sher shaah soori

sher shaah soori
uttar Bhaarat ka samraat
Sher Shah Suri by Breshna.jpg
shaasan 1540–1545
raaj tilk 1540
janm 1472[1]
janm sthaan saasaaraam, rohataas jila, Bhaarat[1]
mrutyu 22 May, 1545[1]
mrutyu sthaan kalinjar, bundelakhand
samaadhi sher shaah ka makbara, saasaaraam[1]
poorvaadhikaari humaayooain
uttaraadhikaari islaam shaah soori
jeevan sangi raani
santaan islaam shaah soori
raaj gharaana soori vansh
pita miyn hasan Khan soor
dharm islaam

sherashaah soori (1472-22 May 1545) (faarasi/pashto: فaaرaaيaaد خaaاaaن شaaيaaر شaaاaaہ سaaوaaرaaي, janm ka naam freed khaaain) Bhaarat mein janme pathaan the, jinhonein humaayooain ko 1540 mein haraakar uttar Bhaarat mein soori saamraajya sthaapit kiya tha. sherashaah soori ne pehle baabar ke liye ek sainik ke roop mein kaam kiya tha jinhonein unhe padonnati kar senaapati banaaya aur fir Bihar ka raajyapaal niyukt kiya. 1537 mein, jab humaayooain kaheen sudoor abhiyaan par the tab sherashaah ne Bengal par kabja kar soori vansh sthaapit kiya tha.[2] san 1539 mein, sherashaah ko chausa ki ladaai mein humaayooain ka saamana karna pada jise sherashaah ne jeet liya. 1540 E. mein sherashaah ne humaayooain ko pun: haraakar Bhaarat chhodne par majaboor kar diya aur sher Khan ki upaadhi lekar sampoorn uttar Bhaarat par apna saamrajya sthaapit kar diya.[3]

ek shaanadaar rananeetikaar, sher shaah ne khud ko saksham senaapati ke saath hi ek pratibhaashaali prashaasak bhi saabit kiya. 1540-1545 ke apne paanch saal ke shaasan ke dauraan unhonne nayi nagareeya aur sainya prashaasan ki sthaapana ki, pehla rupaya jaari kiya hai, Bhaarat ki daak vyavastha ko pun: sangathit kiya aur afgaanistaan mein Kabul se lekar Bangladesh ke chatagaanv tak grand trank road ko badhaaya.[4] saamraajya ke uske punargathan ne baad mein mugal samraaton ke liye ek majaboot neev rakhi visheshakar humaayooain ke bete Akbar ke liye.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

sherashaah ka janm saasaaraam shahar mein hua tha, jo ab Bihar ke rohataas jile mein hai.[1] unka asli naam freed khaaain tha par vo sherashaah ke roop mein jaane jaate the kyonki unhonne kathit taur par kam umr mein akele hi ek sher ko maara tha. unka kulanaam 'soori' unke gruhanagar "sur" se liya gaya tha. unke daada Ibrahim Khan soori naaranaul kshetr mein ek jaageeradaar the jo us samay ke Delhi ke shaasakon ka pratinidhitv karte the. unke pita Punjab mein ek Afghan rais jmaal Khan ki seva mein the. sherashaah ke pita ki do patniyaaain aur aath bachche the.[5]

sherashaah ko bachapan ke dino mein usaki sauteli maaain bahut sataati thi to unhonne ghar chhod kar jaunapur mein padhaai ki. padhaai poori kar sherashaah 1522 mein jmaal Khan ki seva mein chale gaye. par unki sauteli maaain ko ye pasand naheen aaya. isaliye unhonne jmaal Khan ki seva chhod di aur Bihar ke svaghoshit svatantr shaasak bahaar Khan nuhaani ke darbaar mein chale gaye.[5] apne pita ki mrutyu ke baad freed ne apne Patrick jaageer par kabja kar liya. kaalaantar mein isi jaageer ke liye sherakhaan tatha uske sautele bhaai sulemaan ke madhya vivaad hua

Bengal aur Bihar par adhikaar

bahaar Khan ke darbaar me vo jald hi unke sahaayak niyukt ho gaye aur bahaar Khan ke naabaalig bete ka shikshak aur guroo ban gaye. lekin kuchh varshon mein sherashaah ne bahaar Khan ka samarthan kho diya. isaliye vo 1527-28 mein baabar ke shivir mein shaamil ho gaye. bahaar Khan ki maut par, sherashaah naabaalig Rajkumar ke sanrakshak aur Bihar ke raajyapaal ke roop mein laut aaya. Bihar ka raajyapaal banane ke baad unhonne prashaasan ka punargathan shuroo kiya aur Bihar ke maanyata praapt shaasak ban gaya.[6]

1537 mein Bengal par ek achaanak hamle mein sherashaah ne uske bade kshetr par kabja kar liya haalaanki vo humaayooain ke balon ke saath seedhe takaraav se bachata raha.

dviteeya afgaan saamraajya

abhi tak sherashaah apne aap ko mugal samraaton ka pratinidhi hi bataata tha par unki chaahat ab apna saamraajya sthaapit karne ki thi. sherashaah ki badhti hui taakat ko dekh aakhirkaar mugal aur afgaan senaaon ki June 1539 mein baksar ke maidaanon par bhidant hui. mugal senaaon ko bhaari haar ka saamana karna pada. is jeet ne sherashaah ka samraajya poorv mein asam ki pahaadiyon se lekar pashchim mein kannauj tak badha diya. ab apne saamraajya ko vaidh banaane ke liye unhonne apne naam ke sikkon ko chalaane ka aadesh diya. yeh mugal samraat humaayooain ko khuli chunauti thi.[7]

agale saal humaayooain ne khoye huye kshetro par kabja vaapis paane ke liye sherashaah ki sena par fir hamla kiya, is baar kannauj par. hatotsaahit aur buri tarah se prashikshit humaayooain ki sena 17 May 1540 sherashaah ki sena se haar gayi. is haar ne baabar dvaara banaaye gaye mugal saamraajya ka ant kar diya aur uttar Bhaarat par soori saamraajya ki shuruaat ki jo Bhaarat mein doosra pathaan saamraajya tha lodhi saamraajya ke baad.[8]

sarkaar aur prashaasan

1540–1545 isvi mein sherashaah soori dvaara jaari sabse pehla rupaya . sikke mein devanaagari aur faarasi mein likha hai.[3]

sherashaah soori ek kushal sainya neta ke saath-saath yogya prashaasak bhi the. unke dvaara jo naagrik aur prashaasanik sanrachana banaai gayi vo aage jaakar mugal samraat Akbar ne istemaal aur viksit ki. sherashaah ki kuchh mukhya upalabdhiyaaain athva sudhaar is prakaar hai:[3]

  • teen dhaatuon ki sikka pranaali jo mugalon ki pehchaan bani vo sherashaah dvaara shuroo ki gayi thi.
  • pehla rupaya sherashaah ke shaasan mein jaari hua tha jo aaj ke rupaya ka agradoot hai. rupaya aaj Pakistan, Bhaarat, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, maureeshas, maaladeev, seshels mein raashtreeya mudra ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai.
  • grand trank road ka nirmaan jo us samay sadak-A-aazam ya sadak baadashaahi ke naam se jaani jaati thi.
  • daak pranaali ka vikaas jiska istemaal vyaapaari bhi kar sakte the. yeh vyaapaar aur vyavasaaya ke sanchaar ke liye yaani gair raajya prayojanon ke liye prayog kiya jaane waali daak vyaavastha ka pehla gyaat record hai.

nidhan

saasaaraam mein sher shaah ka makbara

22 May 1545 mein chandel raajapooton ke khilaaf ladte hue sherashaah soori ki kaalinjar kile ki gheraabandi ke dauraan ek baarood visfot se maut ho gayi.[3]

samaadhi

sherashaah ne apne jeevanakaal mein hi apne makbare kaam shuru karva diya tha. unka gruhanagar saasaaraam sthit usaka makbara ek krutrim jheel se ghira hua hai.[1]


mukhya tithiyaaain

  • 1472, sher shaah soori ka janm.[1]
  • 1522, sher khaaain ne bahaar Khan ke yahaaain kaam karna shuru kiya.
  • 1527 - 1528, sher Khan ne baabar ki sena mein kaam kiya.
  • 1539, sher Khan ne humaayooain ko chausa mein paraast kiya.[8]
  • 1540, sher Khan ne humaayooain ko kannauj mein paraast kiya.[8]
  • May 1545, sher shaah soori ka nidhan.[1]

mugl samraaton ka kaalakram

बहादुर शाह द्वितीय अकबर शाह द्वितीय अली गौहर मुही-उल-मिल्लत अज़ीज़ुद्दीन अहमद शाह बहादुर रोशन अख्तर बहादुर रफी उद-दौलत रफी उल-दर्जत फर्रुख्शियार जहांदार शाह बहादुर शाह प्रथम औरंगज़ेब शाहजहाँ जहांगीर अकबर हुमायूँ इस्लाम शाह सूरी हुमायूँ बाबर


sandarbh

  1. a aa i E u oo A ai "ticket dvaara pravesh vaale smaarak-Bihar: sherashaah soori ka makabara, saasaaraam". bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan. http://asi.nic.in/asi_hn_monu_tktd_bihar_sasaram.asp. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014.
  2. "Sher Khan [sher shaah]" (angreji mein). infopleej. kolambiya inasaaiklopeediya. http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/people/sher-khan.html. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014.
  3. a aa i E "sherashaah soori: ek mahaan raashtra nirmaata". race ageinst time. 17 December 2013. http://www.upscandssc.com/2013/12/blog-post_17.html. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014.
  4. "5 saal mein sherashaah ne kiye the janahit ke bemisaal kaam". ji news. 20 April 2014. http://zeenews.india.com/hindi/news/lok-sabha-elections-2014/five-year-reign-of-sher-shah-had-done-enormous-work-in-public-interest/207472. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014.
  5. a aa "Sher Shah Suri 1540-1545 (Early Life) [sher shaah soori 1540-1545 (poorv jeevan)]" (angreji mein). general nolej tude. 28 May 2011. http://www.gktoday.in/sher-shah-suri. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014.
  6. "Sher Shah [sher shaah]" (angreji mein). baanglaapeediya. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120122073407/http://www.banglapedia.org/httpdocs/HT/S_0321.HTM.
  7. "Mughal Coinage [mugal sikka]" (angreji mein). bhaarateeya reserve bank. http://www.rbi.org.in/currency/museum/c-mogul.html. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014.
  8. a aa i "Shēar Shah of Sūar [sher shaah soor]" (angreji mein). inasaaiklopeediya britaanika. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/539997/Sher-Shah-of-Sur. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2014. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Encyclopaedia_Britannica" defined multiple times with different content sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Encyclopaedia_Britannica" defined multiple times with different content

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