shoonya

shoonya (0) ek ank hai jo sankhyaaon ke niroopan ke liye prayukt aajaki sabhi sthaaneeya maan paddhatiyon ka aparihaarya prateek hai. iske alaava yeh ek sankhya bhi hai. donon roopon mein ganit mein iski atyant mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai. poornaankon tatha vaastavik sankhyaaon ke liye yeh yog ka tatsamak avayav (additive identity) hai.

anukram

gun

  • kisi bhi vaastavik sankhya ko shoonya se guna karne se shoonya praapt hota hai. (x * 0 = 0)
  • kisi bhi vaastavik sankhya ko shoonya se jodne ya ghataane par vaapas vahi sankhya praapt hoti hai. (x + 0 = x ; x - 0 = x)

aavishkaar

shoonya ka aavishkaar kisne aur kab kiya yeh aaj tak andhakaar ke gart mein chhupa hua hai parantu sampoorn vishv mein yeh tathya sthaapit ho chuka hai ki shoonya ka aavishkaar Bhaarat mein hi hua. aisi bhi kathaaeain prachalit hain ki pehli baar shoonya ka aavishkaar baabil mein hua aur doosari baar maaya sabhyata ke logon ne iska aavishkaar kiya par dono hi baar ke aavishkaar sankhya pranaali ko prabhaavit karne mein asamarth rahe tatha vishv ke logon ne inhein bhula diya.

fir Bhaarat mein hinduon ne teesari baar shoonya ka aavishkaar kiya. hinduon ne shoonya ke vishay mein kaise jaana yeh aaj bhi anuttarit prashn hai. adhiktam vidvaanon ka mat hai ki paanchaveen shataabdi ke madhya mein shoonya ka aavishkaar kiya gaya.

sarvanandi naamak digmbar jain muni dvaara mool roop se prakrut mein rachit lokavibhaag naamak granth mein shoonya ka ullekh sabse pehle milta hai. is granth mein dashamlav sankhya paddhati ka bhi ullekh hai.

san 498 mein bhaarateeya ganitjnya evam khagolavetta aaryabhatt ne kaha 'sthaanan sthaanan dasa gunam' arthaat das guna karne ke liye (uske) aage (shoonya) rakho. aur shaayad yahi sankhya ke dashamlav siddhaant ka udgam raha hoga. aaryabhatt dvaara rachit ganiteeya khagolashaastr granth 'aaryabhatteeya' ke sankhya pranaali mein shoonya tatha uske liye vishisht sanket sammilit tha (isi kaaran se unhein sankhyaaon ko shabdon mein pradarshit karne ke avsar mila). pracheen bakshaali paandulipi mein, jiska ki sahi kaal ab tak nishchit naheen ho paaya hai parantu nishchit roop se usaka kaal aaryabhatt ke kaal se praacheen hai, shoonya ka prayog kiya gaya hai aur uske liye usamein sanket bhi nishchit hai. uparokt uddharanon se spasht hai ki Bhaarat mein shoonya ka prayog brahmagupt ke kaal se bhi poorv ke kaal mein hota tha.

shoonya tatha sankhya ke dashamlav ke siddhaant ka sarvapratham aspasht prayog brahmagupt rachit granth brahmasfut siddhaant mein paaya gaya hai. is granth mein rinaatmak sankhyaaon (negative numbers) aur beejaganiteeya siddhaanton ka bhi prayog hua hai. saataveen shataabdi, jo ki brahmagupt ka kaal tha, shoonya se sambandhit vichaar kambodiya tak pahuainch chuke the aur dastaavejon se gyaat hota hai ki baad mein ye kambodiya se cheen tatha anya muslim sansaar mein fail gaye.

is baar Bhaarat mein hinduon ke dvaara aavishkrut shoonya ne samast vishv ki sankhya pranaali ko prabhaavit kiya aur sampoorn vishv ko jaankaari mili. madhya-poorv mein sthit arab deshon ne bhi shoonya ko bhaarateeya vidvaanon se praapt kiya. antat: baarahaveen shataabdi mein Bhaarat ka yeh shoonya pashchim mein Europe tak pahuaincha.

Bhaarat ka 'shoonya' arab jagat mein 'sifr' (arth - khaali) naam se prachalit hua. fir laitin, itailiyn, French aadi se hote hue ise angreji mein 'jeero' (zero) kehte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

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