shekh saadi

shekh saadi (shekh musaliduddeen saadi), 13veen shataabdi ka suprasiddh saahityakaar. Iran ke dakshini praant mein sthit sheeraaj nagar mein 1185 ya 1186 mein paida hua tha. usaki praarambhik shiksha sheeraaj mein hi hui. baad mein uchch shiksha ke liye usane Baghdad ke nijaamiya kaalej mein pravesh kiya. adhyayan samaapt hone par usane isalaami duniya ke kai bhaagon ki lambi yaatra par prasthaan kiya - arab, Syria, Turkey, misr, morakko, madhya Asia aur sambhavat: Bhaarat bhi, jahaaain usane somanaath ka prasiddh mandir dekhne ki charcha ki hai. Syria mein dharmayuddh mein hissa lenevaale yaatriyon ne use giraftaar kar liya, jahaaain se uske ek puraane saathi ne sone ke das sikke (deenaar) muktidhn ke roop mein dekar usaka uddhaar kiya. usi ne 100 deenaar dahej mein dekar apni ladki ka vivaah bhi saadi se kar diya. yeh ladki badi uddand aur dusht svabhaav ki thi. vah apne pita dvaara dhan dekar chhudaae jaane ki charcha kar saadi ko khijaaya karti thi. aise hi ek avsar par saadi ne uske vyangya ka uttar dete hue javaab diya 'haaain, tumhaare pita ne das deenaar dekar jaroor mujhe aajaad karaaya tha lekin fir sau deenaar ke badle usane mujhe pun: daasata ke bandhan mein baaaindh diya.'

kai varshon ki lambi yaatra ke baad saadi sheeraaj laut aaya aur apni prasiddh pustakon - 'bostaaain' tatha 'gulistaaain' - ke lekhan ka aarambh kiya. inmein uske saahasik jeevan ki anek manoranjak ghatnaaon ka aur vibhinn deshon mein praapt anokhe tatha moolyavaan‌ anubhavon ka varnan hai. vah shataadhik varshon tak jeevit raha aur san‌ 1292 ke lagbhag usaka dehaant hua.

gulistaaain ka pranayan san‌ 1258 mein poora hua. yeh mukhya roop se gadya mein likhi hui upadeshapradhaan rachana hai jismein beech beech mein sundar padya aur dilchasp kathaaeain di gayi hain. yeh aath adhyaayon mein vibhkt hai jinmein alag alag vishay varnit hain; udaaharan ke liye ek mein prem aur yauvan ka vivechan hai. 'gulistaaain' ne prakaashan ke baad se adviteeya lokapriyta praapt ki. vah kai bhaashaaon mein anoodit ho chuki hai - laitin, French, angreji, Turkey, hindustaani aadi. anek paravarti lekhakon ne usaka pratiroop prastut karne ka prayaas kiya, kintu usaki shreshthata tak pahuainchane mein ve asafal rahe. aisi pratiroop rachanaaon mein se do ke naam hain - bahaaristaaain tatha nigaaristaaain.

bostaaain ki rachana ek varsh pehle (1257 mein) ho chuki thi. saadi ne use apne shaahi sanrakshak ataaleek ko samarpit kiya tha. gulistaaain ki tarah ismein bhi shiksha aur upadesh ki pradhaanata hai. iske das anubhaag hai. pratyek mein manoranjak kathaaeain hain jinmein kisi na kisi vyaavahaarik baat ya shiksha par bal diya gaya hai. ek aur pustak pandanaama (ya kareema) bhi unki likhi bataai jaati hai kintu iski satyata mein sandeh hai. saadi utkrusht geetikaar bhi the aur haafij ke aavirbhaav ke pehle tak ve geetikaavya ke mahaan‌ rachayita maane jaate the. apni kavitaaon ke kai sangrah ve chhod gaye hain.

faaras ke anya bahut se kaviyon ki tarah saadi soofi naheen the. ve vyaavahaarik vyakti the jinmein prachur maatra mein saansaarik buddhi evam vilkshan parihaasasheelata vidyamaan thi. unki khyaati unki kaavyashaili evam gadya ki utkrushtata par hi avalanbit naheen hai varan‌ is baat par bhi aashrit hai ki unki rachanaaon mein apne yug ki vidvatta aur gyaan ki tatha madhyakaaleen poorvi samaaj ki sarvotkrusht saanskrutik parampara ki chhaap maujood hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

  • The Bustan of Saadi, English translation, 74 p., Iran Chamber Society (PDF).
  • The Golestan of Saadi, translated by Richard Francis Burton, 213 p., Iran Chamber Society (PDF).
  • Golestan Saadi, the complete work, in Persian (ParsTech). This work can be freely downloaded (File size, compiled in pdf format: 485 KB).