shikshaashaastr

shikshan-kaarya ki prakriya ka vidhivt adhyayan shikshaashaastr ya shikshanashaastr (Pedagogy) kahalaata hai. ismein adhyaapan ki shaili ya neetiyon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. shikshak adhyaapan kaarya karta hai to vah is baat ka dhyaan rakhata hai ki adhigmakarta ko adhik se adhik samajh me aave.

shiksha ek sajeev gatisheel prakriya hai. ismein adhyaapak aur shikshaarthi ke madhya ant:kriya hoti rahati hai aur sampoorn ant:kriya kisi lakshya ki or unmukh hoti hai. shikshak aur shikshaarthi shikshaashaastr ke aadhaar par ek doosare ke vyaktitv se laabhaanvit aur prabhaavit hote rahate hain aur yeh prabhaav kisi vishish‍aat disha ki aur spasht roop se abhimukh hota hai. badalate samay ke saath sampoorn shiksha-chakr gatisheel hai. usaki gati kis disha mein ho rahi hai? kaun prabhaavit ho raha hai? is disha ka lakshya nirdhaaran shikshaashaastr karta hai.

anukram

shikshan ke siddhaant

pratyek adhyaapak ki haardik ichha hoti hai ki usaka shikshan prabhaavapoorn ho. iske liye adhyaapak ko kai baaton ko jaanakar unhe vyavahaar mein laana padta hai, yatha - paathyavastu ka aarambh kahaan se kya jaaya, kis prakaar kiya jaaya, chhaatr ismein ruchi kaise lete rahein, arjit gyaan ko baalakon ke liye upayogi kaise banaaya jaaya, aadi. shikshaashaatriyon ne adhyaapakon ke liye in aavashyak baaton par vichaar karke anek siddhaanton ka pratipaadan kiya hai, jinmein se pramukh nimnalikhit hain-

(1) kriya dvaara seekhane ka siddhaant

baalak svabhaavat: hi kyiyaasheel hote hain. nishkriya baithe rahana unki prakruti ke vipreet hai. unhe apne haath, pair va anya indriyon ko prayog mein laane mein atyant aanand ki praapti hoti hai. swayam karne ki kriya dvaara baalak seekhata hai. is prakaar se praapt kiya hua gyaan athva anubhav uske vyaktitv ka sthaai ang ban kar rah jaata hai. at: adhyaapak ka adhyaapan is prakaar hona chaahiye jisse baalak ko 'swayam karne dwaar seekhane' ke adhikaadhik avsar milein.

(2) jeevan se sambaddhata ka siddhaant

apne jeevan se sambandhit vastuon ka gyaan ka gyaan praapt karna baalakon ki svaabhaavik ruchi hoti hai. at: paathyavastu mein jeevan se sambandhit tathyon ko hi shaamil karna chaahiyerthaat vaastavik jeevan ki vaastavik paristhitiyon se liye gaye tathyon ko hi shaamil karna chaahiye. yadi adhyaapak kaalpanik athva jeevan se asambandhit tathyon ko hi padhaana chaahega to chhaatron ki ruchi usase hat jaayegi.

(3) hetu prayojan ka siddhaant

jab tak baalakon ko paath ka hetu athva uddeshya poornataya gyaat naheen hota hai, ve usame, n dhyaan naheen de sakte. keval paath ka uddeshya jaan lene se bhi kam naheen chalta. yadi paath ka uddeshya baalakon ki ruchi ko prerana dene wala hua to unka poora dhyaan us paath ko seekhane mein lagta hai.

(4) chunaav ka siddhaant

manushya ka jeevanakaal atyant kam hai aur gyaan ka vistaar aseem hai. at: paathya saamagri mein sansaar ki apaar jnyaaanaraashi mein se atyant upayogi vastuon ko chunakar rakha jaana chaahiye.

(5) vibhaajan ka siddhaant

sampoorn paathyavastu baalak ke sammukh ekasaath naheen prastut ki ja sakti. use uchit khandon, anvitiyon, athva ikaaiyon mein vibhkt kiya jaana chaahiye. anvitiyaan aisi hon jaisi ki seedhiyaan hoti hain. inhein jaise-jaise baalak paar paar karta jaaye, vah unnati karta jjye.

(6) punaraavrutti ka siddhaant

baalak kisi paathyavastu athva gyaan ko apne mastishk mein thos prakaar se tabhi jama kar sakta hai jab baar-baar usaki aavrutti karaayi jaaya.

shikshan-sootr

(1) gyaat se agyaat ki or chalo

baalak ke poorv gyaan se sambandhit karte he yadi naya gyaan pradaan kiya jaata hai to baalak ko use seekhane mein roochi va preraana praapt hoti hai. manushya saamaanyataya isi kram se seekhata hai. isaliye adhyaapak ko apni paathya saamagri is kram mein prastut karna chaahiye.

(2) saral se kathin ki or chalo

paathyavastu ko is prakaar prasttut karna chaahye ki ki uske saral bhaagon ka gyaan pehle karavaaya jaaya tatha dheere-dheere kathin bhaagon ko prastut kiya jaaya.

(3) saral se jatil (goodh) ki or chalo

(4) sthool se sookshm ki or chalo

sookshm tatha amoort vichaaron ko sikhaate samay unka praarambh aaspaas ki sthool vastuon tatha sthool vichaaron se karna chaahiye. baalak ki shiksha sadaiv sthool vastuon tatha tathyon se honi chaahiye; shabdon, paribhaashaao tatha niyamon se naheen.

(5) vishesh se saamaanya ki or chalo

kisi siddhaant ki vishesh baaton ko pehle rakhe, fir unka saamaanyeekaran karna chaahiye. ganit, vigyaan, vyaakaran, chhand va akankaar shaastr ki shiksha dete samay isi kram ko apanaana chaahiye. aagaman pranaali mein bhi isi ka upayog hota hai.

(6) anubhav se tark ki or chalo

jnyaaanendriyon dvaara baalak yeh to jaan leta hai ki amuk vastu kaisi hai kintu vah yeh naheen jaanta ki vah aisi kyon hai. baar-baar nireekshan va pareekshan se vah in kaaranon ko bhi jaan jaata hai. arthaat vah anubhav se tark ki or badhta hai. baalak ke anubhoot tathyon ko aadhaar banaakar dheere-dheere nireekshan va pareekshan dvaara unki tarkashakti ka vikaas karne ka prayatn karna chaahiye.

(7) poorn se ansh ki or chalo

baalak ke sammukh usaki samajh mein aane yogyapoorn vastu ya tathya ko rakhana chaahiye. iske baad uske vibhinn anshon ke vistrut gyaan ki or agrasar hona chaahiye. yadi ek ped ka gyaan pradaan karna hai to pehle usaka sampoorn chitr prastut kiya jaayega tatha baad mein usaki jadon, pattiyon, falon aadi ka parichay alagalag karavaaya jaayega.

(8) anishchit se nishchit ki or chalo

(9) vishleshan se sanshleshan ki or chalo

(10) tark poorn vidhi ka tyaag va manovaigyaanik vidhi ka anusaran karo

vartamaan samay mein manovijnyaaan ke prachaar ke kaaran is baat par jor diya jaata hai ki shikshan vidhi va kram mein baalakon ki manovaigyaanik visheshataaon, ruchiyon, jijnyaaasa aur grahan shakti ko dhyaan mein rakha jaaya.

(11) indriyon ke prashikshan dvaara shiksha do

(12) prakruti ka aadhaar

baalak ko shiksha is prakaar milni chaahiye ki vah uske prrakrutik vikaas mein baadha na bane balki sahaayak ho.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain