shivaaji

shivaaji raaje bhonsale
chhatrapati the boss
british sangrahaalaya mein sthit shivaaji mahaaraaj ka asli chitr
raajakaal 1674–1680
raajyaabhishek 1674
janm 19 February, 1630
shivneri durg
mrutyu 3 April, 1680
raayagadh
poorvaadhikaari shaahaji bhonsale
uttaraadhikaari sambhaaji
pita shaahaji bhonsale
maata jeejaabaai

chhatrapati shivaaji mahaaraaj ya shivaaji raaje bhosale (1630 - 1680) Bhaarat ke mahaan yoddha evam rananeetikaar the jinhonne 1674 mein pashchim Bhaarat mein maraatha saamraajya ki neenv rakhi. unhonne kai varsh aurangajeb ke mugal saamraajya se sangharsh kiya. san 1674 mein raayagadh mein unka raajyaabhishek hua aur chhatrapati bane. shivaaji ne apni anushaasit sena evam susangathit prashaasanik ikaaiyon ki sahaayata se ek yogya evam pragatisheel prashaasan pradaan kiya. unhonne samar-vidya mein anek navaachaar kiye tatha chhaapaamaar yuddh ki nayi shaili (shivsootr) viksit ki. unhonne praacheen hindu raajanaitik prathaaon tatha darabaari shishtaachaaron ko punarjeevit kiya aur faarasi ke sthaan par maraathi evam sanskrut ko raajakaaj ki bhaasha banaaya.

Bhaarat ke svatantrata sangraam mein bahut se logon ne shivaaji ke jeevanacharit se prerana lekar Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke liye apna tan, man dhan nyauchhaavar kar diya.

anukram

aaranbhik jeevan

shivaaji ka janm 19 February 1630 mein shivneri durg mein hua tha .[1] shaahaji bhonsale ki patni jeejaabaai (raajamaata jijaaoo) ki kokh se shivaaji mahaaraaj ka janm 19 fravari 1630 ko shivneri durg mein hua tha. shivneri ka durg poona (Pune) se uttar ki taraf junnar nagar ke paas tha. unka bachapan unki maata jijaaoo ke maargadarshan mein beeta. vah sabhi kalaaon mein maahir the, unhonne bachapan mein raajaneeti evam yuddh ki shiksha li thi. ye bhonsale upajaati ke the jo ki moolat: kshatriya rajput vansh ke the [2] unke pita apratim shooraveer the aur unki doosari patni tukaabaai mohite theen. unki maata ji jeejaabaai jaadhav kul mein utpann asaadhaaran pratibhaashaali thi aur unke pita ek shaktishaali saamant the. shivaaji mahaaraaj ke charitra par maata-pita ka bahut prabhaav pada. bachapan se hi ve us yug ke vaataavaran aur ghatanaaoain ko bhali prakaar samajhne lage the. shaasak varg ki karatooton par ve jhallaate the aur bechain ho jaate the. unke baal-hrudaya mein svaadheenata ki lau prajjvalit ho gayi thi. unhonne kuchh svaamibhkt saathiyon ka sangathan kiya. avastha badhne ke saath videshi shaasan ki bediyaaain tod feinkane ka unka sankalp prabalatar hota gaya. chhatrapati shivaaji mahaaraaj ka vivaah san 14 May 1640 mein saibaai nimbaalakar ke saath laal mahal, puna mein hua tha.

sainik varchasv ka aarambh

us samay Bijapur ka raajya aapasi sangharsh tatha videshi aakramanakaal ke daur se gujar raha tha. aise saamraajya ke sultaan ki seva karne ke badle unhonne maavalon ko Bijapur ke khilaaf sangathit karne lage. maaval pradesh pashchim ghaat se juda hai aur koi 150 kilometer lamba aur 30 kilometer chauda hai. ve sangharshapoorn jeevan vyateet karne ke kaaran kushal yoddha maane jaate hain. is pradesh mein maraatha aur sabhi jaati ke log rahate hain. shivaaji mahaaraaj in sabhi jaati ke logon ko lekar maavalon (maavala) naam dekar sabhi ko sanghatit kiya aur unase sampark kar unke pradesh se parichit ho gaye the. maaval yuvakon ko laakar unhonne durg nirmaan ka kaarya aarambh kar diya tha. maavalon ka sahayog shivaaji mahaaraaj ke liye baad mein utana hi mahatvapoorn saabit hua jitna sherashaah soori ke liye afgaanon ka saath.

us samay Bijapur aapasi sangharsh tatha muglon ke aakraman se pareshaan tha. Bijapur ke sultaan aadilshaah ne bahut se durgon se apni sena hataakar unhein sthaaneeya shaasakon ya saamanton ke haath saunp diya tha. jab aadilshaah beemaar pada to Bijapur mein araajakata fail gayi aur shivaaji mahaaraaj ne avsar ka laabh uthaakar Bijapur mein pravesh ka nirnaya liya. shivaaji mahaaraaj ne iske baad ke dinon mein Bijapur ke durgon par adhikaar karne ki neeti apnaai. sabse pehla durg tha toran ka durg.

durgon par niyantran

toran ka durg poona ke dakshin pashchim mein 30 kilometer ki doori par tha. shivaaji ne sultaan aadilshaah ke paas apna doot bhejkar khabar bhijvaai ki ve pehle kiledaar ki tulana mein behtar rakam dene ko taiyaar hain aur yeh kshetr unhein saunp diya jaaye. unhonne aadilshaah ke darabaariyon ko pehle hi rishvat dekar apne paksh mein kar liya tha aur apne darabaariyon ki salaah ke mutaabik aadilshaah ne shivaaji mahaaraaj ko us durg ka adhipti bana diya. us durg mein mili sampatti se shivaaji mahaaraaj ne durg ki surakshaatmak kamiyon ki marammat ka kaam karavaaya. isse koi 10 kilometer door raajagadh ka durg tha aur shivaaji mahaaraaj ne is durg par bhi adhikaar kar liya.

shivaaji mahaaraaj ki is saamraajya vistaar ki neeti ki bhanak jab aadilshaah ko mili to vah kshubdh hua. usane shaahaji raaje ko apne putr ko niyantran mein rakhane ko kaha. shivaaji mahaaraaj ne apne pita ki paravaah kiye bina apne pita ke kshetr ka prabandh apne haathon mein le liya aur niyamit lagaan band kar diya. raajagadh ke baad unhonne chaakan ke durg par adhikaar kar liya aur uske baad kondana ke durg par. kondana (kondhaana) par adhikaar karte samay unhein ghoos deni padi. kondana par adhikaar karne ke baad usaka naam sinhagadh rakha gaya. shaahaji raaje ko poona aur soopa ki jaageeradaari di gayi thi aur soopa ka durg unke sambandhi baaji mohite ke haath mein thi. shivaaji mahaaraaj ne raat ke samay soopa ke durg par aakraman karke durg par adhikaar kar liya aur baaji mohite ko shaahaji raaje ke paas Karnataka bhej diya. usaki sena ka kuchh bhaag bhi shivaaji mahaaraaj ki seva mein aa gaya. isi samay purandar ke kiledaar ki mrutyu ho gayi aur kile ke uttaraadhikaar ke liye uske teenon beton mein ladaai chhid gayi. do bhaaiyon ke nimantran par shivaaji mahaaraaj purandar pahuainche aur kootaneeti ka sahaara lete hue unhonne sabhi bhaaiyon ko bandi bana liya. is tarah purandar ke kile par bhi unka adhikaar sthaapit ho gaya. ab tak ki ghatna mein shivaaji mahaaraaj ko koi yuddh ya khunakharaaba naheen karna pada tha. 1647 isvi tak ve chaakan se lekar neera tak ke bhoobhaag ke bhi adhipti ban chuke the. apni badhi sainik shakti ke saath shivaaji mahaaraaj ne maidaani ilaakon mein pravesh karne ki yojana banaai.

ek ashvaarohi sena ka gathan kar shivaaji mahaaraaj ne aabaaji sonder ke netrutv mein konkan ke viruddh ek sena bheji. aabaaji ne konkan sahit nau anya durgon par adhikaar kar liya. iske alaava taala, mosmaala aur raayati ke durg bhi shivaaji mahaaraaj ke adheen aa gaye the. loot ki saari sampatti raayagadh mein surakshit rakhi gayi. kalyaan ke Governor ko mukt kar shivaaji mahaaraaj ne kolaaba ki or rukh kiya aur yahaaain ke pramukhon ko videshiyon ke khilaaf yuddh ke liye ukasaaya.

shaahaji ki bandi aur yuddhaviraam

Bijapur ka sultaan shivaaji mahaaraaj ki harkaton se pehle hi aakrosh mein tha. usane shivaaji mahaaraaj ke pita ko bandi banaane ka aadesh de diya. shaahaji raaje us samay Karnataka mein the aur ek vishvaasaghaati sahaayak baaji ghorapade dvaara bandi banaakar Bijapur laae gaye. un par yeh bhi aarop lagaaya gaya ki unhonne kutubashaah ki seva praapt karne ki koshish ki thi jo golakonda ka shaasak tha aur is kaaran aadilshaah ka shatru. Bijapur ke do saradaaron ki madhyasthata ke baad shaahaaji mahaaraaj ko is shart par mukt kiya gaya ki ve shivaaji mahaaraaj par lagaam kaseinge. agale chaar varshon tak shivaaji mahaaraaj ne beejeepur ke khilaaf koi aakraman naheen kiya. is dauraan unhonne apni sena sangathit ki.

prabhuta ka vistaar

Birla mandir, dilleemein shivaaji ki moorti

shaahaji ki mukti ki sharton ke mutaabik shivaaji ne Bijapur ke kshetron par aakraman to naheen kiya par unhonne dakshin-pashchim mein apni shakti badhaane ki cheshta ki. par is kram mein jaavali ka raajya baadha ka kaam kar raha tha. yeh raajya saataara ke sudoor uttar pashchim mein vaama aur Krishna nadi ke beech mein sthit tha. yahaaain ka raaja chandraraav more tha jisne ye jaageer shivaaji se praapt ki thi. shivaaji ne more shaasak chandraraav ko Swaraj me shamil hone ko kaha par chandraraav Bijapur ke sultaan ke saath mil gaya. san 1656 mein shivaaji ne apni sena lekar jaavali par aakraman kar diya. chandraraav more aur uske donon putron ne shivaaji ke saath ladaai ki par ant mein ve bandi bana liye gaye par chandraraav bhaag gaya. sthaaneeya logon ne shivaaji ke is krutya ka virodh kiya par ve vidroh ko kuchalane mein safal rahe. isse shivaaji ko us durg mein sangraheet aath vanshon ki sampatti mil gayi. iske alaava kai maaval sainik muraarabaaji deshapaade bhi shivaaji ki sena mein sammilit ho gaye.

mugalon se pehli muthabhed

shivaaji ke Bijapur tatha mugal donon shatru the. us samay shahajaada aurangajeb dakkan ka soobedaar tha. isi samay 1 November 1656 ko Bijapur ke sultaan aadilshaah ki mrutyu ho gayi jiske baad Bijapur mein araajakata ka maahaul paida ho gaya. is sthiti ka laabh uthaakar aurangajeb ne Bijapur par aakraman kar diya aur shivaaji ne aurangajeb ka saath dene ki bajaay usapar dhaava bol diya. unki sena ne junnaar nagar par aakraman kar dher saari sampatti ke saath 200 ghode loot liye. ahamadanagar se 700 ghode, chaar haathi ke alaava unhonne gunda tatha resin ke durg par bhi lootpaat machaai. iske parinaamasvaroop aurangajeb shivaaji se khafa ho gaya aur maitri vaarta samaapt ho gayi. shaahajahaaain ke aadesh par aurangajeb ne Bijapur ke saath sandhi kar li aur isi samay shaahajahaaain beemaar pad gaya. uske vyaadhigrast hote hi aurangajeb uttar Bhaarat chala gaya aur vahaaain shaahajahaaain ko kaid karne ke baad mugal saamraajya ka shaah ban gaya.

konkan par adhikaar

dakshin Bhaarat mein aurangajeb ki anupasthiti aur Bijapur ki davaaaindol raajanaitik sthit ko jaanakar shivaaji ne samaraji ko janjeera par aakraman karne ko kaha. par janjeera ke siddiyon ke saath unki ladaai kai dinon tak chali. iske baad shivaaji ne khud janjeera par aakraman kiya aur dakshin konkan par adhikaar kar liya aur daman ke purtagaaliyon se vaarshik kar ekatr kiya. kalyaan tatha bhivndi par adhikaar karne ke baad vahaaain nausainik adda bana liya. is samay tak shivaaji 40 durgon ke maalik ban chuke the.

Bijapur se sangharsh

idhar aurangajeb ke Agra (uttar ki or) laut jaane ke baad Bijapur ke sultaan ne bhi raahat ki saans li. ab shivaaji hi Bijapur ke sabse prabal shatru rah gaye the. shaahaji ko pehle hi apne putr ko niyantran mein rakhane ko kaha gaya tha par shaahaji ne ismein apni asamarthata jaahir ki. shivaaji se nipatne ke liye Bijapur ke sultaan ne abdullaah bhataari (afjl khaaain) ko shivaaji ke virooddh bheja. afjal ne 120000 sainikon ke saath 1659 mein kooch kiya. tulajaapur ke mandiron ko nasht karta hua vah sataara ke 30 kilometer uttar vaai, shirval ke najadeek tak aa gaya. par shivaaji prataapagadh ke durg par hi rahe. Afzal khaaain ne apne doot krushnaji bhaaskar ko sandhi-vaarta ke liye bheja. usane uske maarfat ye sandesh bhijvaaya ki agar shivaaji Bijapur ki adheenata sveekaar kar le to sultaan use un sabhi kshetron ka adhikaar de deinge jo shivaaji ke niyantran mein hain. saath hi shivaaji ko Bijapur ke darbaar mein ek sammaanit pad praapt hoga. haalaanki shivaaji ke mantri aur salaahakaar as sandhi ke paksh me the par shivaaji ko ye vaarta raas naheen I. unhonne krushnaji bhaaskar ko uchit sammaan dekar apne darbaar mein rakh liya aur apne doot gopeenaath ko vastusthiti ka jaayaja lene Afzal khaaain ke paas bheja. gopeenaath aur krushnaji bhaaskar se shivaaji ko aisa laga ki sandhi ka shadayantr rachakar Afzal khaaain shivaaji ko bandi banaana chaahata hai. at: unhonne yuddh ke badle Afzal khaaain ko ek bahumoolya upahaar bheja aur is tarah Afzal khaaain ko sandhi vaarta ke liye raaji kiya. sandhi sthal par donon ne apne sainik ghaat lagaakar rakhe the milne ke sthaan par jab donon mile tab Afzal khaaain ne apne katyaar se shivaaji pe vaar kiya bachaav mein shivaaji ne Afzal khaaain ko apne vastron vaaghanakho se maar diya [10 November 1659]|

Afzal khaaain ki mrutyu ke baad shivaaji ne panhaala ke durg par adhikaar kar liya. iske baad pavanagadh aur vasantagadh ke durgon par adhikaar karne ke saath hi saath unhonne roostam khaaain ke aakraman ko vifal bhi kiya. isse raajaapur tatha daavul par bhi unka kabja ho gaya. ab Bijapur mein aatank ka maahaul paida ho gaya aur vahaaain ke saamanton ne aapasi matabhed bhulaakar shivaaji par aakraman karne ka nishchaya kiya. 2 October 1665 ko beejaapuri sena ne panhaala durg par adhikaar kar liya. shivaaji sankat mein fans chuke the par raatri ke andhakaar ka laabh uthaakar ve bhaagane mein safal rahe. Bijapur ke sultaan ne swayam kamaan samhaalakar panhaala, pavanagadh par apna adhikaar vaapas le liya, raajaapur ko loot liya aur shrrungaaragadh ke pradhaan ko maar daala. isi samay Karnataka mein siddeejauhar ke vidroh ke kaaran Bijapur ke sultaan ne shivaaji ke saath samjhauta kar liya. is sandhi mein shivaaji ke pita shaahaji ne madhyasthata ka kaam kiya. san 1662 mein hui is sandhi ke anusaar shivaaji ko Bijapur ke sultaan dvaara svatantr shaasak ki maanyata mili. isi sandhi ke anusaar uttar mein kalyaan se lekar dakshin mein ponda tak (250 kilometer) ka aur poorv mein indaapur se lekar pashchim mein daavul tak (150 kilometer) ka bhoobhaag shivaaji ke niyantran mein aa gaya. shivaaji ki sena mein is samay tak 30000 paidal aur 1000 ghudsavaar ho gaye the.

mugalon ke saath sangharsh

uttar Bhaarat mein baadshah banane ki hod khatm hone ke baad aurangajeb ka dhyaan dakshin ki taraf gaya. vo shivaaji ki badhti prabhuta se parichit tha aur usane shivaaji par niyantran rakhane ke udyeshya se apne maama shaaista khaaain ko dakshin ka soobedaar niyukt kiya. shaaiska khaaain apne 1,50,000 foj lekar soopan aur chaakan ke durg par adhikaar kar poona pahuainch gaya. usane 3 saal tak maaval me lutamaar ki. ek raat shivaaji ne apne 350 mavalo ke saath unapar hamla kar diya. shaaista to khidki ke raaste bach nikalne mein kaamayaab raha par use isi kram mein apni chaar anguliyon se haath dhona pada. shaaista khaaain ke putr, tatha chaalees rakshakon aur anginat sainikon ka katl kar diya gaya. is ghatna ke baad aurangajeb ne shaaista ko dakkan ke badle Bengal ka soobedaar bana diya aur shaahajaada muajjam shaaista ki jagah lene bheja gaya.

soorat mein loot

is jeet se shivaaji ki pratishtha mein ijaafa hua. 6 saal shaastaakhaan ne apni 150000 fauj lekar raaja shivaaji ka pura mulukh jalaakar tabaah kar diya tha. is liye us ka harjaana vasool karne ke liye shivaaji ne mugal kshetron mein lootpaat machaana aarambh kiya. soorat us samay pashchimi vyaapaariyon ka gadh tha aur hindustaani musalmaanon ke liye haj par jaane ka dwaar. yeh ek samruddh nagar tha aur iska bandargaah bahut mahatvapoorn tha. shivaaji ne chaar hajaar ki sena ke saath chh: dinon tak soorat ko ke dhanadya vyaapaari ko loota aam aadami ko nahi luta aur fir laut gaye. is ghatna ka jikr dach tatha angrejon ne apne lekhon mein kiya hai. us samay tak Europeeya vyaapaariyon ne Bhaarat tatha anya Asiaee deshon mein bas gaye the. naadir shaah ke Bhaarat par aakraman karne tak (1739) kisi bhi yooropeeya shakti ne bhaarateeya mugal saamraajya par aakraman karne ki naheen sochi thi.

soorat mein shivaaji ki loot se khinn hokar aurangajeb ne inaayat khaaain ke sthaan par gayaasuddeen Khan ko soorat ka faujadaar niyukt kiya. aur shahajaada muajjam tatha upasenaapati raaja jasavant Singh ki jagah diler khaaain aur raaja jayasinh ki niyukti ki gayi. raaja jayasinh ne Bijapur ke sultaan, Europeeya shaktiyaaain tatha chhote saamanton ka sahayog lekar shivaaji par aakraman kar diya. is yuddh mein shivaaji ko haani hone lagi aur haar ki sambhaavana ko dekhte hue shivaaji ne sandhi ka prastaav bheja. June 1665 mein hui is sandhi ke mutaabik shivaaji 23 durg muglon ko de deinge aur is tarah unke paas keval 12 durg bach jaaenge. in 23 durgon se hone waali aamdani 4 lakh hoon saalaana thi. baalaaghaat aur konkan ke kshetr shivaaji ko mileinge par unhein iske badle mein 13 kiston mein 40 lakh hoon ada karne honge. iske alaava prativrsh 5 lakh hoon ka raajasv bhi ve deinge. shivaaji swayam aurangajeb ke darbaar mein hone se mukt raheinge par unke putr shambhaaji ko mugal darbaar mein khidmat karni hogi. Bijapur ke khilaaf shivaaji mugalon ka saath deinge.

Agra mein aamantran aur palaayan

shivaaji ko Agra bulaaya gaya jahaaain unhein laga ki unhein uchit sammaan naheen mil raha hai. iske khilaaf unhonne apna rosh bhare darbaar mein dikhaaya aur aurangajeb par vishvaasaghaat ka aarop lagaaya. aurangajeb isse kshubdh hua aur usane shivaaji ko najrakaid kar diya aur unapar 5000 sainikon ke pahare laga diye. kuchh hi dinon baad[18 August 1666 ko] raaja shivaaji ko maar daalne ka iraada aurangajeb ka tha. lekin apne ajod saahas or yukti ke saath shivaaji aur sambhaaji donon isse bhaagane mein safal rahe[17 August 1666]. sambhaaji ko Mathura mein ek vishvaasi braahman ke yahaaain chhod shivaaji banaaras, gaya, puri hote hue sakushal raajagadh pahuainch gaye [2 sitmbar 1666]. isse maraathon ko navajeevan sa mil gaya. aurangajeb ne jayasinh par shak karke usaki hatya vish dekar karva daali. jasavant Singh ke dvaara pahal karne ke baad san 1668 mein shivaaji ne mugalon ke saath doosari baar sandhi ki. aurangajeb ne shivaaji ko raaja ki maanyata di. shivaaji ke putr shambhaaji ko 5000 ki manasabadaari mili aur shivaaji ko poona, chaakan aur soopa ka jila lauta diya gaya. par, sinhagadh aur purandar par muglon ka adhiptya bana raha. san 1670 mein soorat nagar ko doosari baar shivaaji ne loota. nagar se 132 lakh ki sampatti shivaaji ke haath lagi aur lautate vakt unhonne mugal sena ko soorat ke paas fir se haraaya.

raajyaabhishek

रायगढ़ में शिवाजी की प्रतिमा

san 1674 tak shivaaji ne un saare pradeshon par adhikaar kar liya tha jo purandar ki sandhi ke antargat unhein muglon ko dene pade the. pashchimi Maharashtra mein svatantr hindu raashtra ki sthaapana ke baad shivaaji ne apna raajyaabhishek karna chaaha, parantu braahamanon ne unka ghor virodh kiya. shivaaji ke niji sachiv Balaji aav ji ne ise ek chunauti ke roop mein liya aur unhonne ne kaashi mein gangaabh namak braahman ke paas teen dooto ko bheja, kintu ganga ne prastaav thukara diya kyonki shivaaji kshatriya naheen the usane kaha ki kshatriyta ka pramaan laao tabhi vah raajyaabhishek karega. Balaji aav ji ne shivaaji ka sambandh mevaad ke sisodiya vansh se samabanddh ke pramaan bheje jisse santusht hokar vah raayagadh aaya or usane raajyaabhishek kiya. raajyaabhishek ke baad bhi poona ke braahmanon ne shivaaji ko raaja maanane se mana kar diya vivsh hokar shivaaji ko ashtapradhaan mandal ki sthaapana karni padi [3]. vibhinn raajyon ke dooton, pratinidhiyon ke alaava videshi vyaapaariyon ko bhi is samaaroh mein aamantrit kiya gaya. shivaaji ne chhatrapati ki upaadhi grahan ki. kaashi ke pandit visheshvar ji bhatt ko ismein vishesh roop se aamantrit kiya gaya tha. par unke raajyaabhishek ke 12 din baad hi unki maata ka dehaant ho gaya. is kaaran se 4 October 1674 ko doosari baar unka raajyaabhishek hua. do baar hue is samaaroh mein lagbhag 50 lakh rupaye kharch hue. is samaaroh mein hindu Swaraj ki sthaapana ka udghosh kiya gaya tha. vijyanagar ke patan ke baad dakshin mein yeh pehla hindu saamraajya tha. ek svatantr shaasak ki tarah unhonne apne naam ka sikka chalavaaya. iske baad Bijapur ke sultaan ne konkan vijay ke liye apne do senaadheeshon ko shivaaji ke viruddh bheja par ve asafal rahe.

dakshin mein digvijya

san 1677-78 mein shivaaji ka dhyaan Karnataka ki or gaya. Mumbai ke dakshin mein konkan, tungabhadra nadi ke pashchim mein belagaaainv tatha dhaaravaad ka kshetr, Mysore, vailaari, trichoor tatha jinji par adhikaar karne ke baad 4 April, 1680 ko shivaaji ka dehaant ho gaya.

mrutyu aur uttaraadhikaar

teen saptaah ki beemaari ke baad shivaaji ki mrutyu April 1680 mein hui. us samay shivaaji ke uttaraadhikaar shambhaaji ko mile. shivaaji ke jyeshth putr shambhaaji the aur doosi patni se raajaaraam naam ek doosra putr tha. us samay raajaaraam ki umr maatr 10 varsh thi at: maraathon ne shambhaaji ko raaja maan liya. us samay aurangajeb raaja shivaaji ka dehaant dekhkar apni poore Bhaarat par raajya karne ki abhilaasha se apni 5,00,000 sena saagar lekar dakshin Bhaarat jeetne nikla. aurangajeb ne dakshin me aatehi adilshaahi 2 dino me or kutubashahi 1 hi dino mein khatam kar di. par raaja sambhaaji ke netrutv me maraathaao ne 9 saal yuddh karte huye apni svatantrata barakaraa‍aar rakhi. aurangajeb ke putr shahajaada Akbar ne aurangajeb ke khilaaf vidroh kar diya. shambhaaji ne usako apne yahaaain sharan di. aurangajeb ne ab fir jordaar tarikese shambhaaji ke khilaaf aakraman karna shuru kiya. usane antat: 1689 mein sanbhaaji ke bivi ke sage bhaai ne yaane ganoji shirke ki mukhabari se shambaaji ko mukarav khaaain dvaara bandi bana liya. aurangajeb ne raaja sambhaaji se badasalooki ki aur bura haal kar ke maar diya. apni raaja ko aurangajeb ne badasuluki our buri haal maara hua dekhkar sabi maraatha svaraajya krodheet hua. unhone apni puri taakad se teesara raaja Ram ke netrutv me mugalon se sangharsh jaari rakha. 1700 isvi mein raajaaraam ki mrutyu ho gayi. uske baad raajaaraam ki patni taaraabaai ne 4 varsheeya putr shivaaji dviteeya ki sanrakshika bankar raaj karti rahi. aakhirkaar 25 saal maraatha svaraajya ke yoodadh ladake thake huye aurangajeb ki usi chhtrapati shivaaji ke svaraajya me dafan huye.

shaasan aur vyaktitv

shivaaji ko ek kushal aur prabuddh samraat ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. yadyapi unako apne bachapan mein paaramparik shiksha kuchh khaas naheen mili thi, par ve bhaarateeya itihaas aur raajaneeti se suparichit the. unhonne shukraachaarya tatha kautilya ko aadarsh maankar kootaneeti ka sahaara lena kai baar uchit samjha tha. apne samakaaleen mugalon ki tarah vah bhi nirankush shaasak the, arthaat shaasan ki samoochi baagdor raaja ke haath mein hi thi. par unke prashaasakeeya kaaryon mein madad ke liye aath mantriyon ki ek parishad thi jinhein ashtapradhaan kaha jaata tha. ismein mantriyon ke pradhaan ko peshava kehte the jo raaja ke baad sabse pramukh hasti tha. amaatya vitt aur raajasv ke kaaryon ko dekhta tha to mantri raaja ki vyaktigat dainandini ka khayaal rakhaata tha. sachiv daftari kaam karte the jisme shaahi muhar lagaana aur sandhi patron ka aalekh taiyaar karna shaamil hote the. sumant videsh mantri tha. sena ke pradhaan ko senaapati kehte the. daan aur dhaarmik maamalon ke pramukh ko panditraav kehte the. nyaayaadheesh nyaayik maamalon ka pradhaan tha.

chhatrapati shivaaji dvaara chalaaya gaya sikka

maraatha saamraajya teen ya chaar vibhaagon mein vibhkt tha. pratyek praant mein ek soobedaar tha jise praantapati kaha jaata tha. harek soobedaar ke paas bhi ek ashtapradhaan samiti hoti thi. kuchh praant keval karadaata the aur prashaasan ke maamale mein svatantr. nyaayavyavastha praacheen paddhati par aadhaarit thi. shukraachaarya, kautilya aur hindu dharmashaastron ko aadhaar maankar nirnaya diya jaata tha. gaaainv ke Patel faujadaari mukadamon ki jaaainch karte the. raajya ki aay ka saadhan bhoomikr tha par chauth aur saradeshamukhi se bhi raajasv vasoola jaata tha. chauth padosi raajyon ki suraksha ki guaranty ke liye vasoole jaane wala kar tha. shivaaji apne ko maraathon ka saradeshamukh kehta the aur isi haisiyat se saradeshamukhi kar vasoola jaata tha.

raajyaabhishek ke baad unhonne apne ek mantri (raamachandr amaatya) ko shaasakeeya upayog mein aane vaale faarasi shabdon ke liye upayukt sanskrut shabd nirmit karne ka kaarya saunpa. raamachandr amaatya ne dhundhiraaj naamak vidvaan ki sahaayata se 'raajyavyavahaarakosh' naamak granth nirmit kiya. is kosh mein 1380 faarasi ke prashaasanik shabdon ke tulya sanskrut shabd the. ismein raamachandr ne likha hai-

krute mlechhochhede bhuvi nirvasheshan ravikula-
vatansenaatyarthan yavanavachanairluptasaraneem.
nrupavyaahaaraarthan s tu vibudhabhaashaan vitnitum.
niyuktoऽbhoodvidvaannrupavar shivchhatrapatina .81.

dhaarmik neeti

shivaaji ek samarpit hindu the tatha vah dhaarmik sahishnu bhi the. unke saamraajya mein musalmaanon ko dhaarmik svatantrata thi. kai masjidon ke nirmaan ke liye shivaaji ne anudaan diya. hindu panditon ki tarah musalmaan santon aur fkeeron ko bhi sammaan praapt tha. unki sena mein musalmaan sainik bhi the. shivaaji hindu sankruti ko badhaava dete the. paaramparik hindu moolyon tatha shiksha par bal diya jaata tha. vah apne abhiyaanon ka aarambh bhi aksar dashahara ke avsar par karte the.

charitra

shivaaji mahaaraaj ko apne pita se Swaraj ki shiksha hi mili jab Bijapur ke sultaan ne shaahaji raaje ko bandi bana liya to ek aadarsh putr ki tarah unhonne Bijapur ke shaah se sandhi kar shaahaji raaje ko chhudva liya. isse unke charitra mein ek udaar avayav ऩaajar aata hai. usek baad unhonne pita ki hatya naheen karavaai jaisa ki anya samraat kiya karte the. shaahaji raaje ke marne ke baad hi unhonne apna raajyaabhishek karavaaya hainlaanki vo us samay tak apne pita se svatantr hokar ek bade saamraajya ke adhipti ho gaye the. unke netrutv ko sab log sveekaar karte the yahi kaaran hai ki unke shaasanakaal mein koi aantarik vidroh jaisi pramukh ghatna naheen hui thi.

vah ek achhe senaanaayak ke saath ek achhe kootneetigya bhi the. kai jagahon par unhonne seedhe yuddh ladne ki bajaay yuddh se bhaag liya tha. lekin yahi unki kootaneeti thi, jo har baar bade se bade shatru ko maat dene mein unka saath deti rahi.

shivaaji mahaaraaj ki "ganimi kaava" naamak kootaneeti, jismein shatru par achaanak aakraman karke use haraaya jaata hai, vilobhaniyta se aur aadarasahit yaad kiya jaata hai.

shivaaji mahaaraaj ke gaurav mein ye panktiyaan likh gayi hai :-

shivraayaanche aathavaave svarup. shivraayaancha aathavaava saakshep.
shivraayaancha aathavaava prataap. bhoomandali .

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain