shivaalik

kalimpong kasaba, ek dooravarti pahaadi se drushya. paridrushya mein himaalaya ki shivaalik pahaadiyaan hain.

shivaalik parvat shreni (ise churiya shreni ya baahya himaalaya bhi kaha jaata hai) himaalaya parvat ka sabse dakshini tatha bhaugolik rup se yuva bhaag hai jo pashchim se poorab tak faila hua hai. yeh himaayal parvat pranaali ke dakshintam aur bhoogarbh shaastreeya drushti se, kanishthatam parvatamaala kadi hai. iski ausat oonchaai 900-1200 meter hai aur iski kai upashreniyaan bhi hain. yeh 1600 ki॰mee॰ tak poorv mein tista nadi, sikkim se pashchimvart Nepal aur uttaraakhand se Kashmir hote hue uttari Pakistan tak jaate hain. sahaaranapur, uttar pradesh se deharaadoon aur masoori ke parvaton mein jaane hetu mohan darra pradhaan maarg hai. poorv mein is shreni ko himaalaya se dakshinaavarti nadiyon dvaara, bade aur chaude bhaagon mein kaata ja chuka hai. mukhyat yeh himaalaya parvat ki baahyatam, nimnatam tatha tarunatam shrrunkhala hain. uttari Bhaarat mein ye pahaadiyaaain ganga se lekar vyaas tak 200 meal ki lanbaai mein faili hui hain aur inki sarvochch oonchaai lagbhag 3,500 foot hai. ganga nadi se poorv mein shivaalik sadrush sancharana paatali, paatakot tatha kotah ko kaalaaghungi tak himaalaya ko baahya shrrunkhala se pruthak‌ karti hai. ye pahaadiyaaain Punjab mein Hoshiarpur evam Ambala jilon tatha Himachal pradesh mein sirmaur jile ko paar kar jaati hai. is bhaag ki shivaalik shrrunkhala anek nadiyon dvaara khandit ho gayi hai. in nadiyon mein pashchim mein ghaggar sabse badi nadi hai. ghaggar ke pashchim mein ye pahaadiyaaain deevaar ki tarah chali gayi hain aur Ambala ko sirsa nadi ki lambi evam tang ghaati se ropad tak, jahaaain pahaadiyon ko sataluj kaatati hai, alag karti hain. vyaas nadi ki ghaati mein ye pahaadiyaaain tarangit pahadiyon ke roop mein samaapt ho jaati hain. in pahadiyon ki uttari dhalaan ki chauras satahavaali ghaatiyon ko doon kehte hain. ye doon saghan, aabaad evam gahan krusht kshetr hain. sahaaranapur aur deharaadoon ko jodnevaali sadak mohan darre se hokar jaati hai.

bhoovaijnyaaanik drushti se shivaalik pahaadiyaaain madhya-alp-nootan se lekar nimn-atyant-nootan yug ke beech mein, sudoor uttar mein, himaalaya ke utthaan ke samay pruthvi ki halachal dvaara drudheebhoot, valit evam bhranshit hui hain. ye mukhyat: sangutikaashm tatha baluaa patthar se nirmit hai aur inmein stani varg ke praaniyon ke prachur jeevaashm mile hain

sanyojan

shivaalik parvat praay: baluaa patthar aur kaunglomaret nirmaanon dvaara nirmit hai. yeh kachche pattharon ka samooh hai. yeh dakshin mein ek main frantal thrast naamak ek dosh pranaali se grast hain. us or inki dussah dhaalein hain. shivaapithekas (poorvanaam raamaapithekas) naamak vanamaanush/ aadimaanav ke jeevaashm shivaalik mein mile kai jeevaashmon mein se ek hain. jalodhi ya kachhaari (elyooviyl) bhoomi ke bhabhbhar kshetron ki dakshini teechr dhaalon ko lagbhag samatal mein badal dete hain. greeshmakaaleen varshaaen taraai kshetron ki uttari chhor par jharane aur daladal paida karti hai. yeh nameeyukt mandal atyadhik maleriya varti tha, jab tak ki di.di.ti ka prayog machharon ko rokane ke liye aarambh naheen hua. yeh kshetr Nepal naresh ki aajnyaaanusaar jungle roop mein rakshit rakha gaya. ise raksha uddeshya se rakha gaya tha aur chaar kos jhaadi kaha jata tha. shivaalik patti ke uttar mein 1500-3000 meter tak ka mahaabhaarat lekh kshetr hai, jise chhota himaalaya, ya laissar himaalaya bhi kaha jaata hai. kai sthaanon par yeh donon maalaaen ekdam niktavarti hain aur kai sthaanon par 10-20 ki.mi. chaudi hain. in ghaatiyon ko bnhaarat mein doon kaha jaata hai. (udaa0 doon ghaati jismein deharaadoon bhi patali doon evam kothari doon ke saath (donon utaraakhand ke kaurbet raashtreeya udyaan mein,) tatha Himachal pradesh mein pinjaur doon bhi aate hain. [Nepal]] mein inhein aantarik taraai bhi kaha jaata hai, jismein chitvan, daang-deukhuri aur serakhet aate hain.

aabaadi

shivaalik ki prasaranasheel kanon ki aviksit mitti jal sanchaya naheen karti hai, ataev kheti ke liye anupayukt hai. yeh kuchh samooh, jaise van gujjar, jo ki pashu-paalan se apni jeevika chalaate hain, unase vaasit hai. poore shivaalik evam mahaabhaarat shreni ki dakshini teevr dhaalon mein kam janasankhya ghanatv evam iske taraai kshetron mein vishmaya maleriya hi uttar bhaarateeya samatal kshetron evam ghani aabaadi vaale kai parvateeya kshetron ke beech saanskrutik, bhaasha aadhaarit aur raajanaitik dooriyon ka mukhya kaaran rahe hain. is hi kaaran donon kshetr vibhinn tareekon se ubhare hain.

sandarbh

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