shiya islaam

arabi lipi mein likha shabd-yugm "muhammad Ali" is shiya vishvaas ko dikhaata hai ki muhammad aur Ali mein nishtha dikhaana ek samaan hi hai. isko ulata ghuma dene par yeh "Ali muhammad" ban jaata hai.

shiya ek musalmaan sampradaaya hai. sunni sampradaaya ke baad yeh islaam ka doosra sabse bada sampradaaya hai jo poori muslim aabaadi ka keval 15% hai. san 632 mein hajarat muhammad ki mrutyu ke pashchaat jin logon ne apni bhaavana se hajrat Ali ko apna imaam (dharmaguru) aur khleefa (neta) chuna vo log shiyaane Ali (Ali ki toli vaale) kahalaae jo aaj shiya kahalaate hain.

is dhaarmik vichaaradhaara ke anusaar hajrat Ali, jo muhammad saahab ke chachere bhaai aur daamaad donon the, hi hajarat muhammad saahab ke asli uttaraadhikaari the aur unhein hi pehla khleefa (raajanaitik pramukh) banana chaahiye tha. yadyapi aisa hua naheen aur unako teen aur logon ke baad khleefa, yaani pradhaan neta, banaaya gaya. Ali aur unke baad unke vanshajon ko islaam ka pramukh banana chaahiye tha, aisa vishvaas rakhane vaale shiya hain. sunni musalmaan maanate hain ki hajrat Ali sahit pehle chaar khaleefa (abu bakr, umar, usmaan tatha hajrat Ali) satapathi (raashidun) the jabki shiya musalmaanon ka maanana hai ki pehle teen khaleefa islaam ke gair-vaajib pradhaan the aur ve hajrat Ali se hi imaamon ki ginti aarambh karte hain aur is ginti mein khleefa shabd ka prayog naheen karte. sunni muslim Ali ko (chautha) khleefa bhi maanate hai aur unke putr husain ko maravaane vaale khleefa yaajid ko kai jagahon par pathabhrasht muslim kehte hain.

is sampradaaya ke anuyaayiyon ka bahumat mukhya roop se iraan,iraak,bahareen aur ajrabaijaan me rahate hain. iske alaava Syria, Kuwait, Turkey, afgaanistaan, Pakistan, omaan, yaman tatha Bhaarat mein bhi shiya aabaadi ek pramukh alpasankhyak ke roop mein hai. shiya islaam ke vishvaas ke teen upakhand hain - baarahavaari, ismaaili aur jaidi. ek mashahoor hadees mankunato maula f ha ja Ali un maula, jo muhammad saahab ne gadeer naamak jagah par apne aakhri haj par khutba diya tha, mein spasht kah diya tha ki musalmaan samudaaya ko samudaaya Ali ke kahe ka anusaran karna hai.

anukram

shiya sunni vivaad

san 632 mein muhammd saahab ne apne aakhiri haj mein khumm sarovar ke nikat apne saathiyon ko sambodhit kiya tha. shiya vishvaas ke anusaar is khitaab mein unhonne apne daamaad Ali ko apna vaaris banaaya tha. sunni is ghatna ko Ali (al0) ki prashansa maatr maanate hai aur vishvaas rakhate hain ki unhonne hajrat Ali ko khleefa niyukt naheen kiya. isi baat ko lekar dono pakshon mein matabhed shuru hota hai.

haj ke baad muhammad saahab (s0) beemaar rahane lage. unhonne sabhi bade sahaabiyon ko bula kar kaha ki mujhe kalam daavaat de do ki me tumako esa navishta likh dooain ki tum bhatako nahi to umar ne kaha ki ye hijyaan kah rahe he aur naheen dene diya (dekhe bukhaari, muslim). aapke hukm ke khilaaf ye log ladaai par naheen gaye raste me ruke rahe. jab paigmbar saahab ki mrutyu ka samaachaar mila to bhi ye vaapas na aakar sakifa mein sabha karne lage ki ab kya karna chaahiye. jis samay hajrat muhammad (s0) ki mrutyu hui, Ali aur unke kuchh aur mitr muhammad saahab (s0) ko dafnaane mein lage the, abu bakr madeena mein jaakar khilaaft ke liye vimarsh kar rahe the. madeena ke kai log (mukhyat: bani omaiya, bani asad ityaadi kabeele) abu bakar ko khaleefa banaane pa‍aar sahamat ho gaye. dhyaan rahe ki mohammad saaheb evam Ali ke kabeele vaale yaani bani haashim Ali ko hi khaleefa banaana chaahate the. par islaam ke ab tak ke sabse bade saamraajya (us samay tak sampoorn arabi praayadveep mein faila) ke vaaris ke liye musalmaanon mein ekajutata naheen rahi. kai logon ke anusaar Ali, jo muhammad saahab ke chachere bhaai the aur daamaad bhi (kyonki unhonne muhammad saahab ki santaan faatima se shaadi ki thi) hi muhammad saahab ke asli vaaris the. parantu abu bakr pehle khaleefa banaaye gaye aur unke marne ke baad umar ko khleefa banaaya gaya. isse Ali (al0) ke samarthak logon mein aur bhi rosh faila parantu Ali musalmaanon ki bhalaai ke liye chup rahe.

usmaan ki khilaaft

umar ke baad teesare khaleefa usmaan bane. pa‍aarantu inke samay me asantusht logon ne misr tatha iraak va anya sthaano se aakar madeena mein aakar usmaan ke ghar ko gher liya 40 din tak usmaan ke ghar ko gheraav kiya ant me usmaan ko maar daala.

khaleefa Ali aur paravarti vivaad

ab fir se khleefa ka pad khaali tha aur islaami saamraajya bada ho raha tha. musalamaano ko hajrat Ali ke alaava koi na dikha par Ali khaleefa banane ko na maane. kai din shura ke log khaleefa ke pad ko na bhar sake. ant me Ali ko vivsh kiya gaya to aap ne kaha ki mere khilaafat me ilaahi nijaam (ishvar shaasan) chalega. unhein chautha khaleefa niyukt kiya gaya. Ali apne insaaf ke liye mashahoor hain par logo ko ye na raas aaya to unhonne usmaan ke kaatilo ko saja dilvaane ke fauj ikkthi ki. Ali ne kaha usmaan ke katilo ko saja jarur milegi, par inka udyeshya kuchh aur tha to jamal naamak jang hui. kuchh samay baad Syria ke soobedaar muaaviya ne bhi Ali ka virodh kiya. muaaviya teesare khaleefa usmaan ka rishtedaar tha. aur usi usmaan ke katilo ke saja ke bahaane se siffeen mein jang ki jismein muaaviya bhi haar gaya. san 661 mein kufa mein ek masjid mein unako dhoke se shaheed kar diya gaya. iske baad muaaviya ne apne ko islaam ka khleefa ghoshit kar diya.

imaam hasan aur imaam husain

iraak ke najaf mein imaam Ali ki majaar

hajrat Ali aur saiddhaantik roop se muhammad sao saahab ke rishtedaaron ke samarthakon ne unke putr hasan ke prati nishtha dikhaai, lekin kuchh unka saath chhod gaye. aap ne jang na ki balki maveeya ko sandhi karni padi. asal me Ali ke samay mein siffeen ki ladaai me maaviya ne muainh ki khaai, vo khaleefa banana chaahata tha pa‍aar na ban saka. vo Syria ka Governor pichhle khaleefaaon ke kaaran bana tha ab vo apni ek badi sena taiyaar kar raha tha ab usane vahi savaal imaam hasan ke saamane rakha: ya to yuddh ya fir adheenata. imaam hasan ne adheenata sveekaar naheen ki parantu vo musalamaano ka khoon bhi naheen bahaana chaahate the is kaaran vo yuddh se door rahe. ab maaviya bhi kisi bhi tarah satta chaahata tha to imaam hasan se sandhi karne par majaboor ho gaya. imaam hasan ne apni sharto par usako si‍arf satta saunpi. in sharto me se kuchh ye hain: -

  • vo sirf satta ke kaamon tak seemit rahega yaani dharm mein koi hastakshep nahi kar sakega.
  • vo apne jeevan tak hi satta me rahega ma‍aarane se pehle kisi ko uttaraadhikaari na bana sakega.
  • uske marne ke baad imaam hasan khaleefa hoge. yadi imaam hasan ki mrutyu ho jaaye to imaam husain ko khalifa maana jaayaga.
  • vo sirf islaam ke kaanoonon ka paalan karega.

is prakaar ki sharto ke dvaara vo sirf naam maatr ka shaasak rah gaya. uske vansh ka shaasan 750 isvi tak raha aur unhein umayyad kaha gaya.

shiya sampradaaya ke vibhaag

shiya musalmaanon ki sabhi tahareek hajarat muhammad saahab ke baad Ali va unki 11 putron ko silsilevaar santaanon ko islaam ka uttaraadhikaari maanate hain. iname sabse pehle imaam hasan alyhissalaam ka naam aata hai, aap imaam Ali (ibne abutalib) ke jyeshth putr the aur aap ne imaam Ali ke baad 47 saal ki aayu me khilaafat sambhaali. aap keval 6 maah tak hi khaleefa rahe jiske paashchaat aapne maviya se sandhi ke pashchaat raajanaitik shaasan se tyaag patra de diya magar aap apne anunaaiyao ka maarg darshan imaam ke sammaanit pad ke antargat karte rahe jo aapke paas imaam Ali ao ke pashchaat aaya tha. aapko maviya ne saajish karke shaheed kar diya. aapke vaseeyat ke anusaar aapke pashchaat imaam husain ne aapke pashchaat imaam ke pad ko sambhala. aapse hi karbala ki mahaan katha sambandhit hai. aapne jab maviya ke duraachaari putr yajeed ka samarthan karne se jab spasht rup se mana kar diya tab aapko apne parivaar evam mitron sahit, jo kul 72 ki sankhya mein the, 30,000 ya adhik ki fauj dvaara gher kar shaheed kar diya gaya. aap par aur aapke parivaar par paani 3 din pehle se hi band tha. isi ki yaad me har saal aapke anuyaayi muharram ka vishv prasiddh evam pavitra tyohaar manaate hai. is tyahaar me dharm sabhaayein evam shok sabhaaon ityadi ka ayojan hota hai!

shiya sampradaaya ke imaamo ke naam kramavaar nimn likhit hai.-

  1. imaam - hajarat Ali ibne abi taalib
  2. imaam - hajarat hasan ibne Ali
  3. imaam - hajarat husain ibne Ali
  4. imaam - hajarat Ali ibne husain (al jainul aabedeen, al- sajjaad)
  5. imaam - hajarat mohammad ibne Ali (al- baakir)
  6. imaam - hajarat jaafar ibne mohammad (al-saadik)
  7. imaam - hajarat moosa ibne jaafar (al-kaajim)
  8. imaam - hajarat Ali ibne musa (al-raja, al-jaamin O saamin)
  9. imaam - hajarat mohammad ibne Ali (al-taki)
  10. imaam - hajarat Ali ibne mohammad (al-naki)
  11. imaam - hajarat hasan ibne Ali (al-askari)
  12. imaam - hajarat mohammad ibne hasan (al-mahadi, al-kaayam, imaam A vakt, al-hujjat) (antim evam jeevit imaam)


  • baarahavaari-is upasampradaaya ke anuyaayi 12ve imaam ko jeevit evam vartamaan samay ke imaam maanate hain ! is vishvaas ke anusaar ye Allah ki aajnyaa se antardhayaan hai aur ek nishchit samay par prakat hoge, aisa vishvaas hai!
  • jaidi -
  • ismaaili

shiya janasankhya ka vitran

shiya janasankhya ka madhya poorv aur dakshin Asia mein vitran
desh kul muslim janasankhya shiya janasankhya shiya janasankhya ka pratishat sandarbh
iraan 68,700,000 66,800,000 96.98
Pakistan 165,800,800 33,200,000 20.02
iraak 26,000,000 17,400,000 66.92
Turkey 71,517,100 15,000,000 20.97 [1],[2]
Bhaarat 50,09,000,000 11,000,000 10.09
ajrabaijaan 9,000,000 7,600,000 85.00
afgaanistaan 31,000,000 5,900,000 19.03
saudi arab 27,000,000 4,000,000 14.81
Lebanon 3,900,000 1,700,000 43.59
Kuwait 2,400,000 730,000 30.42
bahareen 700,000 520,000 74.29
Syria 20,178,485 3,228,557 16.0 [3]
san.a.ami. 2,600,000 160,000 6.15
ktar 890,000 140,000 15.73
omaan 3,100,000 31,000 1.00
srot: kai vidvataapoorn sandarbh aur madhya poorv aur pashchim ke sarkaari aur gair sarkaari sangathanon ke aaainkadon ke aadhaar par


sandarbh

yeh bhi dekhein