shevaraun kaurporeshan

Chevron Corporation
prakaar Public (NYSE: CVX yooronekst : CHTEX)
Dow Jones Industrial Average Component
udmog Oil and gasoline
Mining
sthaapana 1879
(Standard Oil of California)
mukhyaalaya San Ramon, California, U.S.
kshetr Worldwide
pramukh vyakti John S. Watson
(Chairman) & (CEO)
utpaad Oil
Petroleum
Natural gas
Petrochemical
Fuel
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List of marketing brands
raajasv Green Arrow Up Darker.svg US$ 273.005 billion (2008)
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karmachaari 67,000 - March 2009
website Chevron.com
"big oil" naam se mashahoor pramukh oorja companiyon ke chart, naveenatam prakaashit raajasv ke anusaar anukramit
California ke sain remon sthit shevaraun mukhyaalaya parisar ka pravesh dwaar
vishaal shevaraun mukhyaalaya parisar ka ek drushya
shevaraun ke poorv tredamaark ki raksha ke shevaraun ke "steindard" naamak brand naam se mashahoor 16 shevaraun ke stationon mein se ek; yeh loss Vegas, nevaada mein sthit hai

shevaraun kauraporeshan (NYSE: CVX yooronekst : CHTEX) ek ameriki bahuraashtreeya oorja nigam hai. iska mukhyaalaya California ke sain ramon mein hai aur yeh 180 se adhik deshon mein sakriya hai. yeh tel, gas aur bhootaapeeya oorja udyogon ke pratyek pahaloo mein kaaryarat hai jismein anveshan aur utpaadan; shodhan, vipnan aur parivhan; rasaayan nirmaan evam bikri; aur shakti utpaadan bhi shaamil hai. shevaraun duniya ki chhah "suparamejar (ati vishaal)" tel companiyon mein se ek hai. pichhle paanch saal se shevaraun ko lagaataar faurchyoon 500 dvaara America ki 5 sabse badi companiyon mein se ek ke roop mein shrenit kiya jaata raha hai.[1]

anukram

itihaas

shevaraun ki jad paramparaagat roop se loss enjils ke uttar mein piko kainiyn (ab piko kainiyn oyalafeeld) mein tel ki khoj se judi hui hai. is khoj ke falasvaroop 1879 mein paisifik kost Oil company ki sthaapana hui jo shevaraun kaurporeshan ka sabse puraana poorvavarti pratishthaan tha. vanshaavali taalika ka ek anya paksh 1901 mein the Texas fyooal company ki sthaapana ki taraf ishaara karta hai jo Texas ke byoomont mein ek lohe ki imaarat ke teen kamron mein shuroo hone waali ek maamooli company thi. is company ko Texas company ke naam se jaana jaata tha aur baad mein teksaako ke naam se jaana jaane laga.

shevaraun kaurporeshan ko moolat: staindard Oil of California ya sokail (SoCal) ke naam se jaana jaata tha aur iski sthaapana 1911 mein John di. raukefelar ki staindard Oil company ke ekaadhikaar vyaapaar virodhi (enteetrast vibhaajan ke kaaran hui thi. yeh company "sevan sistars" mein se ek thi jo beesaveen sadi ke aaranbhik daur mein vishv tel udyog par haavi thi. 1933 mein Saudi arab ne sokail ko tel ka pata lagaane ki chhoot di aur 1938 mein tel ka pata laga liya gaya. 1950 ke dashak ke aaranbhik daur mein sokail ne Saudi arab mein duniya ke sabse bade tel kshetr (ghaavar) ki khoj ki. sokail ki sahaayak company California-arebiyn staindard Oil company ne samay ke saath vikaas kiya aur 1944 mein arebiyn American Oil company (araamako) ban gayi. 1973 mein Saudi sarkaar ne araamako ko khareedna shuroo kiya. 1980 tak is company par poori tarah se saoodiyon ka svaamitv tha aur 1988 mein iska naam badalkar Saudi arebiyn Oil company (Saudi araamako) rakh diya gaya.

1984 mein staindard Oil of California aur gulf Oil ka vilay hua jo tatkaaleen itihaas ka sabse bada vilay tha. ekaadhikaar vyaapaar virodhi viniyman ke tahat sokail ne gulf ki kai operating sahaayak companiyon ko vaapas le liya aur kuchh gulf stationon aur poorvi sanyukt raajya America ki ek rifaainari ko bech diya. sokail ka naam badalkar shevaraun kaurporeshan ho gaya.[2]

June 1992 mein daayanegi ki poorvavarti company enajeesi kaurp. (pehle NYSE: NGL) ke saath shevaraun ke poorv praakrutik gas aur praakrutik gas taral padaarth ke kaarobaar ke vilay se daayanegi ink. (NYSE: DYN) ka nirmaan hua. lagbhag 1994 ke baad se enajeesi ek ekeekrut praakrutik gas seva company thi.[3]

1 fravari 2000 ko hone vaale ek vilay mein ilinova kaurp. (pehle NYSE: ILN) daayanegi, ink. ki ek poorn svaamitv waali sahaayak company ban gayi jismein shevaraun ka bhi 28% share tha.[3] haalaanki 2007 mein shevaraun ne lagbhag 940 million dollar mein is company ke apne svaamitv vaale 19 pratishat (tatkaaleen) saamaanya share nivesh ko bech diya jiske parinaamasvaroop 680 million dollar ka faayda hua.[4]

2001 mein shevaraun kauraporeshan ne teksaako par kabja karke shevaraun teksaako ki neenv rakhi.

9 May 2005 ko shevaraun teksaako ne ghoshana ki ki yeh teksaako upanaam ko tyaagakar fir se shevaraun naam rakhega. teksaako shevaraun kaurporeshan ke tahat ek brand ke roop mein kaayam hai. 19 August 2005 ko shevaraun ne yoonokal kaurporeshan par kabja kar liya. yoonokal ke bade dakshin poorv Asiaee bhootaapeeya opareshanon ki vajah se shevaraun duniya ka sabse bada bhootaapeeya oorja utpaadak ban gaya. 2007 ke madhya mein shevaraun kaurporeshan ne teksaako brand ko misisipi ke sabhi konoko stationon ko bech diya jo 2007 ke ant mein poori ki jaane waali ek prakriya thi.[5]

July 2010 mein shevaraun ne delaaveyar, indiyaana, keintaki, uttar kairolina, new jersey, maireelaind, ohiyo, peinsilveniya, dakshin kairolina, varjeeniya, pashchim varjeeniya, Washington, deesi aur Tennessee ke kuchh hisson mein 1,100 stationon se shevaraun aur teksaako naam hataakar madhya atalaantik yooes mein khudara opareshanon ko samaapt kar diya.[6]

November 2010 mein shevaraun kaurp. (enavaaiesai:seeveeeks) ne 3.2 billion dollar nakad raashi aur etalas ke maujooda karj ke roop mein atirikt 1.1 billion dollar mein peinsilveniya aadhaarit etalas enarji ink. (enaeesadeeekyoo:eteeelaes) par kabja kar liya.[7]

ek nazar

shevaraun mein duniya bhar ke lagbhag 67,000 log kaaryarat hain (jinmein se 27,000 America-aadhaarit hain) aur 31 December 2003 mein iske paas lagbhag 12 billion shuddh tel-samatulya barrel (1.9 kimee³) ka pramaanit bhandaar tha. 2003 mein dainik utpaadan 2.5 million shuddh tel-samatulya barrel (400,000 mee³) prati din tha. iske atirikt 2003 ke varsh-ant mein company ki vaishvik tel shodhan kshamata 2.2 million barrel (350,000 mee³) kachcha tel prati din thi. is company ka 84 deshon mein sahayogi companiyon sahit lagbhag 24,000 khudara kendron ka ek vishvavyaapi vipnan network hai. sanyukt raajya America, Asia aur Europe ke 13 shakti srujan parisampattiyon mein bhi is company ka hissa hai. pashchimi Canada mein bhi shevaraun ke gas station hain.

California ke sain raamon ki khaadi mein sthaanaantarit hone se pehle lagbhag ek sadi tak shevaraun ka mukhyaalaya sain Francisco mein tha. sain Francisco mein 1960 ke dashak ke madhya mein 555 aur 575 market street par nirmit mukhyaalayon ko December 1999 mein bech diya gaya.[8] iska mool mukhyaalaya 225 bush street mein tha jise 1912 mein banaaya gaya tha.[9] ab iska mukhyaalaya California ke sain raamon mein 6001 bolingar kainiyn road par sthit hai.

pashchimi aur dakshin poorvi America ke 16 raajyon mein staindard Oil tredamaark par shevaraun ka svaamitv hai. is tredamaark ke svaamitv ko banaae rakhane ke liye yeh company is kshetr ke pratyek raajya mein ek staindard brand vaale shevaraun station par svaamitv sthaapit aur use sanchaalit karti hai.[10] teksaako brand gaisoleen ke tredamaark adhikaaron par bhi shevaraun ka svaamitv hai. shevaraun ke thok vikretaaon ke network se teksaako indhan ki aapoorti hoti hai.

general motors aur toyota sahit kai vaahan nirmaan companiyaan vaahanon ka pareekshan karte samay aksar shevaraun ke gaisoleen ka istemaal karti hain. beepi ke saath apni rananeetik gathabandhan ke baavajood Ford company uttar America mein shevaraun gas ka bhi istemaal karti hai. shevaraun ko America mein gaisoleen ki sabse uchch brand lauyalti mein se ek ka darja bhi haasil hai aur keval shel aur beepi (amoko ke maadhyam se) ke paas hi iske samaan uchch lauyalti hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

shevaraun shiping company ek poorn svaamitv waali sahaayak company hai jo shevaraun kaurporeshan ka samudri parivhan kaarya sanbhaalati hai. iske jahaaji bede mein kachche tel utpaad tainkaron ke saath-saath anya companiyon ke liye shevaraun shiping dvaara sanchaalit teen gas tanker bhi shaamil hain. iske jahaaji bede ko do bhaagon mein baanta gaya hai: shevaraun rifaainariyon se America ke graahakon tak ameriki jahaaji bede dvaara tel utpaad ka parivhan kiya jaata hai. jahaaj ameriki naagrikon se bhare hain aur unamein America ka jhanda laga hua hai. antarraashtreeya jahaaji bede mein bahaama ka jhanda laga hua hai aur usamein kai alag-alag deshon ke adhikaari aur karmachaari kaam karte hain. sabse bade jahaaj 308,000 tan VLCC hain. antarraashtreeya jahaaji bede ka kaam tel kshetron se rifaainariyon tak kachche tel ka parivhan karna hai. antarraashtreeya jahaaji bede mein do LPG tanker aur ek LNG tanker shaamil hain.

shevaraun jahaajon ke naam moolat: "shevaraun" se shuroo hote hain jaise shevaraun Washington aur shevaraun south America ya unka naam company ke poorv ya sevaarat nideshakon ke naam par rakha gaya hai. saimuel gin, William E kren aur sabse khaas taur par kondoleeja Rice un sammaanit vyaktiyon mein se the jinke naam par shevaraun jahaajon ka naamakaran kiya gaya tha lekin Rice ke naam par rakhe gaye jahaaj ke naam ko baad mein badalkar alteyar vauyajar rakh diya gaya.[11] teksaako ke saath kaurporet vilay ko darshaane ke liye 2001 mein sabhi jahaajon ka pun:naamakaran kiya gaya. antarraashtreeya jahaaji bede ke jahaajon mein se sabhi ka naamakaran khagoleeya pindon ya taaraamandal ke naam par kiya gaya hai jaise oriyn vauyajar aur alteyar vauyajar aur ameriki jahaajon ka naam desh ke raajyon ke naam par rakha gaya hai jaise Washington vauyajar aur Colorado vauyajar.

vaikalpik oorja

company vaikalpik oorja ke liye praudyogiki viksit kar rahi hai jismein indhan sel, prakaashavolteeya, unnat baitari aur parivhan aur bijli ke liye haaidrojan indhan.

jaiv indhan

shevaraun dvaara vaikalpik indhan sroton mein har saal 300 million ameriki dollar ka nivesh kiya ja raha hai aur ek jaiv indhan vyaavasaayik ikaai ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai.[12][13]

shevaraun aur yooes-deeoi ki raashtreeya Akshay oorja prayogashaala (enaaaraiel) ne ghoshana ki ki unhonne shaivaal se jaiv indhan ka nirmaan karne ke liye ek sahayogaatmak samjhauta kiya hai. shevaraun aur enaaaraiel ke vaigyaanik shaivaal ki naslon ko viksit kareinge jinhein aarthik taur par ikaththa karke parivhan indhan jaise jet indhan mein prasanskrut kiya ja sakta hai.[14]

vivaad

great American streetakaar ghotaala

1950 mein general motors aur faayaraston ke saath-saath tatkaaleen "staindard Oil" ko great American streetakaar ghotaale ki aaparaadhik saajish mein unki bhaageedaari ka aarop lagaaya gaya aur unhein doshi paaya gaya. is ghotaale ke tahat poore sanyukt raajya America ki streetakaar sistamon ko khareedkar nasht karne ke baad unhein bason se badal diya gaya tha.[15]

kar dhokhaadhadi

shevaraun dvaara Indonesia ki ek pariyojana se judi ek jatil petrolium moolya nirdhaaran yojana ke maadhyam se 1970 se 2000 tak sangheeya aur raajya karon mein 3.25 billion dollar ki dhokhaadhadi ka maamala saamane aaya.[16] [17] 2001 mein aapas mein vilay hone se pehle shevaraun aur teksaako pratyek ke svaamitv mein indoneshiyaai raajya ki tel company pertaamina ke saath ek pariyojana mein jameen se kachcha tel nikaalne vaale kailteks naamak ek sanyukt udyam mein 50 pratishat ka hissa tha. shevaraun par badhi hui keematon par kailteks se tel khareedkar America mein iski kar deyataaon ko kam karne ka aarop tha. ek aatanrik shevaraun dastaavej mein baajaar mein prachalit keemat se adhik 4.55 dollar prati barrel ke hisaab se pertaamina ko bhugataan ki gayi keemat ko nirdhaarit kiya gaya tha. shevaraun us samay apne ameriki aayakar return ki laagat ke liye katauti ki rakam ko badha-chadhaakar dikhaane mein saksham tha. Indonesia 56% ki dar se is tel par kar lagaata hua dikhaai diya jo America ke kaurporat kar dar se kaheen adhik tha. choonki sanyukt raajya America videshi sarkaaron ko kiye jaane vaale kar ke bhugataan ke liye companiyon ko rin pradaan karta hai isliye indoneshiyaai sarkaar ko bhugataan kiye jaane vaale kar se ameriki sarkaar ka kar kam ho jaata hai.

kailteks is dhanaraashi ko yooes se Indonesia sthaanaantarit kar deta tha kyonki indoneshiyaai sarkaar kailteks ko atyadhik keemati tel ki bharpaai karti thi aur muft mein tel dekar atirikt kar ka bhugataan kar diya jaata tha. choonki kailteks ko us tel par bhi kar dena padta tha isliye indoneshiyaai sarkaar un karon ki bharpaai karne ke liye ise aur jyaada tel pradaan karti thi.

ikvaador mein paryaavaran ka nuksaan

1972 se 1993 tak teksaako ne ikvaador mein laigo egriyo tel kshetr ke vikaas ko sanchaalit kiya. ikvaador ke kisaanon aur svadeshi nivaasiyon ne teksaako (ab shevaraun) dvaara bina kisi nivaaran ke varshaavan mein 18 billion gailan vishaakt jal ka nishkaasan karne ki vajah se us par nivaasiyon ko beemaar banaane aur jangalon evam nadiyon ka nuksaan karne ka aarop lagaaya. unhonne in sanchaalanon ki vajah se paryaavaran ke atyadhik nuksaan ke liye shevaraun par mukadama kar diya kyonki in sanchaalanon ki vajah se hajaaron ikvaadoravaasi beemaar pad gaye hain aur amejn varshaavan pradooshit ho gaya hai. ikvaadoriyaai adaalat is ilaake mein amejn kshetr ke graameenon ki taraf se daayar kiye gaye mukdame mein 28 billion dollar tak ka kaanooni jurmaana laga sakti hai. shevaraun ka daava hai ki ikvaador ki sarkaar ke saath kiya gaya samjhauta company ko sabhi deyataaon se mukt karti hai.[4][18][19] is mudde par bane ek vruttichitr krood ka Premier sitmbar 2009 mein hua.

shevaraun ka daava hai ki 1992 tak teksaako (teksapet), teksaako ink. ki ek sahaayak company, is sangh ka ek alpasankhyak sadasya hai aur petroikvaador, ikvaadoriyaai raajya ke svaamitv waali tel company, ek bahumat paartanar hai. 1990 ke baad se kiye gaye opareshanon ka aayojan keval petroikvaador dvaara kiya gaya hai. sangh ke samaapan par aur kshetr ke ek svatantr truteeya paksheeya paryaavarneeya lekha pareekshan ke baad teksaako ne aupachaarik roop se ripblik of ikvaador aur petroikvaador ke saath 40 million dollar ki laagat par ek teen varsheeya nivaaran kaaryakram ka aayojan karne par sahamati vyakt ki. saaiton ka theek tarah se nivaaran kiye jaane ko pramaanit karne ke baad sarkaar ne teksapet aur sabhi sambandhit kaurporet entitiyon ko iske opareshanon se utpann hone waali kisi bhi aur sabhi paryaavaraneeya deyata se mukt kar diya.[4] uparokt itihaas ke aadhaar par shevaraun ka maanana hai ki "is mukdame mein kaanooni ya tathyaatmak yogyata ka abhaav hai."

California ke richmand mein pradooshan

California ke richmand mein shevaraun ki gatividhi chal rahe vivaad ka vishay bana hua hai. pariyojana se 11 million pound se adhik vishaakt padaarth utpann hua aur 304 se adhik durghatanaaon ka kaaran bana.[20] gair kaanooni tareeke se apashisht jal ko darakinaar karne ke liye aur vishaakt padaarthon ke nishkaasan ke baare mein janta ko soochit karne mein vifal hone ki vajah se shevaraun ki richmand rifaainariyon ne 1998 mein 540,000 dollar ka bhugataan kiya.[21] kul milaakar shevaraun ko safaai ke liye ipeee dvaara alag se rakhi gayi dhanaraashi ke saath 95 suparafand saaiton ke liye sambhaavit roop se uttaradaayi ke roop mein soocheebaddh kiya gaya hai.[22] October 2003 mein new haimpashaayar raajya ne shevaraun aur anya tel companiyon par emateebeei naamak ek gaisoleen editiv ka istemaal karne ke liye mukadama chalaaya jiski vajah se ataarni general ke daave ke mutaabik raajya ki jyaadaatar jalaapoorti pradooshit ho gayi thi.[23]

angola mein tel risaav

Africa mein shevaraun ke opareshanon ko paryaavaran ki drushti se asvaasthyakar maanate hue usaki aalochna bhi ki gayi hai.[24] 2002 mein angola apne seemaakshetron ke bheetar kaaryarat ek pramukh bahuraashtreeya kaurporeshan par jurmaana lagaane wala Africa ka ab tak pehla aisa desh bana jab isne kathit taur par shevaraun ki vajah se tel ke risaav ke muaavaja ke liye 2 million dollar ki maang ki.[25]

sanyukt raajya America mein svachh vaayu adhiniyam ka ullanghan

16 October 2003 ko shevaraun yoo॰aesa॰ae॰ ne svachh vaayu adhiniyam ke tahat ek aarop ka niptaan kiya jisne lagbhag 10,000 tan prati varsh ki dar se haanikaarak vaayu utsarjan ko kam kiya.[26] sain Francisco mein shevaraun ko apni rifaainariyon mein naaitrojan aur salfar daaioksaaid ke utsarjan ko kam karne ke liye unnat praudyogiki ko sthaapit karne aur usaka istemaal karne ke liye lagbhag 275 million dollar kharch karne ke liye ek sahamati aadesh jaari kiya gaya.[27] California ke L segundo mein ek ofalaain loding terminal par svachh vaayu adhiniyam ka ullanghan karne ke baad shevaraun dand ke roop mein 6 million dollar ke saath-saath paryaavaran sudhaar pariyojanaaon ke liye 1 million dollar ka bhugataan kiya.[28] shevaraun ne khatarnaak gaison ke utpaadan ko kam karne vaale kaaryakramon ko laagoo karne, risaav ka pata lagaane aur marammat karne ki prakriya ko unnat banaane, salfar rikvari plaanton se utsarjan ko kam karne aur rifaainariyon mein haanikaarak beinjeen apashishton ki uchit haindaling ko sunishchit karne ke liye rananeetiyon ko apnaane ka bhi kaam kiya tha.[26] shevaraun ne vaayu sandooshakon ke atyadhik utsarjan ko rokane ke liye apne L segundo rifaainari mein risaavarahit vaalvon aur double seeld pampon ko sthaapit karne ke liye lagbhag 500,000 dollar kharch kiya.[28]

shevaraun ke paryaavaran record ke pratirkshak kaurporeshan mein haal hi mein hue badlaavon ke baare mein bataate hain jismein global vaarming se nipatne ke liye 2004 mein iske dvaara ki gayi pratijnyaa khaas maayane rakhati hai.[29]

automobile ke liye nimh (NiMH) baitari praudyogiki

iseedi ovoniks sansthaapak stain ovashinksi aur yuaasa company ke Dr maasaahiko oshitaani ne haaibrid vaahanon mein istemaal kiye jaane vaale nikal metal haaidraaid (nimh (NiMH)) praudyogiki ka avishkaar kiya.[30][31] 1994 mein general motors ne ovoniks ke baitari vikaas evam nirmaan vyavasaaya mein ek niyantrak hissa praapt kiya. 10 October 2001 ko teksaako ne jeeem ovoniks mein jeeem ka share khareed liya aur shevaraun ne chh: din baad teksaako ke adhigrahan ko poora kar diya. 2003 mein kobaasis ke roop mein teksaako ovoniks baitari sistams ka punargathan kiya gaya jo shevaraun aur enarji kanvarshan divaaises (iseedi) ovoniks ke beech sthaapit ek 50/50 sanyukt udyam tha.[32] kobaasis par shevaraun ka prabhaav ek sakht 50/50 sanyukt udyam ke pare bhi vyaapt hai. iseedi ovoniks mein shevaraun ka 19.99% hissa hai.[33] iske alaava iseedi ovoniks dvaara apni anubandhaatmak jimmedaariyon ko poora na kiye jaane ki sthiti mein shevaraun ke paas kobaasis ke sabhi bauddhik sampada adhikaaron ko jabt karne ka adhikaar hai.[34] 10 sitmbar 2007 ko shevaraun ne ek kaanooni daava daayar kiya ki iseedi ovoniks ne apni jimmedaariyon ko poora naheen kiya hai. iseedi ovoniks ko is daave se inkaar hai.[35] us samay se madhyasthata sunavaai ko kai baar nilambit kar diya gaya hai jabki donon paartiyaan ek agyaat sambhaavit khareedaar ke saath baatcheet mein mashagool hai. us sambhaavit khareedaar ke saath ab tak koi samjhauta naheen kiya gaya hai.[36] nimh (NiMH) baitariyon se sambandhit kobaasis ka peteint 2015 mein samaapt ho jaaega.

kabhi kabhi gas stationon mein restaurant bhi hote hain, jaise ki chileevaak, british Columbia mein sthit yeh wala, jiske bheetar vhaait spot sthit hai.

February 2007 mein prakaashit apni pustak plag-in haaibrids: the kaars dait vil richaarj America mein sheri boschert ne tark diya hai ki bade praaroop waali nimh (NiMH) baitariyaan vaanijyik drushti se vyavahaarya hai lekin chhoti companiyon ya vyaktiyon ko in baitariyon ko bechne ya iski praudyogiki ka license pradaan karne se kobaasis ko aitaraaj hai. boschert ka tark hai ki kobaasis in baitariyon ke liye keval bahut bade ordaron ko hi sveekaar karta hai. pramukh motor vaahan nirmaan companiyon ne bade praaroop waali in nimh (NiMH) baitariyon ke liye bade order dene mein bahut kam ruchi dikhaai hai. haalaanki toyota ne maujooda 825 aaraevi-4ivi ki seva praapt karne ke liye bade praaroop waali in nimh (NiMH) baitariyon ke chhote-chhote order milne mein hone waali dikkat ke baare mein shikaayat ki hai. choonki koi bhi anya company bade order dene ki ichhuk naheen thi isliye kobaasis automobaailon ke liye bade praaroop waali is nimh (NiMH) baitari ki praudyogiki ka license pradaan ya usaka nirmaan naheen kar raha tha. boschert ka nishkarsh hai ki "sambhav hai ki kobaasis (shevaraun) gaisoleen ke pratidvandi ko hataane ke liye apne peteint licenson ke niyantran ke maadhyam se badi nimh (NiMH) baitariyon ke istemaal ke sabhi darvaaje band kar raha hai. ya ho sakta hai ki kobaasis sirf apne liye baajaar taiyaar karna chaahata hai aur kisi pramukh vaahan nirmaata dvaara plag-in haaibrids ya ilektrik vaahanon ka nirmaan shuroo karne ka intajaar kar raha hai."[37]

ikonomist ke saath ek saakshaatkaar mein ovashinski ne poorv drushtikon ka samarthan kiya. "mujhe lagta hai ki iseedi mein humne ek tel company ke saath ek sanyukt udyam sthaapit karke sach mein bhool kar di hai. aur mujhe lagta hai ki kisi aisi company ke saath vyavasaaya karna koi achha vichaar naheen hai jiski rananeeti vyavasaaya ko badhaane ko bajaay aapko hi vyavasaaya se baahar kar de."[38]

December 2006 mein kobaasis aur general motors ne ghoshana ki ki unhonne ek anubandh par hastaakshar kiya hai jiske tahat kobaasis saitarn ora haaibrid sidain ke liye nimh (NiMH) baitari pradaan karega.[39] March 2007 mein jeeem ne ghoshana ki ki yeh 2008 shevarolet maaliboo haaibrid mein bhi kobaasis nimh (NiMH) baitariyon ka istemaal karega.

ilektrik inovain mein istemaal karne ke liye bade praaroop waali nimh (NiMH) baitariyon ke ek order ko poora karne se inkaar kiye jaane vajah se October 2007 mein intaranaishanal ekvijishans sarvises aur inovetiv traansaporteshan sistams ne kobaasis aur iski janak companiyon ke khilaaf mukadama daayar kar diya.[36]

August 2008 mein marsideej beinj you.S. intaranaishanal ne is aadhaar par kobaasis ke khilaaf mukadama daayar kiya ki kobaasis ne marsideej beinj ke niyojit haaibrid SUV ke liye baitariyon ka nirmaan karne ke liye vyakt ki gayi sahamati ke anusaar baitariyon ke liye teindar naheen diya tha.[40]

naaijar delta mein goleebaari

28 May 1998 ko kaaryakartaaon ne ek pradarshan karte hue Nigeria ke naaijar delta mein company ke ek tel platform par kai vyaktiyon ko bandhak bana liya. naaijeeriyaai police aur sainikon ko kathit taur par shevaraun heleekauptaron mein laaya gaya. sainikon ne kaaryakartaaon par goli chalaai jiske parinaamasvaroop ghaayal hone ki vajah se do kaaryakartaaon (jola ogungabeje aur eroleka irovaaninu) ki maut ho gayi.[41] shevaraun ne is sthiti ka varnan "company se nakad bhugataan karne ki maang karne vaale hamlaavaron dvaara niji sampatti ke ek hinsak kabje" ke roop mein kiya hai.[42] kathit taur par naaijeeriyaai sarkaar tel utpaadan par 80% nirbharasheel hai aur paryaavaranavaadiyon ke saath kiye gaye apne kathit vyavahaar ke liye kaiyon ne iski ninda ki hai.[43] "driling end kiling" naamak vruttachitr mein yeh sab aur anya vishay shaamil hai.

peediton aur unke parivaaron dvaara shevaraun ke khilaaf kiye gaye ek mukdame ko aage badhaane ki anumati dene vaale ameriki jila nyaayaadheesh susaan ilsatan ne kaha ki is baat ka saboot mil sakta hai ki shevaraun ne apne dushkarmon ke liye mashahoor naaijeeriyaai sainya balon ko niyukt kiya hai, unka paryavekshan kiya hai aur/ya unhein parivhan suvidha pradaan ki hai.[44] March 2008 mein abhiyogiyon ke vakeelon ne bina kisi vivran ke shevaraun ke khilaaf "apne aadhe daavon ko chupachaap vaapas le liya".[45]

1 December 2008 ko ek sangheeya nyaayadal ne is maamale mein shevaraun ke khilaaf lagaae gaye sabhi aaropon se use mukt kar diya. nyaayadal ne lagbhag do dinon tak is par charcha ki thi. shevaraun ne daava kiya tha ki apne karmachaariyon ke jeevan ki raksha ke liye sainya hastakshep jaroori tha aur usane galat kaam karne ke aaropon ke liye nyaayadal ke faisale ko sahi maana hai.[46]

nai neeti aur vikaas

shevaraun ka feloj, California sthit 500kW solaramaain fotovoltik saur pariyojana

shevaraun ne green house gaison ke utsarjan ko kam karne aur oorja ke svachh roopon ka istemaal karne ki disha mein kai kadam uthaae hain.[47] shevaraun ne vaikalpik oorja ke sroton mein nivesh karne aur apne khud ke utsarjanon ko kam karne ka lakshya nirdhaarit karne waali ameriki tel companiyon mein sabse ooncha darja praapt kiya hai.[47] shevaraan duniya ka sabse bada bhootaapeeya oorja utpaadak hai jo 7 million se jyaada gharon ke liye paryaapt bijli pradaan karta hai.[48]

board of daayarektars

January 2010 tak [2]:

  • John Watson (Chairman evam CEO)
  • saimuel aarmaakaust
  • linet ef. daily
  • Robert denham
  • Robert James etan
  • saim gin
  • freinkalin jenifr
  • saim nan
  • donaald Rice
  • Peter raubartasan
  • Charles shoomet
  • ronaald shugar
  • kaarl wear

kondoleeja Rice board of daayarektars ki ek poorv sadasya hain aur raashtrapati George dablyoo. bush ki raashtreeya suraksha salaahakaar banane ke liye 15 January 2001 ko isteefa dene se pehle tak ve shevaraun ki saarvajanik neeti samiti ki adhyaksha bhi rahi theen.

30 sitmbar 2009 ko 52 varsheeya John Watson ko board ka Chairman aur CEO chuna gaya jo David J. O'reli ke retire hone ke baad 31 December 2009 se prabhaavi hua.

vipnan brand

2006 tak istemaal kiya jaane wala shevaraun ka saamaanya gas station design
varsh 2006 mein shevaraun ne is gas station design ka istemaal karna shuru kar diya.

indhan

  • shevaraun
  • staindard Oil (kuchh seemit paristhitiyon mein)
  • teksaako
  • kailteks
  • yoonokal

suvidha store

  • star Mart
  • ekstra maail
  • redavud market
  • taaun peintri

chikna karne vaale padaarth (lubreekeint)

  • delo (kailteks aur shevaraun dvaara becha gaya)
  • hevoleen (kailteks aur teksaako dvaara becha gaya)
  • revteks (kailteks dvara becha gaya)
  • ursa (teksaako dvaara becha gaya)

indhan yugmak

  • tekron - shevaraun, teksaako (2005 mein nirmit), kailteks (2006 aur uske baad nirmit)
  • clean system 3 - teksaako (tekron ke paksh mein 2005 ke dauraan)

inhein bhi dekhein

  • shevaraun amareeka, ink. vi. praakrutik sansaadhan suraksha parishad, ink.
  • gaurdan L. park
  • Jack 2
  • traans-kairibiyn paaipalaain

sandarbh

  1. faurchyoon 500, 2010 "amerikaaj laarjest kaurporeshan" CNNmoney.com
  2. "Company Profile". chevron.com. http://www.chevron.com/about/leadership/. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-05.
  3. a aa shevaraun kaurp. epalauds daayanegi-ilnauva merjar, shevaraun press release aarchivs, 2 fravari 2000
  4. a aa i shevaraun kaurporeshan 2008 enval sheyaraholdars report.
  5. "Chevron claims energy debate". BBC News. 2006-02-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4716334.stm. abhigman tithi: 2009-12-31
  6. http://www.cspnet.com/ME2/Audiences/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications::Article&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=807613D32D8C4FC3B85631A0224C0EC5&AudID=CBA745B91AFB44FA923476ACBBD040A5
  7. "Chevron Acquires Shale Gas Producer Atlas Energy". Added latest acquisition. http://247wallst.com/2010/11/09/chevron-acquires-shale-gas-producer-atlas-energy-cvx-atls-adh-xom-ung/. abhigman tithi: 10 November 2010.
  8. "Chevron leaving San Francisco". September 5, 2001. http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2001/09/03/daily27.html.
  9. http://www.sfbctc.org/highrise-91701.htm
  10. staindars Oil tude
  11. Marinucci, Carla (2001-05-05). "Chevron redubs ship named for Bush aide". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2001/05/05/MN223743.DTL. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-13.
  12. BBC news | business | shevaraun klems enarji dibet
  13. Reuters. http://today.reuters.com/stocks/QuoteCompanyNewsArticle.aspx?view=PR&symbol=CVX.N&storyID=171064+31-May-2006+PRN.
  14. enaaaraiel: shevaraun end enaaaraiel too kauleboret on research too prodyoos traansaporteshan fyools yoojing elge
  15. Chomsky, Noam (1999). Year 501: the Conquest Continues. South End Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0896084442.
  16. http://www2.hawaii.edu/~gramlich/caltex/financials
  17. Johnston, David C. (2003). Perfectly Legal. New York: Penguin Group. pp. 253–255. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1591840694.
  18. 60 minutes "amejn krood", May 3, 2009
  19. shevaraun enval meeting hits ap ovar ikvaador soot
  20. inavaayarameintal Justice case stadi: rikmand, CA
  21. shevaraun rikmand rifaainari too pe $540,000 inavaayarameintal pnelati | nyoojrum | yooes ipeee$
  22. responsibl shaupar profaail: shevaraun
  23. Knowmore.org - kveshchan yor guds.vote vith yor vaulet
  24. AfricaResource.com - shevaraun, oil paulyooshan, end hyooman raaits
  25. BBC news | bijnes | angola faains shevaraun for paupuleshan
  26. a aa "Environmental Protection Agency". 2003-10-16. http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/b1ab9f485b098972852562e7004dc686/0fd3f9216a2c5fbf85256dc10054c376?OpenDocument. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-06.
  27. "Department of Justice". 2003-10-16. http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2003/October/03_enrd_575.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-06.
  28. a aa "CHEVRON AGREES TO RECORD $7 MILLION ENVIRONMENTAL SETTLEMENT". 2000-08-11. http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2000/August/493enrd.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-06.
  29. kvest for clean enarji / shevaraun, peejeeendai seeted for positive steps too kaumbet global vaarming
  30. http://www.greencar.com/article/nickel-metal-hybrid-batteries/
  31. http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/ovshinsky.html.
  32. robarsan, J. (14 March 2007) "saplaayar kaubasis eksaplauring mor haaibrid baitareej" detroit free press
  33. iseedi ovonis difaaintiv prauksi stetameint 15 January 2003 ke
  34. iseedi ovonis emeinded general stetameint of benifishiyl onaraship 2 December 2004 ke
  35. iseedi ovonis 10-kyoo kvaatarli report 30 sitmbar 2007 ki antim avadhi ke liye
  36. a aa iseedi ovonis 10-kyoo kvaatarli report 31 March 2008 ki antim avadhi ke liye
  37. boschert, S. (2007) plag-in haaibrid: di kaars dait vil richaarj America (gabriola dweep, ipoo: new society prakaashak) aaiesabeeen 978-0-86571-571-4
  38. http://www.theenergyroadmap.com/futureblogger/show/1030-stanford-ovshinsky-and-the-future-of-energy-interview-part-1
  39. eblayoosmed, S. (6 December 2006) "kaubsis provaaiding nimh (NiMH) baitareej for setarn ora haaibrid" Autobloggreen.com
  40. "marsideej syooj kaubsis ovar baitari deal" otomotiv news Europe
  41. demokresi naao!traansakript of driling end kiling documentary
  42. "naaijeeriyans pul half of klems in shevaraun soot". vaaltar olsan, Pointoflaw.com. 7 April 2008 ko prakaashit. 8 April 2008 ko antim ekses kiya gaya.
  43. , [1]
  44. Egelko, Bob (August 15, 2007). "Chevron can be sued for attacks on Nigerians, U.S. judge rules". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/08/15/BAGVPRJ1QK5.DTL.
  45. naaijeeriyans pul half of klems in shevaraun soot, Bob egelako, sen Francisco kraunikl . 12 March 2008.
  46. S.ef. joori kliyrs shevaraun of protest shootings. Bob egelako, sfgate.com. 2 December 2008 ko prakaashit kiya gaya. 3 December 2008 ko antim ekses kiya gaya.
  47. a aa Baker, David R. (March 22, 2006). "Quest for clean energy / Chevron, PG&E cited for positive steps to combat global warming". The San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2006/03/22/BUGKPHRTJ71.DTL&type=business.
  48. shevaraun - shevaraun storeej

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