya hai. shraavasti ki sansthaapana shraavastak ne ki thi. vaayu puraan ke anusaar shraavastak ke pita ka naam andh tha. matsya aur brahm puraanon mein shraavast ya shraavastak ko yuvanaashv ka putr aur adr ka pautr kaha gaya hai. mahaabhaarat mein inse alag soochana milti hai. ismein shraavastak ko shraav ka putr tatha yuvanaashv ka pautr kaha gaya hai. kuchh puraanon mein shravastak ya shraavastak ko yuvanaashv ka putr aur adr ka pautr kaha gaya hai. kaalidaas ne raghuvansh mein love ko 'sharaavati' naamak nagari ka raaja banaaya jaana likha hai. is ullekh mein 'sharaavati', nishchaya roop se shraavasti ka hi uchchaaran bhed hai. shraavasti ki sthaapana puraanon ke anusaar, 'shravast' naam ke sooryavanshi raaja ne ki thi | love ne yahaaain kosal ki nai rajdhani banaai aur shraavasti dheere-dheere uttar kosal ki vaibhavashaalini nagari ban gayi.