sheingen kshetr

sheingen kshetr
 2009 तक शेंगेन क्षेत्र
█a█ sheingen kshetr █a█ bhaavi sadasya
vivran mukt vichran kshetr
sthaapana 1995
sadasya
neeti nirmaata Europeeya sangh
kshetrafal 4,312,099 kimi2

sheingen kshetr mein un pachchees Europeeya deshon ke pradesh shaamil hain jinhonne, lakjmabarg ke sheingen shahar mein 1985 mein hastaaksharit sheingen samjhaute ko laagoo kiya hai. sheingen kshetr, antararaashtreeya yaatra ke liye kaafi had tak ek ekal raashtra ki tarah sanchaalit hota hai jahaan is kshetr ke andar aane vaale ya fir baahar jaane vaale logon ke liye to seema niyantran hota hai, lekin yahaan koi aantarik seema niyantran naheen hai.

sheingen niyamon ko 1999 mein emstardam samjhaute dvaara Europeeya sangh (EU) kaanoon mein shaamil kar liya gaya, haalaanki is kshetr mein aadhikaarik taur par teen gair-Europeeya sangh raashtra, aaisalaind, Norway Switzerland shaamil hain aur vaastavik taur par teen sookshm Europeeya raashtra, monaako, sain mairino, aur Vatican city bhi shaamil hai. Europeeya sangh ke do sadasyon - Ireland aur Britain ko chhodkar baaki sabhi sadasya raashtron ko sheingen laagoo karne ki aavashyakta hai aur bulgaariya, saaipras aur romaaniya ko chhodkar sabhi ne ise pehle se hi laagoo kar liya hai. vartamaan mein is kshetr ki janasankhya 40 karod se adhik hai aur 43,12,099 varg kilometer (16,64,911 varg meal) ka kshetr iske antargat aata hai.

sheingen niyamon ko laagoo karne ke tahat ek sheingan raashtra ko anya sheingen sadasyon ke saath seema par niyantran ko samaapt karna aur saath hi gair sadasya raajyon ke saath seema par niyantran ko majaboot banaana shaamil hai. in niyamon mein shaamil hai logon ke asthaayi pravesh par aam neeti ke praavadhaan (sheingen veeja sahit), baahya seema niyantran ko susangat karna, paar-seema police aur nyaayik sahayog.

ya to ek passport ki ya Europeeya sangh sveekrut raashtreeya pehchaan patra ki aavashyakta havaai addon, hotelon par ya police ke saamane apni pehchaan siddh karne ke liye padti hain aur yeh raashtreeya niyamon par nirbhar karta hai aur deshon ke beech badalta rahata hai. kabhi kabhi, sheingen deshon ke beech niyamit seema niyantran laagoo kiya jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

sheingen kshetr 26 March 1995 ko astitv mein aaya jab sheingen samjhaute ko ise laagoo karne vaale sammelan ke saath paanch mool hastaaksharakarta ke yahaan kaaryaanvit kiya gaya: Belgium, France, Germany, laksamabarg, Netherland, ke saath saath Portugal aur Spain mein. ostriya aur Italy 1997 ke dauraan shaamil hue. emstardam sandhi ke saath, yeh samjhauta 1999 mein Europeeya sangh ke akvis kamyoonateyar ka hissa ban gaya. 2000 mein grees ke vilay ke baad naurdik passport sangh mein shaamil deshon - Denmark, Finland, sveedan aur saath hi saath gair Europeeya sangh ke deshon aaisalaind aur Norway ne 2001 mein anugaman kiya.

2007 mein, nau deshon - check ganaraajya, estoniya, Hungary, laatviya, lithuaaniya, maalta, Poland, Slovakia aur sloveniya - jinhonne teen saal pehle khud ko Europeeya sangh mein shaamil kiya tha is kshetr mein shaamil ho gaye.[1] 12 December 2008 ko Switzerland, sheingen kshetr ka naveenatam sadasya ban gaya (aur teesara gair Europeeya sangh sadasya).

sadasyata

saaaincha:Schengen Agreement Labelled Map 2 vartamaan mein sheingen kshetr pachchees raashtron se nirmit hai, jinme se teen ko chhodkar baaki sabhi Europeeya sangh (EU) ke sadasya hain. gair Europeeya sangh ke sadasyon mein se do, aaisalaind aur Norway, naurdik passport union ka hissa hain aur aadhikaarik taur par inhein aise raashtra ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai jo Europeeya sangh ki sheingen gatividhiyon ke saath jude rahe hain. teesare raashtra, Switzerland ko baad mein 2008 mein usi tareeke se bhaag lene ki anumati di gayi. vaastavik (di faikto), sheingen kshetr mein kai chhote raajya bhi shaamil jo sheingen deshon ke saath mukt ya ardh-mukt seema banaae rakhate hain.

sheingen niyamon ko poori tarah laagoo karne se pehle, pratyek raashtra ka chaar kshetron mein moolyaankan kiya jaata hai: vaayu seema, veeja, police sahayog aur vyaktigat deta sanrakshan. is moolyaankan prakriya ke tahat ek prashnaavali hoti hai aur moolyaankan ke adheen desh mein Europeeya sangh ke visheshagya chayanit sansthaaon aur kaaryasthalon ka daura karte hain.

vartamaan

dhvaj raashtra kshetr
(km²)
janasankhya[2]
hastaakshar ya
shaamil hua
pratham
kaaryanvayan ki tithi
chhoot praapt pradesh
ऑस्ट्रिया ostriya &&&&&&&&&&083871.&&&&&083,871 &&&&&&&&08372930.&&&&&083,72,930 01995-04-28 28 April 1995 01997-12-01 1 December 1997
बेल्जियम Belgium &&&&&&&&&&030528.&&&&&030,528 &&&&&&&010827519.&&&&&01,08,27,519 01985-06-14 14 June 1985 01995-03-26 26 March 1995
चेक गणराज्य check ganaraajya &&&&&&&&&&078866.&&&&&078,866 &&&&&&&010512397.&&&&&01,05,12,397 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
डेनमार्क Denmark &&&&&&&&&&043094.&&&&&043,094 &&&&&&&&05547088.&&&&&055,47,088 01996-12-19 19 December 1996 02001-03-25 25 March 2001 Flag of Greenland.svg greenalaindd
Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg fro dveepasamoohd
एस्टोनिया estoniya &&&&&&&&&&045226.&&&&&045,226 &&&&&&&&01340274.&&&&&013,40,274 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
फिनलैंड Finland &&&&&&&&&0338145.&&&&&03,38,145 &&&&&&&&05350475.&&&&&053,50,475 01996-12-19 19 December 1996 02001-03-25 25 March 2001
फ़्रान्स France &&&&&&&&&0674843.&&&&&06,74,843 &&&&&&&064709480.&&&&&06,47,09,480 01985-06-14 14 June 1985 01995-03-26 26 March 1995 sabhi videshi vibhaag aur kshetr
जर्मनी Germany &&&&&&&&&0357050.&&&&&03,57,050 &&&&&&&081757595.&&&&&08,17,57,595 01985-06-14 14 June 1985 01995-03-26 26 March 1995c
यूनान yoonaan &&&&&&&&&0131990.&&&&&01,31,990 &&&&&&&011125179.&&&&&01,11,25,179 01992-11-06 6 November 1992 02000-03-26 26 March 2000
हंगरी Hungary &&&&&&&&&&093030.&&&&&093,030 &&&&&&&010013628.&&&&&01,00,13,628 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
आइसलैण्ड aaisalainda &&&&&&&&&0103000.&&&&&01,03,000 &&&&&&&&&0318755.&&&&&03,18,755 01996-12-19 19 December 1996 02001-03-25 25 March 2001
इटली Italy &&&&&&&&&0301318.&&&&&03,01,318 &&&&&&&060397353.&&&&&06,03,97,353 01990-11-27 27 November 1990 01997-10-26 26 October 1997
लातविया laataviya &&&&&&&&&&064589.&&&&&064,589 &&&&&&&&02248961.&&&&&022,48,961 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
लिथुआनिया lithuaaniya &&&&&&&&&&065303.&&&&&065,303 &&&&&&&&03329227.&&&&&033,29,227 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
लक्ज़मबर्ग lakjmabarg &&&&&&&&&&&02586.&&&&&02,586 &&&&&&&&&0502207.&&&&&05,02,207 01985-06-14 14 June 1985 01995-03-26 26 March 1995
माल्टा maalta &&&&&&&&&&&&0316.&&&&&0316 &&&&&&&&&0416333.&&&&&04,16,333 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
नीदरलैंड Netherland &&&&&&&&&&041526.&&&&&041,526 &&&&&&&016576800.&&&&&01,65,76,800 01985-06-14 14 June 1985 01995-03-26 26 March 1995 Flag of Aruba.svg arooba
Flag of Curaçao.svg kuraakaao
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Sint Maarten
नीदरलैंड kairibiyaai needaralainds
नॉर्वे Norwaya &&&&&&&&&0385155.&&&&&03,85,155 &&&&&&&&04854824.&&&&&048,54,824 01996-12-19 19 December 1996 02001-03-25 25 March 2001 svaalabaard e
पोलैंड Poland &&&&&&&&&0312683.&&&&&03,12,683 &&&&&&&038163895.&&&&&03,81,63,895 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
पुर्तगाल Portugal &&&&&&&&&&092391.&&&&&092,391 &&&&&&&010636888.&&&&&01,06,36,888 01992-06-25 25 June 1992 01995-03-26 26 March 1995
स्लोवाकिया Slovakia &&&&&&&&&&049037.&&&&&049,037 &&&&&&&&05424057.&&&&&054,24,057 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
स्लोवेनिया sloveniya &&&&&&&&&&020273.&&&&&020,273 &&&&&&&&02054119.&&&&&020,54,119 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 02007-12-21 21 December 2007b
स्पेन Spain &&&&&&&&&0506030.&&&&&05,06,030 &&&&&&&046087170.&&&&&04,60,87,170 01992-06-25 25 June 1992 01995-03-26 26 March 1995 seuta aur melila ke kasbe f
स्वीडन sveedan &&&&&&&&&0449964.&&&&&04,49,964 &&&&&&&&09347899.&&&&&093,47,899 01996-12-19 19 December 1996 02001-03-25 25 March 2001
स्विट्ज़रलैंड Switzerland a &&&&&&&&&&041285.&&&&&041,285 &&&&&&&&07760477.&&&&&077,60,477 02004-10-26 26 October 2004 02008-12-12 12 December 2008

a. ^ , Europeeya sangh ke baahar ke raashtra jo iyoo ki sheingen gatividhiyon ke saath jude rahe hain,[3] aur jahaan sheingen niyam laagoo hote hain.
kh. ^ thalachar seemaaon aur bandargaah ke liye; 30 March 2008 ke baad se havaai adde ke liye bhi[4]
c. ^ poorvi Germany, jarman sangheeya ganaraajya ka hissa ban gaya aur vah sheingen mein 3 October 1990 ko shaamil ho gaya. isse pehle vah samjhaute se baahar raha. kuchh media riporton ke baavajood, heligolaind sheingen se baahar naheen hai, yeh keval Europeeya sangh ke moolya sanvardhit kar kshetr se baahar hai.
d. ^ greenalaind aur faro aailainds ko paroksh roop se yaatriyon ke liye shaamil kiya gaya hai jinhein veeja ki jaroorat naheen hai, lekin un yaatriyon ke liye naheen jinhein veeja ki jarurat hoti hai. ek sheingen raajya dvaara jaari sheingen veeja Denmark ki tulana mein ek anya raajya dvaara jaari dhaarak ya to pradeshon ko na hi ek Denmark dvaara jaari veeja jab tak ki ek vishesh aavedan kareinge banaaya jaata hai aur veeja ya to "fairo dveepasamooh ke liye maanya" ya "maanya ke saath ticket laga hai anumati naheen hogi. greenalaind ke liye ya donon ke liye vaidh hoga.[5]
e. ^ haalaanki, jain maayen, sheingen kshetr ka hissa hai[krupaya uddharan jodein] .
f. ^ poora sheingen akvis sabhi Spanish pradeshon par laagoo hota hai, lekin vahaan naador ki tetuaan ya Spain par hain seema ki jaanch ke liye prasthaan se seuta aur melila aur praanton mein rahane vaale naagrikon ke liye morakko chhoot ki vyavastha ke liye veeja ki vajah se vishisht, anya sheingen deshon ke liye hai.[6]

bhaavi

jabki saaipras jo 2004 mein Europeeya sangh mein shaamil ho gaya, usane sheingen samjhaute par hastaakshar kiya tha, lekin kaaryaanvayan ko saaipras vivaad ki vajah se kam se kam 2010 tak vilanbit kiya gaya[7]. sipriot ke videsh maamalon ke mantri jiorgos lileekaas ke anusaar "sheingen ke aadhaar par sakht aur poorn niyantran dainik aadhaar par Turkey sipriot ke liye ek badi halachal paida karega," aur yeh spasht naheen hai ki kya yeh niyantran vivaad ke samaadhaan se pehle sambhav hai.[7] samprabhu aadhaar kshetr, jo Europeeya sangh ke baahar hain, unhein "anya vyavahaar aur tantr" ki bhi jaroorat hogi.[7]

romaaniya aur bulgaariya jo 2007 mein Europeeya sangh mein shaamil hue the, shuroo mein unka March 2011 mein shaamil hona nirdhaarit tha, lekin December 2010 mein French adhikaari laureint vaukviyej ne kaha ki baalkan ke do raajyon ke pravesh mein deri hogi.[8]

likteinsteen, jiski sheingen mein shaamil hone se pehle Switzerland ke saath sirf mukt seema thi, uske bhi sheingen kshetr mein shaamil hone ki ummeed hai.

dhvaj raashtra kshetr (km²) janasankhya hastaakshar kiya ya shaamil hua kaaryaanvayan ki bhaavi taareekh
बुल्गारिया bulgaariya &&&&&&&&&0110912.&&&&&01,10,912 &&&&&&&&07576751.&&&&&075,76,751 02007-01-01 1 January 2007 2011 October 2011[9]
साइप्रस saaipras &&&&&&&&&&&09251.&&&&&09,251 &&&&&&&&&0801851.&&&&&08,01,851 02004-05-01 1 May 2004 2999 aanshik roop se saaipras vivaad par nirbhar[7]
लिक्टेन्स्टाइन likteinsteen a &&&&&&&&&&&&0160.&&&&&0160 &&&&&&&&&&035981.&&&&&035,981 02008-02-28 28 fravari 2008 2011 uttaraardh 2011[10]
रोमानिया romaaniya &&&&&&&&&0238391.&&&&&02,38,391 &&&&&&&021466174.&&&&&02,14,66,174 02007-01-01 1 January 2007 2011 October 2011[9]

a. ^ Europeeya sangh se baahar rahate hue, likteinsteen, Europeeya sangh ki sheingen gatividhiyon se sambaddh rahega,[3] aur vahaan sheingen niyam laagoo honge.

sheingen kshetr ke baahar sheingen raashtron ke pradesh

sadasya raajyon ke pradeshon mein kuchh aise hain jinhein sheingen samjhaute se baahar rakha gaya hai aur inmein se adhikaansh Europe ke baahar hain (ya Europe mein doorasth dweep).

fraanseesi pradesh

French gayaana, gvaadelop, maarteenik aur riyooniyn ke French videshi vibhaag aur seint baarthelemi aur seint Martin, Europeeya sangh ka hissa hain, lekin sheingen kshetr ka hissa naheen hain. Europeeya sangh ki gatividhi ki svatantrata ke praavadhaan laagoo hote hain, lekin pratyek kshetr vibhinn veeja vyavastha sanchaalit karta hai. jabki ek pradesh mein vaidh veeja anya sabhi ke liye maanya hoga, veeja chhoot ki soochi bhinn hai.[11] ek sheingen veeja, yahaan tak ki France dvaara jaari, in kshetron ke liye maanya naheen hai. sint maartan ke liye veeja (jo seint Martin dweep ke dach hisse ki or yaatra ke liye maanya hai) vah French hisse ke liye bhi maanya hai.[12]

France ke bhi kai pradesh hain jo na to Europeeya sangh ke hisse hain aur na hi sheingen kshetr ke. ye hain: French poleeneshiya, frech southern end antaarkatik lainds, maiyat, new kailedoniya, seint piyre aur mikelaun aur vaalis aur fyoochoona.

dach pradesh

needaralainds ka keval Europeeya pradesh sheingen kshetr ka hissa hai. kairibiyn mein chhah dach pradesh kshetr se baahar hain. in pradeshon mein se teen - boneyar, sint yusteteeas aur saba (saamoohik roop se BES dweep ke roop mein gyaat) - Netherland ke bheetar vishesh nagarapaalika hain. anya teen - arooba kuraakaao aur sint maarten - Netherland raajya ke bheetar svaayatt desh hain. sabhi dweep, videshi desh aur pradesh ki apni sthiti banaae rakhate hain aur is tarah ve Europeeya sangh ka hissa naheen hain.

Netherland ke Europeeya bhaag se in chhah pradeshon mein bhinn veeja pranaali hai aur in dveepon aur sheingen kshetr ke beech yaatra karne vaale yaatri vyavasthit pehchaan jaanch ke adheen hote hain.

naarvejiyn pradesh

svaalabaard, Norway ka hissa hai aur antararaashtreeya kaanoon ke tahat vishesh sthiti mein hai. yeh sheingen kshetr ka hissa naheen hai. svaalabaard ke liye vahaan pravesh, nivaas ya kaam karne ke liye koi visa shaasan astitv mein naheen hai,[13] haalaanki sheingen kshetr se yaatra kiye bina svaalabaard jaana kathin hai,[13] yadyapi roos se chaartar udaanein upalabdh hain.

denish pradesh

faro aailainds aur greenalaind, na to Europeeya sangh ka hissa hain aur na hi sheingen kshetr ka; haalaanki faro aailainds, naurdik passport union ka hissa hain. Denmark ke liye veesa svat: faro dweep aur greenalaind mein maanya naheen hain. ek passport ya ek sveekaarya pehchaan card laaya jaana chaahiye aur iski jarurat havaai adde par aagaman jaanch karne ke liye aur boarding ke samay padti hai.[14]

baahar rahane vaale Europeeya sangh sadasya

Ireland aur United Kingdom hi aise Europeeya sangh ke sadasya the jinhonne, 2004 ke vistaareekaran se pehle sheingen samjhaute par hastaakshar naheen kiya tha. donon desh apne beech ek khuli bhoomi seema ke saath ek aam yaatra kshetr rakhate hain.

Britain ne sheingen sandhi ke passport niyantran se sambandhit tatvon mein shaamil hone se mana kar diya, ek tark yeh diya gaya ki ek dweep ke liye, avaidh aavrajan ko rokane ke liye anya upaayon ki tulana mein seema niyantran ek behtar aur kam dakhal vaale tareeke hain, jaise ki pehchaan patra, nivaas paramit aur police ke saath panjeekaran jo un deshon ke liye uchit hain jahaan "bruhad aur paaragamya bhoomi seema hai".[15] Ireland, Britain ke is vichaar se sahamat naheen hai ki seema jaanch ke bina mukt aavaajaahi keval Europeeya sangh ke naagrikon ke liye laagoo karna chaahiye, lekin usane sheingen sandhi par hastaakshar naheen kiye kyonki yeh "Ireland ke hit mein naheen hoga ki koi aisi paristhiti ho jahaan jahaan Britain ke saath saamaanya yaatra kshetr samaapt ho aur Ireland apne yahaan se Britain ki aavaajaahi par nikaas aur pravesh par niyantran lagaae, iske alaava, bhoomi seema par bhi.[16]

jab sheingen ko emstardam sandhi dvaara Europeeya sangh mein sammilit kar liya gaya to Britain aur Ireland ne sandhi ke us hisse se khud ko baahar (opt out) kar liya jismein Europeeya sangh kaanoon mein sheingen niyamon (ya akvis) ko shaamil kiya jaana tha.[17] praasangik protokaul ke tahat, Ireland aur United Kingdom apni ichha se sheingen akvis mein hissa lene ke liye anurodh kar sakte hain lekin yeh sheingen raashtron ke anumodan ke adheen hai.[18]

Britain ne sheingen akvis ke kuchh praavadhaanon mein bhaag lene ke liye aupachaarik roop se anurodh kiya - sheershak III police suraksha aur nyaayik sahayog se sambandhit - 1999 mein aur yeh anurodh Europeeya sangh parishad dvaara 29 May 2000 ko anumodit kiya gaya.[19] sahayog ke poorv anumodit kshetron mein Britain ki aupachaarik bhaageedaari ko 2004 ke parishad ke nirnaya ke baad prabhaavi kiya gaya jo 1 January 2005 ko astitv mein aaya.[20]

iske vipreet, jabki Ireland ne shuroo mein sheingen akvis mein 2002 mein bhaag lene ke liye ek aupachaarik anurodh prastut kiya, jise Europeeya sangh parishad dvaara anumodit kiya gaya.[21] faisala abhi tak laagoo naheen kiya gaya hai. February 2010 mein aayarish kaanoon mantri ne sansadeeya savaal ki ek javaabi kaarravaai mein kaha ki: aise upaaya jo sheingen aavashyakataaon ke prati Ireland ko saksham kareinge unhein abhi viksit kiya ja raha hai. "[22]

house of laurds ki 1999 ki Europeeya union chayan samiti dvaara report pesh ki gayi jisne sheingen kaaryaanvayan sandhi ke vibhinn chaar sheershakon mein "Britain ki poorn bhaageedaari" ki sifaarish ki.[23]

jhanda raajya kshetr
(km²)
anurodh
taareekh
kriyaanvayan
aupachaarik sahayog ka
nots
आयरलैंड Ireland &&&&&&&&&&070273.&&&&&070,273 02002-02-28 28 fravari 2002 laagoo naheen[22]
यूनाइटेड किंगडम United Kingdom
jibraaltar sahit
&&&&&&&&&0244820.&&&&&02,44,820 01999-05-20 20 May 1999 02004-12-22 22 December 2004 kraaun nirbharata (gvernase, jersey aur aail of main aur videshi kshetr na to Britain ka na Europeeya sangh ka aur na hi sheingen akvis ka hissa hain jise UK ne kaaryaanvit kiya hai lekin, svaayatt aadhaar kshetr ko baad mein vastut: shaamil kar liya jaayega

Europeeya sookshm raajyon ki sthiti

ye sookshm raajya, sheingen samjhaute ke sadasya naheen hain aur ve sheingen veeja jaari naheen kar sakte hain aur (monaako ke apavaad ke saath) sheingen kshetr ka hissa naheen hain. kuchh raashtron ke tathaapi, anya sheingen sadasyon ke saath khuli seemaaen hain aur ise sheingen kshetr ke andar vaastavik maana ja sakta hai. ve aavrajan sambandhi koi khatra utpann naheen karte hain kyonki vahaan keval sheingen kshetr ke maadhyam se pravesh kiya ja sakta hai - unamein se kisi ke bhi paas havaai adde naheen hain, haalaanki sabhi ke paas heleeport hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

dhvaj raashtra sthiti is varsh se
अण्डोरा andora gair sadasya
लिक्टेन्स्टाइन likteinsteen bhaavi sadasya kaaryaanvayan taareekh anusamarthan ke upakaranon ke bayaan se lambit hai 02016
मोनाको monaako sheingen kshetr ke bheetar eriyaasheingen aavashyakataaen France dvaara prashaasit 01995-03-26 26 March 1995
सान मारिनो sain mairino vaastavik sadasya 01997-10-26 26 October 1997
वैटिकन नगर vaitikn city vaastavik sadasya 01997-10-26 26 October 1997

endora

andora ki seema par niyantran France aur Spain, donon hi ke saath hai. Europeeya sangh ke deshon ke naagrikon ko andora mein pravesh karne ke liye ya to apne raashtreeya pehchaan patra ya passport aavashyakta hoti hai, jabki kisi anya ko ek passport ya samakaksh ki aavashyakta hai. un yaatriyon ko jinhein sheingen kshetr mein pravesh karne ke liye veeja ki jaroorat hai unhein andora jaane ke liye ekaadhik pravishti veeja ki aavashyakta hoti hai, kyonki andora mein pravesh karne ka matlab hai sheingen kshetr chhodna.[24]

likteinsteen

likteinsteen ne 28 fravari 2008 ko Europeeya sangh ke saath sheingen sangh samjhaute par hastaakshar kiye,[25] aur mool 2009 ki yojana banaai November kshetr par 1 sheingen ke liye shaamil ho.

jabki anusamarthan kiya gaya tha chori kar kehne ke shuroo mein deri par aur Germany, jo mahasoos kiya tha ki ladaai likteinsteen naheen kiya paryaapt sveedan[26][27] ke mantriyon parishad antat: March 2011 par 7 protokaul ka anusamarthan sahamati de di hai.[28] protokaul 7 April 2011 ko prabhaavi hoga[29] aur, ek moolyaankan prakriya ke baad, lishtenasteen ki seema par sabhi passport niyantran 2011 ke ant tak gaayab ho jaane ki ummeed hai.[30][31]

protokaul ke laagoo hone se pehle, ostriya aur Switzerland ke saath likteinsteen ki seemaaon ko, siddhaant roop mein, baahari seemaaon ke roop mein vyavahaar kiya jaana chaahiye aur poori seema par niyantran hona chaahiye. haalaanki, likteinsteen sarkaar ne jis upaaya ko ek "vyaavahaarik antarim samaadhaan" ke roop mein varnan kiya hai, riyaasat aur Switzerland ke beech sadkon par seema niyantran ke bajaay video nigraani hogi, taaki us seema par niyantran na lagaana pade jo ki 1923 se khuli hui hai.[32] likteinsteen ne nivaasi videshiyon ko ni:shulk sheingen veeja dene ki bhi vyayastha ki hai jinhein anyatha riyaasat se jaane ke liye veeja ke liye bhugataan ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

iske vipreet hai, shaanavaald-tisis par ostriya ke saath seema paar karne mein likteinsteen, prabhaavi roop se, baahya Swiss jaanch chauki ke roop mein kaarya karta hai.[33]

haalaanki likteinsteen mein koi havaai adda naheen hai, vahaan beljrs mein ek chhota heleeport hai. likteinsteen sarkaar ne sheingen kshetr mein koi seedhi udaanon ko nishiddh kiya hai chaahe ve andar aane waali hon ya baahar jaane waali,[32] yeh sunishchit karne ke liye ki likteinsteen ki koi baahya sheingen seema naheen hai aur isse sheingen kshetr ke liye aapravaas ka koi jokhim khada naheen hota hai.

15 fravari 2011 ko, Europeeya sansad ne likteinsteen protokaul ke nishkarsh ke liye sahamati de di,[34] aur sheingen kshetr mein likteinsteen ke ekeekaran ke liye apna aasheervaad pradaan kiya.[35] iski aavashyakta lisban sandhi ke antargat ek prakriyaatmak badlaav ke kaaran hui jo Europeeya sansad jaise protokaul ko apnaane ki baat karta hai bajaay yeh keval paraamarsh kiya ja raha aavashyakta ke antargat laaya parivartan karne ki aavashyakta ke kaaran tha, jaisa ki pehle maamala tha.

monaako

monaako ki France ke saath ek mukt seema hai. sheingen kaanoon is roop mein laagoo hote hain jaise ki ve France ka ek hissa hain aur France ke adhikaari monaako bandargaah par jaanch karte hain.

sain mairino

sain mairino ki Italy ke saath ek mukt seema hai, haalaanki kuchh yaadruchhik jaanch kaaraabiniyri, guaardiya di finaanja aur sain mairino ke guaardiya di rokka ke yahaan aayojit hoti hai.

vaitikn city

Vatican city ki Italy ke saath ek mukt seema hai.[36] is maaikrostet ne soochana saajha karne aur sheingen soochana pranaali mein shaamil anya aisi hi gatividhiyon ke najadeeki sahayog ke liye sheingen samjhaute mein shaamil hone ke prati roochi dikhaai hai.[37]

aantarik seemaaon ka viniyman

olt= ek do len raajamaarg ki ek khuli shrrunkhala ke kinaare par do sadak sanket .

sheingen samjhaute ke kaaryaanvayan se pehle, pashchimi Europe ki adhikaansh seemaaon par gasht hoti thi jiska network vishaal mahaadveep tak faila hua tha, taaki desh ki yaatra karne ke liye ichhuk logon ki pehchaan aur jaanch ki ja sake. veesa aavashyakataaen bhi vividh thi aur veeja ke dhaaranakarta ke liye yeh aavashyak naheen tha ki vah ek Europeeya desh se doosare ki yaatra karne ke liye doosra visa banavaaye.

sheingen niyamon ke kaaryaanvayan ke baad se, sadasya deshon ke beech seema chaukiyon ko hata diya gaya hai (ya band kar diya gaya). sheingen seema sanhita ke tahat yeh aavashyak hai ki seemaaon par svatantr aavaagaman aur aantarik pravaah ke liye baadhaaon ko door kiya jaae.[38] is prakaar, sadak, rel aur havaai yaatriyon ko ab naheen hai unki pehchaan guard seema jaaainch se jab seema paar, haalaanki dvaara vaahak niyantran suraksha abhi bhi anumeya.[39] sheingen desh ek aisi soochi bhi rakhate hain jiske tahat veeja se mukt naagrikon ka byora hota hai aur ek sheingen raajya dvaara jaari veeja poore sheingen kshetr bhar mein maanya hai.

aantarik seema niyantran ki asthaai roop se pun: shuruaat

ek sheingen raajya ko sheingen seema sanhita ke anuchhed 23 se lekar 31 se anumati praapt hai jiske dvaara ek chhoti avadhi ke liye seema par niyantran bahaal agar raashtreeya suraksha ke hit mein samjha, lekin is tarah ki kaarravaai se pehle ek paraamarsh prakriya ka paalan kiya hai. yeh diwas mein hua aur 2004 mein Portugal ke dauraan Europeeya championship football France di ki 60 veen varshagaanth ankan ke liye samaaroh. Spain asthaayi roop se 2004 mein Rajkumar felip ki kraaun shaadi niyantran dauraan seema bahaal. yeh July 2005 mein fir se istemaal kiya gaya bam visfot ke baad sheegra hi London France dvaara. Finland sankshipt 2008 mein parishad ke liye 16 veen mantristareeya OSCE aur 2005 niyantran seema bahaal dauraan August 2005 mein ethaletiks championship mein vishv ke roop mein FIFA vishv cup tha Germany ke liye 2006, 2007 mein shikhar sammelan ke liye 33 ji -8 heleejeindam mein aur 2009 mein March April- naato suraksha sammelan ke liye. ostriya bhi June 2008 mein UEFA Euro2008 ke liye aisa kiya tha. maalta tha fir se yaatra mein April check seema shuroo ki 2010 kaaran benedikt XVI Pope.[40]

havaai suraksha

sheingen raajyon ke beech ya ek hi sheingen desh mein havaai yaatra karte samay, kuchh airline pehchaan ka anurodh karti (aamtaur par passport ya raashtreeya pehchaan card) mein pehchaan airport check-in boarding kaauntar.[41] haalaanki, is abhyaas ek adhikaari seema niyantran ka ek roop naheen hai, lekin hai ki yaatriyon ki pehchaan sthaapit karte the. iske alaava, ek sheingen veeja ki aavashyakta hogi, yaatriyon ke liye ek vaidh ek vartamaan pad sakta hai.

hotel aur anya sthaanon par ID ki jaanch

sheingen niyamon ke anusaar, hotel aur anya prakaar ke vaanijyik aavaas mein sabhi videshi naagrikon ka panjeekaran hona chaahiye, jisme anya sheingen raajyon ke naagrik bhi shaamil hain apne swayam ke haath se ek panjeekaran firm ko bharne ki aavashyakta hoti hai. is niyam ke antargat patniyon aur chhote bachchon ya ya yaatra samoohon ke sadasyon ko shaamil naheen kiya gaya hai. iske atirikt, ek vaidh pehchaan dastaavej ko hotel ke prabandhak ya staaf ke saamane prastut karna chaahiye.[42] sheingen niyamon ke tahat kisi bhi anya prakriyaaon ki aavashyakta naheen hai, is prakaar, sheingen raajyon mein panjeekaran firm ki saamagri par adhik jaankaari aur pehchaan dastaavej hai jo utpaadan kiya ja rahe hain viniymit svatantr hain aur sheingen kaanoonon dvaara panjeekaran se chhoot vyaktiyon ki aavashyakta ho sakti karne ke liye panjeekrut hona chaahiye. in niyamon ka pravartan ek desh se doosare mein bhinn hota hai. yeh kehna sambhav hai ki videshi aagantukon ki pehchaan jaanch ko seema se hataakar hotel mein bhej diya gaya hai, haalaanki is tarah ki jaanch sambandhit deshon mein kai varshon se maujood hai.

seema shulk niyantran

Europeeya sangh sangh ka gathan ek seema shulk aur ek moolya sanvardhit kar kshetr. in praavadhaanon ke prabhaav ko vyavasthit kar, seema shulk niyantran ya Europeeya sangh ke sadasya raajyon ke beech seema par kisi bhi maal ki prashaasanik prasanskaran nishedh hai. parinaam mein Europeeya sangh ke beech ki seema par, sheingen raajyon mukhyat: adrushya ho gaye hain.

lekin sabhi sheingen raajya ya sheingen raajyon ke sabhi raajya kshetr seema shulk sangh ya vait ke antargat naheen aate hai, isliye seema mein pravesh karne ya chhodne ke samay seema shulk sangh maal aur/ya vait kshetr se gujrana aur vahaan par kuchh niyantran hona anivaarya hai. seema shulk niyantran ko aantarik sheingen seema par naya passport niyantran ban jaane se rokane ke liye sheingen seema code, vyavasthit seema shulk aur kar niyantran ko pratibndhit karta hai.[43]

seema shulk chaarj karne ke alaava, kai raashtra, desh mein gairkaanooni saamagri (jaise nasheele padaarthon ke roop mein) ke pravesh ko rokane ke liye vahaan ke seema shulk adhikaari jimmedaar hote hain. haalaanki Europeeya sangh seema shulk sangh ka arth hai ki vahaan maal ke liye koi seema shulk naheen hoga. iske baavajood avaidh vastuon ko laaya ja sakta hai jise seema shulk adhikaariyon dvaara jabt kar liya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, sveedish seema shulk seva aksar hi Denmark se oeresand brij se aane vaale nasheele padaarthon ko jabt kar leti hai.

baahya seema niyantran ka viniyman

Finland mein ek baahari sheingen seema par passport niyantran

sheingen ke tahat yeh aavashyak hai ki sadasya desh is kshetr mein aane aur yahaan se jaane vaale logon par sakht jaanch laagoo karein. ye jaanch niyam Europeeya sangh ki franteks agency dvaara sahayog praapt hai aur aam niyamon ke adheen hai. seema niyantran, nigraani ka vivran aur sharton ke tahat anumati hai kshetr sheingen ke liye darj karein mein diya ja sakta hai sheingen border code mein vistrut roop se diya gaya hai.[44] sabhi seemaaon ko paar vyaktiyon-bheetar ka ya aautabaaund-baahari pehchaan ke liye ek nyoonatam jaanch ke adheen rahana hoga. yaatriyon ki paatrata sheingen kshetr mein pravesh ke liye bhi praasangik hai aur unki jaanch ki jaani chaahiye. nikaas niyantran anya baaton ke alaava anumati ke liye nirdhaarit agar ek kshetr chhodne ke vyakti ke liye pehli jagah mein is kshetr mein pravesh ka hakdaar hota hai, chaahe us vyakti ki anumati ki avadhi se pare apne ya apne rahane badhaaya tha aur vyaktiyon aur vastuon par alert ke khilaaf jaanch faailein deta mein shaamil sheingen soochana pranaali mein raashtreeya aur report. udaaharan ke liye jab ek giraftaari warrant raajya ek sheingen dvaara kiya gaya tha jaari kiye hain.[45]

baahya seema niyantran samudri bandaragaahon par, havaai addon par sthit hain aur sadkon par, border aur jahaaj par bhi hain.[46] aamtaur par, vahaan ilaake mein seemaaon par baad naheen hai, lekin vahaan seuta seema baad apavaad hain. haalaanki, nigraani camera system, kuchh avarakt praudyogiki se susajjit hain aur ve kuchh mahatvapoorn binduon par sthit hain, udaaharan ke liye Ukraine aur Slovakia ke beech mein.[47] sheingen deshon ke dakshini tat ke saath, tat rakshak bina anumati ke pravesh karne waali niji naavon ko rokane ka paryaapt prayaas karte hain.

sheingen niyamon ki aavashyakta hai ki sheingen baahari seema sabhi yaatri vimaan mein pravesh karne se pehle karna chaahiye, check boarding, yadi yaatri ke liye hai yaatra dastaavej ki aavashyakta veeja.[48] yeh kshetr sheingen ke bheetar aane ke baad passport niyantran par sharanagaah ke liye aavedan karne se rokane ke liye hai.


File:Czech prague airport exit.jpg|havaai yaatra ke liye baahar nikalne ka ticket praag havaai adde par jaari kiya jaata hai. faail: jarmanee_baida_shaanadaaoo_eksit.jpg rel yaatra ke liye baid shaanadaaoo train station par jaari nikaas ticket File:Poland_korczowa_exit.jpg|sadak yaatra ke liye baahar nikalne ka staamp, korkjova seema paar se jaari kiya jaata hai. File:Finland helsinki ferry.JPG|samudra yaatra ke liye baahar nikalne ka staamp, helasinki bandargaah par jaari kiya gaya.


teesare desh ke naagrikon ke liye pravesh ki shartein

ek sheingen veeja ya veeja chhoot kisi yaatri ko ek sheingen kshetr mein pravesh karne ke liye samarth naheen banaata hai. sheingen borders code soochiyon ki aavashyakataaon jo teesare desh ke naagrikon ko sheingen kshetr mein anumati di jaani chaahiye. is prayojan ke liye ek teesare desh ek desh jo na to ek Europeeya sangh ke sadasya desh aur na hi ek sheingen raajya hai.

pravesh ke liye aavashyakataaen nimnaanusaar hain:[49]

  • teesari raashtreeya desh ki seema paar karne ke liye hai mein kabje ke ek vaidh yaatra dastaavej unhein praadhikrut ya dastaavejon, is uddeshya ke liye yaatra dastaavej ki sveekruti raajyon sadasya ke domen ke bheetar rahata hai,[50]
  • yaatri ya to anumati ke paas ek aavashyak vaidh veeja (agar) ya ek vaidh nivaas;
  • yaatri apne thaharaav ke uddeshya aur sharton ko auchitya aur nirvaah ke liye paryaapt saadhan donon ka iraada rahane ki avadhi ke liye aur ek teesare desh ke liye mool ya paaragaman ke apne ya apne desh mein lautane ke liye jo mein yaatri kuchh hai, hai sakte hain mein bharti karaaya, ho sakta hai ya ek tarah se is tarah ke kaanooni saadhan praapt ki sthiti mein hai;
  • sheingen soochana pranaali mein yaatri se sambandhit koi chetaavani samaahit naheen hai jisse vah pravishti se inkaar kare.
  • yaatri ko saarvajanik neeti, aantarik suraksha, saarvajanik svaasthya ya sheingen raajyon mein se kisi ke antararaashtreeya sambandhon ke liye khatra naheen maana hai.

rahane ka adhikaar

teesare desh ke kisi naagrik ko jise pravishti ki ijaajat mili ho vah sheingen ke beech yaatra aur sheingen kshetr ke raajyon ke roop mein pradaan kiya gaya hai mein rahane ke liye lambe samay ki sthiti ke liye ke roop mein abhi bhi pravesh kar rahe hain.[51] yadi thaharaav teen maheene se adhik ke liye hai to tathaakathit raashtreeya veeja (shreni di) praasangik sheingen raajya hai jahaan teesare desh ke liye raashtreeya nivaas karna chaahata hai ke dvaara jaari kiye gaye hain. kisi teesare desh ka naagrik jiske paas naagrik paramit hai vah maheene ke ek dhaarak hai ek teen se adhik nivaas ki anumati ke ek sheingen jo rahana ek raajya hai, jiske liye hai pradaan ki, maheene teen hai ap karne ke liye ek avadhi ki sthiti anya sadasya kisi bhi yaatra karne ki anumati di hai.[52]

sheingen veeja

inhein bhi dekhein: Visa policy in the European Union evam Visa Information System
Europeeya sangh (sheingen) veeja ki soochi [302] [303] [304] [305] [306] [307]


sheingen veeja niyam ko alpakaalik pravesh laagoo karne mein niyam Europeeya sangh ke viniyman mein varnit kiye gaye hain.[53] in niyamon mein do soochiyaan shaamil hain: un deshon ke naagrikon ke soochi jinhein alpakaal ke liye rahane ke liye veeja ki aavashyakta hai (anulagnak I soochi) aur veeja se mukt logon ki soochi (anulagnak II soochi) . par samooh vyaktiyon yaatra dastaavej ki tarah ke anusaar hoga soochiyon avsar ve raashtreeyata bajaay mere paas hai.

teesare desh ke naagrikon ko jo rojagaar ya svarojagaar gatividhi mein hissa lene ka iraada rakhate hain sadasya raajyon dvaara aavashyak ho sakta hai ke liye ek kaarya veeja bhale hi ve sheingen veeja mukt soochi par soocheebaddh hain praapt karne ke liye, vyaapaar yaatraaon saamaanya roop se is arth mein rojagaar naheen maana jaata hai.[54] sadasya raajyon, pravishtiyon aur apne kshetr mein rahata hai, atirikt veesa aavashyakataaon ya raajanayik, sarkaari, ya anya vishesh passport pakade hue vyaktiyon ke liye chhoot ke sambandh mein sthaapit kar sakti hai.

chitr:SchengenVisaNewType.JPG
aam sheingen veeja, nae prakaar (vaahakon ki tasveer daale jaane ki anumati)

yuniform veeja - ya sheingen veeja - ya seema paar ke dhaarak ko milti hai jo dastaavej ya anya vaidh dastaavej mein prapatr par passport par ek steekar chipka kar yaatra ke liye anumati milti hai.

veeja ko vartamaan mein nimnalikhit shraniyon mein diya jaata hai:[55]

  • shreni ek, havaai adda paaragaman veeja ko sandarbhit karta hai. yeh kuchh naagrikon ke liye ek se adhik ya ek antararaashtreeya udaan ke do vargon ke beech sthaanaantaran rokane ke dauraan havaai addon ke antararaashtreeya paaragaman kshetr ke maadhyam se paarit karne ke liye aavashyak hai. is veeja ke hone ki aavashyakta paaragaman ke liye saamaanya ek havaai adde ke ek antararaashtreeya paaragaman kshetr ke maadhyam se sahi karne ke liye ek apavaad hai.
  • shreni si alpakaalik vaas ke veeja ko sandarbhit karta hai. inhein aapravaasan ke itar kaaranon ke liye jaari kiya jaata hai. ve dhaarakon ko baahar ek satat yaatra ya kai dauron ki avadhi jiska koi aadhe saal mein pehli pravishti ki taareekh se teen maheene se adhik naheen hai le jaane ke liye samarth banaate hain.
  • shreni di raashtreeya veeja ko sandarbhit karta hai. unhein ek sheingen raajya dvaara apne raashtreeya kaanoon ke anuroop jaari kiya jaata hai sharton (haalaanki, ek ekaroop steekar ka prayog kiya jaata hai). veeja vaahak ko 6 maheenon mein 3 maheenon ke liye anya sheingen deshon mein rahane ke liye saksham karta hai.[56] isse pehle, 5 April 2010, anya sheingen deshon ki yaatra ke baad hi dhaarak aane ke baad gantavya desh mein nivaas sheershak praapt kiya tha ki anumati di thi, ya ve (ab mrut) si + di veeja jaari kiya gaya hai.
  • FTD aur FRTD vishesh veeja hain jinhein sadak (FTD) ya rel (FRTD) paaragaman ke liye upayog kiya jaata hai kaaliningred oblaast hain eksklev aur mukhya bhoomi roosi sangh apne pashchimi jaari kiya gaya hai.

5 April 2010 ko ek naya veeja sanhita prabhaav mein aaya. nai veeja sanhita, sheingen prakaar bi aur di+si prakaar veeja ke bhaag ke roop ab jaari kiya jaaega. haalaanki, jo abhi bhi prachalan mein hain unhein bhi maanyata di ja rahi hai.[57]

vishesh paristhitiyon ke antargat, bi, si, ya di veeja shreniyon ke ek sheingen veeja ki vaidhata praadeshik praadeshik vaidhata ke saath sheingen raajyon ke sab naheen karne ke liye jaari kiya jaata hai. is tarah ke veeja, udaaharan ke liye, maanaveeya ya anya vishisht kaaranon ke liye jaari kiya ja sakta hai. praadeshik vaidhata ko bhi is maamale mein pratibandhit kiya ja sakta hai ki yaatra dastaavej mein yeh chipka hai sheingen raajyon ki sabhi ne sveekaar naheen kiya hai. aise maamalon mein, ek videshi veeja pravishti adhikrut, rahane ke liye aur ek ya adhik sheingen sadasya raajyon ke raajya kshetr hai jiske liye veeja vaidh hai mein vishesh roop se baahar niklein.

kuchh sharton ke tahat, naavikon ko seema par veeja jaari kiya jaata hai taaki ek ya ek sheingen bandargaah mein ek jahaaj se yaatra ghar jahaaj board. iske alaava, ek veesa asaadhaaran ho sakta hai maamalon mein seema par jaari bhi ho sakta hai, udaaharan ke liye aapaat sthitiyon mein.[58]

ek sheingen veeja praapt karne ke liye, ek yaatri ko nimnalikhit kadam uthaane chaahiye:

  • use pehle yeh pehchaan karni chaahiye ki kaun sa sheingen desh mukhya gantavya hai. isse us desh ka nirdhaaran hota hai jise veeja par nirnaya lena hota hai aur isliye dootaavaas ko nirdhaarit karta hai aur isliye sheingen raajya ke liye aavedan ya vaanijya dootaavaas jahaan yaatri aavedan kareinge.[59] agar mukhya gantavya nirdhaarit naheen kiya ja sakta hai, to yaatri ko pratham pravesh vaale sheingen desh ya vaanijya dootaavaas mein veeja ka aavedan karna chaahiye.[60][61] agar ya pratham pravesh gantavya sheingen raajya ke mukhya desh mein apne ek raajanayik mission athva kaansuli post kiya hai naheen, yaatri chaahiye sampark dootaavaas ya ke liye, vaanijya dootaavaas ke ek anya sheingen ka pratinidhitv karta hai jo saamaanya mein sthit yaatri desh hai, desh sheingen veeja, principle ya gantavya pehli pravishti ke desh jaari karne ka uddeshya.
  • yaatri ko iske baad jimmedaar dootaavaas ko sheingen veeja ke aavedan ko vaanijya dootaavaas mein prastut karna hoga. ek saamanjasya banaane ke liye prastut ki, ek vaidh passport aur yadi aavashyak ho, uddeshya aur sheingen kshetr mein rahane ke liye (is yaatra ka uddeshya, rahane ki avadhi, aavaas) ki sharton ka samarthan dastaavejon ke saath ek saath ho raha hai. yaatri ko apne nirvaah ke saadhan bhi saabit karne ki aavashyakta hoti hai, yaani, ek haath par kavar karne ke liye upalabdh dhanaraashi ke uske rahane ka kharch, usaki avadhi aur gantavya, khaate mein le rahi hai aur, doosari taraf, karna hoga ghar desh ke liye vaapasi ki laagat hai. kuchh dootaavaason ya kabhi-kabhi phone aavedak vaanijya dootaavaas ke liye vyakti mein prakat karne ke liye maukhik roop se veesa aavedan ke liye kaaranon samajhaao.
  • ant mein, yaatri kaaranon se yaatra karna chaahiye hai beema ki nyoonatam ek kavar, € 30,000, svaasthya ke liye pratyaavartan upachaar ya chikitsa ke parinaamasvaroop aapaat kharch kisi bhi kharch mein ho. yaatra beema ke saboot ke siddhaant mein prakriya, arthaat ke ant mein pradaan ki jaani chaahiye jab tak sheingen veesa dene ka nirnaya pehle hi bana diya gaya hai.

naagrik EEA ke ek sadasya ke liye aavashyakataaen parivaar uparyukt se bhinn. ek EEA naagrikon ke parivaar ke sadasyon ke liye saamaanya mein, koi kisi ke rojagaar ke baare mein jaankaari pradaan karne ke liye, ya nirvaah ka ek matlab saabit aavashyakta hai. iske alaava, veeja jaari karne ke liye kisi shulk ki aavashyakta naheen hai.

aavaas sheershak ke dhaarakon ki aantarik gatividhi

chitr:SchengenResidencePermit.JPG
ek sheingen nivaas paramit, ka aam model, yahaan: ek jarman deerghakaalik nivaas ki anumati ke liye aavedan

teesare desh ke naagrikon ko jo maheenon sheingen ek nivaas sheershak se ek hain dhaarakon ke pravesh raajya aajaadi se sakte mein teen ki avadhi tak ke liye sheingen raajya anya kisi mein aur rahate hain.[62] lambe samay tak rahane ke liye, ve lakshya sadasya raajya ke ek aavaas sheershak ki aavashyakta hai. teesare desh ke lambi avadhi ke nivaasiyon ko ek sadasya raajya lamba truteeya desh kuchh nishchit paristhitiyon mein, aanand, raajyon sahi sadasya doosare ko vyavasthit karne mein.[63]

aantarik gatividhi aur nivaas card

atirikt veeja ke bina pravesh ka adhikaar rahane kam ek tha vistaarit karne ke liye raajya ke liye gair sadasya kasarat naagrikon ki EEA-sadasyon EEA parivaar unke nivaas ne pakad ek vaidh aandolan sandhi ke adhikaar ke svatantr card EEA ke anya aur ichha yaatra karne ke liye kisi bhi desh apne EEA mejabaan din se 90 tak ke liye.[64][65][66] is anuchhed 5, nihit hai mein nirdeshak 2004/38/EC (2) pradaan ki hai ki ve raashtreeya EEA yaatra ke saath ya dinaank saathi par baad mein ek / mein shaamil hone ke unke pati (6 lekh (2)). kuchh sadasya deshon ke (jaisa ki sitmbar 2009 mein), lekin paalan naheen karte hain, is sambandh mein nirdeshak[67][68] prabhaav ke liye hai ki gair EEA parivaar deshon ke Europeeya sangh ke sadasya sheingen mein rahane vaale gair kathinaaiyon ka saamana kar sakte hain abhi bhi (boarding se inkaar parivhan company, inkaar dvaara pot seema police dvaara darj karne ke liye), jab unke nivaas akele card ke saath kuchh sheingen deshon ki yaatra. isi tarah gair sheingen sadasya Europeeya sangh ke deshon mein ek atirikt veeja ke bina sheingen nivaas card dhaarakon ke liye pravesh se inkaar kar sakte hain.

baahari seemaaon par sthaaneeya seema yaataayaat

sheingen raajya America ka hissa hai jo gair sheingen desh ek ek baahari desh ki seema ke saath shaasan yaataayaat seema ke aadhaar par kar rahe hain dvaara adhikrut ek Europeeya sangh viniyman sthaaneeya laagoo karne ke prayojan ke liye padosi deshon ke saath samjhauton par teesare samaapt karne ke liye ya banaae rakhane ke liye dwipaksheeya.[69] viniyman paristhitiyon ke aise samjhauton ko poora karna chaahiye anubandh. samjhauton ko praasangik yojana ke antargat paramit ke tahat yaataayaat parichay ki ek sthaaneeya seema pradaan karne ke liye. aise paramit naam aur dhaarak ki tasveer hai, saath hi ek bayaan hai ki iske dhaarak ko seema kshetr se baahar sthaanaantarit karne ke liye adhikrut naheen hai aur kisi bhi durupayog ke dand ke adheen kiya jaaega ki hona chaahiye. seema kshetr baahari seema se 30 kilometer ke bheetar kisi bhi prashaasanik jila (aur, yadi koi jila ki seema se pare faili, poore jile tak ki seema se 50 kilometer ke liye) ho sakta hai.

aise paramit dhaarak baahari seemaaon ko paar kar sakte hain, ek baar inkaar pranaali ke liye sheingen soochana jaari ek chetaavani mein naheen kiya gaya hai vahaan hai aur ve kisi bhi rishte ka ek khatra firm naheen karne ke liye saarvajanik neeti, aantarik suraksha, ya antararaashtreeya svaasthya saarvajanik sadasya raajyon ke. yeh prashn ki kya ek atirikt pehchaan dastaavej (aur kis prakaar ke dastaavej ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai) ki seema paar karne ke liye aavashyakta hai aur kitni der tak paramit dhaarak seema kshetr mein rah sakta hai ke liye aavashyak hai, dwipaksheeya star par viniymit kiya ja sakta hai. rahane ki adhiktam avadhi teen maheene se adhik naheen ho sakti hai. anumati ke roop mein suvidhaaon ke liye teesare desh ke liye nivaas paramit ke liye ek samaan svaroop ke saath paalan kiya hai naagrikon. paramit ek se paanch varsh tak maanya hain.

paramit hi vyaktiyon ek praasangik dwipaksheeya samjhauta hai, jo aam taur par kam se kam ek saal ho gaya hai mein nirdisht avadhi ke liye ek sheingen raajya padosi desh ki seema kshetr mein vaidh nivaasi hone ke liye jaari kiya ja sakta hai. paramit ke liye aavedak ko vaidh karne ke liye aksar sthaaneeya seema yaataayaat vyavastha ke tahat kisi baahari desh ki seema paar kaaranon sho hai aur vishisht pravishti ke roop mein oopar varnit aavashyakataaon ko poora karna hoga. sheingen raajyon ko jaari paramit ke ek keindreeya rajistar rakhane ke liye aur praasangik deta ko anya sheingen raajyon ke liye tatkaal pahunch pradaan hona chaahiye.

ek padosi desh ke saath ek samjhaute ke pehle nishkarsh, sheingen raajya masauda iski vaidhata ka anumodan praapt karna chaahiye se Europeeya pushti rakhata hai jismein aayog,. samjhauta tabhi padosi kam se kam praasangik sheingen raajya ke liye paarasparik adhikaar aur avaidh roop se padosi desh se logon ke rahane ke reedamishn desh anudaan sunishchit kiya hai nishkarsh nikaala ja sakta hai. sthaaneeya seema yaataayaat ke liye, teji se len ya vishesh seema krausingon pesh kiya ja sakta hai.

Norway aur roos aarkatik yojana deshon ke kam bhoomi ki seema mein sthaapit karne ke liye ek yaatra kshetr ke aaspaas mukt veeja.[70]

kroeshiya ke liye pravesh par vishesh vyavastha

kroeshiya ke naagrikon ke maamale mein in niyamon mein apavaad hai. sheingen-poorv dwipaksheeya samjhauton ke aadhaar par kroeshiya aur uske padosi Europeeya sangh ke deshon (Italy, Hungary aur sloveniya) ke beech kroeshiyaai naagrikon ko sirf ek aaidi card ke saath seema paar karne ki anumati hai (passport anivaarya naheen).[71] seema ke paas rahane vaale kai log ise ek din mein kai baar paar karte hain (kuchh log seema ke paar kaam karte hain, ya seema ke doosari taraf unki jameen hai), vishesh roop se sloveniya ke saath seema par, jise kai saalon tak chihnit naheen kiya gaya tha kyonki kroeshiya aur sloveniya sadiyon tak haabsabarg saamraajya (1527-1918) aur yugoslaaviya (1918-1991) ka hissa the. kroeshiya ke roop mein 2013 se Europeeya sangh mein shaamil hai ko ummeed hai, ek antarim samaadhaan, praapt, Europeeya aayog anumati se jo paaya gaya tha: har kroeshiyaai naagrik card eveedeinshan ek mein sloveniya ke saath seema paar karne ki anumati di sheingen ya Hungary, Italy ek aaidi card aur ki seema se baahar nikalne ke niyantran mein kroeshiyaai police dvaara jaari kiye gaye hai. Hungary, Italy ya sloveniya ke police adhikaari tab pravesh aur nikaas par donon eveedeinshan card ticket deinge. kroeshiyaai naagrikon, haalaanki, ek vaidh passport ke bina kisi bhi anya sheingen samjhaute deshon mein pravesh ki anumati naheen hain, haalaanki ve Hungary, Italy aur sloveniya ke beech yaatra karne ki anumati hai.

in vyavasthaaon agar band ho jaaega aur kroeshiya Europeeya sangh ka sadasya raajya hai, jo apne naagrikon ko kisi bhi sadasya keval ek aaidi card ka prayog kar desh mein pravesh karne ki anumati dega jab ho jaata hai.

pashchimi baalkan raajya

Serbia, albaaniya, bosniya aur harjegovina, maisedoniya, montenegro, ke naagrik ek sheingen veeja area ke bina darj kar sakte hain. 2009 November 30, aantarik aur nyaaya ke liye Europeeya sangh ke mantriyon ki parishad aur Serbia, montenegro, naagrikon ke liye samaapt kar diya veesa aavashyakataaon ganaraajya maisedoniya[72], jabki 8 November 2010 yeh bosniya aur harjegovina tha aur usi ke liye albaaniya.[73] poorv ko 19 December 2009 ko prabhaavi kiya gaya[74], jabki December 2010 15 par uttaraarddh.[75]

Europeeya sangh ke naagrikon ke liye yaatra ka aayojan kosovan kosovo ke saath hi passport veeja ke roop mein logon mein rahane vaale kosovo bauyomeetrik pakade sarbiyaai ek ki jaroorat passport abhi bhi. Serbia nideshaalaya sarbiyaai samanvaya banaaya is prakriya ki suvidha. haalaanki, ek veesa ke nakshe ke liye kosovo sadak udaareekaran ki ghoshana ki hai ummeed hai aur nikat bhavishya mein baatcheet ki.[76][77][78]

veeja aur udaareekaran ke beech baatcheet (kroeshiya aur kosovo ko chhodkar) pashchimi Europeeya sangh aur baalkan 2008 ki chhamaahi mein pehli baar shuroo ki thi aur 2009 mein samaapt ho gaya (montenegro ke liye, makiduniya aur Serbia) aur 2010 (albaaniya aur bosniya aur harjegovina) ke liye hai. isse pehle veeja samaapt kar diya gaya poori tarah se pashchimi baalkan deshon (albaaniya, bosniya aur harjegovina, maisedoniya, montenegro aur Serbia) 2008 mein "ke saath sheingen raajyon samjhaute 'veeja saraleekaran par hastaakshar kiye the. veeja suvidha samjhauton samay mein the, ke liye prateeksha avadhi, kam (yaatriyon ki kuchh shreniyon ke liye svatantr veeja sahit) veeja fees, chhota aur kaagaji kaarravaai ko kam karne chaahiye. abhyaas mein, tathaapi, nai prakriya nikla mahanga ho sakta hai lambi, adhik bojhil hai aur adhik aur kai logon ne shikaayat ki ki yeh aasaan tha. bal mein pravesh praapt karne ke liye veeja suvidha se pehle karaar ko prabhaavi banaaya gaya.[79][80][81]

police ke sahayog ke vishay mein niyam

sheingen niyam bhi pranaali, ke liye shaamil praavadhaanon dastaavej chori aur kho diya hai, saajha karne, khufiya jaankaari jaise logon ke baare mein soochana sheingen vaahanon, ke maadhyam se. iska matlab yeh hai ki sambhaavit samasyaagrast vyakti naheen ek sheingen desh se doosare mein jaane se bas 'gaayab' kar sakte hain.

prashaasanik sahaayata

sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 39 ke anusaar, sheingen raajyon ki police prashaasan ke liye nivaaran aur aaparaadhik praasangik raashtreeya kaanoonon ke anusaar aparaadhon ka pata lagaane ke paathyakram mein aur unke praasangik shaktiyon ke daayare ke bheetar ek doosare ko prashaasanik sahaayata anudaan ki aavashyakta hai. ve keindreeya nikaayon ke maadhyam se sahayog ya, ho sakta hai taatkaalikta ke maamale mein, yeh bhi seedhe ek doosare ke saath hain. sheingen praavadhaanon sheingen raajya ke saksham mantraalayon seemaavarti kshetron mein sahayog ke anya roopon par sahamat karne ke liye samarth banaana.

raajya sheingen ek aur ke saath sambandh mein kaarravaai karne ke liye sheingen raajya ek police adhikaariyon ki maujoodagi ka matlab hai ya jo baadha, vishesh niyam laagoo hote hain.[vague]

paar-seema avlokan

sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 40 ke tahat, police avlokan ek seema ke paar jaari rakha ja sakta hai agar vyakti ko ek aparaadhi aparaadh mein bhaag liya hai prakalpit manaaya. doosare raajya ke poorv praadhikran, agar aparaadh ek sheingen samjhaute ke roop mein anuchhed 40 (7) mein paribhaashit hai sivaaya gundaagardi ki aavashyakta hai aur agar jaroorat doosare raajya ki poorv sahamati ke bina avlokan ke jaari rakhane ki aavashyakta hai. uttaraarddh maamale mein, doosra raajya ke adhikaariyon ko apne kshetr mein nigraani ke ant se pehle soochit kiya jaana chaahiye, sahamati ke liye anurodh karne ke liye saunpa ke roop mein jald se jald hai aur avlokan karne ke liye doosare ke anurodh par samaapt ho gaya hai raajya, ya yadi sahamati paanch ghante ke baad naheen kiya gaya hai di gayi hai. pehle raajya ke police adhikaariyon ko doosare raajya ke kaanoonon ke liye baadhya kar rahe hain, pehchaan jo dikhaata hai ki ve police adhikaariyon rahe hain karna chaahiye aur kar rahe hain unki seva ke hathiyaar le hakdaar. ve band hain ya naheen manaaya vyaktiyon ko giraftaar kar sakte hain aur doosare raajya ke liye report ke baad operation samaapt kar diya gaya hai chaahiye. doosari or, doosare raajya ke liye operation ke liye baad mein jaanch nyaayik kaaryavaahi shaamil hai, sahaayata ke liye aabhaari hai.

tvarit peechha

sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 41 ke antargat, ek sheingen raajya police se raashtreeya seemaaon ko paar karne ke liye apne lakshya ka peechha kar sakte hain, ke tahat agar yeh sambhav karne ke liye pravesh karne se pehle us kshetr mein doosare raajya ki police ko soochit naheen hai, ya yadi doosare raajya ke adhikaariyon ko kar rahe hain is drushya mein pahunchane mein samay par peechha lene mein asamarth hai. sheingen raajyon agar ve samay mein ya doori mein apne kshetr mein peechha karne ka adhikaar seemit karne ki ghoshana kar sakte hain aur yadi ve padosi raajyon ko unke kshetr mein logon ko giraftaar karne ke liye anumati dete hain. haalaanki, doosare raajya ke liye apnaai vyakti chunauti ke liye vyakti ki pehchaan sthaapit karne ke liye ya ek giraftaari yadi aisa hai to peechha raajya se anurodh karna aabhaari hai. peechha karne ka adhikaar bhoomi seemaaon tak seemit hai. peechha karne vaale adhikaariyon ko ya to vardi mein hona chaahiye ya unke vaahanon ko chihnit kiya jaana chaahiye. unhein seva hathiyaar, jo aatmaraksha mein hi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai le jaane ke liye anumati hai. operation ke baad, pehle raajya ko iske parinaam ke baare mein doosare raajya ke liye report kiya gaya hai.

jimmedaari aur adhikaar

sheingen sammelan ke 42 aalekh, ek raajya ban gaya hai jo ek aur sheingen raajya mein ek aparaadh ke shikaar hue vahaan duty par, doosare raajya ke ek adhikaari ke roop mein kshatipoorti ke samaan adhikaar ka aanand lene ke police adhikaariyon ke antargat. sheingen sammelan ke 43 anuchhed, jo raajya ko rojagaar ek police adhikaari doosare raajya jahaaain aise police kaaryaalaya ki or avaidh roop se kaarya karta hai kshati ke liye uttaradaayi hai ke anusaar.

sampark adhikaari

sheingen sammelan ka anuchhed 47 sampark adhikaariyon ki sthaayi anya sheingen raajyon ko tainaati ke liye pradaan karta hai.

bhaavi dwipaksheeya upaaya

kai padosi sheingen raajya seema kshetron, jo spasht roop se anuchhed sheingen samjhaute ka 39 5 upadhaara ke tahat anumati di gayi hai mein police sahayog ke liye aage ki dwipaksheeya upaaya pesh kiya hai. aise sahayog kshetron seema shaamil ho sakte hain sanyukt police radio aavruttiyon, police niyantran kendra ikaaiyon mein anurekhan.[82] iske alaava, prum kanveinshan police hastaakshar karne ke liye raajya kaanoonon ke sheingen raajyon Europeeya sangh ki tadarth pradaan karna anumati dene ke liye police ke adhikaariyon anya shaktiyon ko police.[83]

nyaayik sahayog

pratyaksh kaanooni sahaayata

sheingen raajyon ko aparaadh aur durvyavahaar (sheingen sammelan ke 49 anuchhed), sahit is kar aur anya vitteeya aparaadhon (sheingen sammelan ke 50 anuchhed) ke sabhi prakaar ke sambandh mein aaparaadhik nyaaya mein ek doosare ko kaanooni sahaayata dene ke liye baadhya kar rahe hain ke alaava, kuchh chhote aparaadhon, ke roop mein sheingen sammelan ke 50 anuchhed mein paribhaashit kiya. sabhi raajyon mein ek aur sheingen sheingen raajya ko mel dvaara adaalat ke dastaavejon ki seva hai, lekin ho sakta hai ek anuvaad sanlagn karni hogi, yadi vahaaain vishvaas hai ki paane parosa dastaavej ki mool bhaasha (sheingen sammelan ke 52 anuchhed) samajh mein naheen hoga kaaran hai. kaanooni sahaayata ke liye anurodh sheingen raajyon ki nyaayik adhikaariyon ke beech ho sakta hai seedhe raajanayik channel (sheingen sammelan ke 53 anuchhed) ka upayog kiye bina vimarsh kiya.

sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 54-58 lekh mein, vistrut siddhaant ke anuprayog hai ki koi vyakti sheingen raajya America mein ek hi aparaadh ke liye do baar saja sunaai sakta vishay mein niyam nirdhaarit kar rahe hain. sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 59-69 lekh sheingen raajya America aur jail ki saja jo neeche ek raajya mein ek alag raajya mein saunp diya gaya ke pravartan ke beech pratyarpan se sambandhit niyam hote hain.

maadak aushadhi, adhyaaya 6

sheershak III ka adhyaaya 6 (anuchhed 70 - 76) maadak aushadhi ke sheershak mein hai.[84] sheingen raajyon ko ek hi samay mein nasheele padaarthon ke avaidh vyaapaar whilst mein mukadama chalaane ke un nirdhaarit davaaon ki maadak tatvon ko rokane ke liye har sanrakshan vahan karne ke liye baadhya kar rahe hain. unhonne yeh bhi avaidh laabh hai ki avaidh ya niyantrit padaarthon ke vyaapaar se praapt ki jabti ke liye pradaan karni chaahiye. aise padaarthon mein niyantran ke kaanooni vyaapaar seema paar se. hai mein prayog kiya ja karne ke liye kshetr mein, naheen seemaaon[krupaya uddharan jodein]

vyaktiyon ko unke sheingen police aur suraksha sahayog karne ke liye anya sadasyon ke kshetr mein niji chikitsa upachaar ke liye niyantrit padaarthon ke parivhan ki anumati hai yadi ve apni nivaasi adhivaas raajya mein saksham praadhikaari se ek ka aadhikaarik dastaavej le. pralekhan Europeeya sangh ke paar hai maanak aur hakdaar dastaavej vaidh mool prati ka ullekh karne ke liye: SCH / SC ko poorv (94) 28 (sanshodhit)[85] dastaavej vyavasaayi se chhoota saamaanya tak ki unke aur pratihstaaksharit aur raajya ke adheen paarit maadak padaarthon nireekshanaalaya ke apne svaasthya seal dvaara adhivaas raajya aur soocheebaddh, ke roop mein davaaon ke liye 1994 ke dviteeya mein anulagnak maadak le par nirnaya se 75 pramaan patra pradaan ke liye anuchhed.[86]

kisi chikitsak se ek nuskha is kaanooni aavashyakta ke yogya naheen hai.

aagneyaastr aur gola baarood, adhyaaya 7

adhyaaya 7, sheingen lekh mein sheershak III ke 77-91 ki gola baarood ko laagoo kanveinshan, antarraashtreeya sahayog aur aagneyaastron oparetiv niyamon ke baare mein vistaar se kar rahe hain baahar ki sthaapana ki.[87] niyamon ke baare mein aagneyaastron jo keval ek vaidh license ke saath paas kiya ja sakta hai aur aagneyaastron ke liye svatantr hain, ya to sammelan mein hi nihit ya Europeeya sangh ke star (sheingen) mein aage vidhaan ke adheen kiya ja sakta hai jo. tadanusaar, sheingen niyam bhi aagneyaastron aur gola baarood ke liye utpaadan, khareed, paramit aur vyaapaar dene ke liye aavashyak shartein milaana. anusaar sheingen niyam June 1991 91/477/EEC dvaara parishad nirdeshak poorak hain 18 hathiyaaron ke adhikaar par niyantran aur adhigrahan ki,[88] jo ki shuruaat ki ek Europeeya aagneyaastr jo milti dhaarak ke ilaake mein bandook uthaane ke liye ek anya sadasya raajyon ke.

veesa aavashyakataaon ki paarasparikta

saaaincha:Supranational European Bodies yeh Europeeya sangh ka ek raajaneetik lakshya hai ki Europeeya sangh ke naagrikon ke liye visa aavashyakataaon se svatantrata praapt ho sake kam se kam aise deshon mein jiske naagrik sheingen kshetr mein bina veeja ke pravesh kar sakte hain. is uddeshya ke liye, Europeeya aayog ne kam se kam kuchh Europeeya sangh ke sadasya raajyon ke liye maujood veeja aavashyakataaon ko hataane ke vishay mein un teesare deshon ke saath baatcheet kiya, jinke naagarikonn ko sheingen kshetr mein ek alp samay tak rahane ke liye pravesh karne ke liye veeja ki aavashyakta naheen hoti hai, Europeeya aayog vaarta mein aayog sambandhit sadasya raajya ko shaamil karta hai aur ise paarasparikta sthiti par Europeeya sansad aur parishad ko aksar hi aakhya dena hota hai.[89] jis teesare desh par vaarta chal rahi hai aayog uske naagrikon ke liye veeja ki aavashyakta ki asthaayi bahaali ki sifaarish kar sakta hai.

Europeeya aayog sarvochch raajaneetik star par teesare deshon ke liye veeja aavashyakataaon ko samaapt karne ki paarasparikta ke savaal ko nipta sakte hain. maiksiko, kosta rika, aur New Zealand ke sambandh mein yeh pehle se hi poorn paarasparikta haasil kar chooka hai. Canada ke sandarbh mein, aayog ne, bulgaariya, romaaniya aur haal hi mein check ganaraajya jiska kaaran hai Canada mein check naagrikon ki sharanaarthi ke darje ke liye badhti maang, ke aalaava apne sabhi sadasyon ke liye visa mukt darja haasil kar liya hai.[90] America ke sandarbh mein, yeh nae kaanoon ke veeja chhoot kaaryakram ke sanshodhan ke baare mein aashaavaadi hai lekin "yeh pratikaaraatmak kadam uthaane ke apne adhikaar ko surakshit rakhata hai yadi achhe samay mein poorn veesa anyonyata ke prati aashaateet pragati moort roop mein aane se chook jaae."[91]

aankadein

Europeeya aayog ki soochana ke anusaar, jo aanshik roop se sadasya deshon se praapt anumaanit aankadon par aadhaarit hain aur jo aayog ke sheingen kshetr mein baayomeetrik pravesh aur nikaasi panjeekaran pranaali ko shuroo karne ke sambandh mein prakaashit kiya gaya tha.[92]

  • baahari Europeeya sangh seema par 1,792 naamit aur niyantrit seema paar bindu hote hain; unamein se, 665 havaai seemaaon par, 871 samudri seemaaon par aur 246 jameeni seemaaon par sthit hain;
  • 2005 mein 880 million vyaktiyon ne EU27 ki baahari seemaaon ko paar kiya aur 878 million logon ne 2006 mein vaisa hi kiya; raat bitaane vaale logon ke paryatan aaainkadon ke aadhaar par, saankhyiki 300 million prativrsh baahari seema paar ke ek aankade tak le jaati hai;
  • varsh 2006 mein 300,000 se adhik vyaktiyon ko Europeeya sangh ke baahari seemaaon mein pravesh naheen karne diya gaya, jiski tulana mein 2005 mein 280,000 aur 2004 mein 397,000 ko naheen karne diya gaya, jyaadaatar maamalon mein, inkaar aparyaapt yaatra dastaavej ya avaidh aavrajan ke sandeh par aadhaarit tha;
  • 2006 mein Europeeya sangh ke bheetar 8 lakh avaidh aapravaasi rahate the, ek anumaan ke anusaar unamein se 80% sheingen kshetr ke bheetar rahate hain.
  • 2006 mein, 500000 avaidh aapravaasiyon ko Europeeya sangh mein giraftaar kiya gaya, jiski tulana mein 2005 mein 429000 aur 2004 mein 2004 mein 396000 ko giraftaar kiya gaya aur varsh 2006 mein sadasya raajyon ke raajya kshetr mein jin 75% avaidh aapravaasiyon ko paaya gaya ve aise naagrik the jinhein Europeeya sangh ke liye veeja ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

saaraloralaks kshetreeya aayog ke anusaar kareeb 167,000 kaamagaar pratidin greater laksamabarg jaate hain, jo sheingen ki aantarik seema ko paar kar ke apne kaaryasthal pahunchate hain.[93] us kshetr mein paar-seema aavaagaman, EU15 ke kul paar-seema aavaagaman mein 40% ka yogadaan deta hai.[94]

yatha October 2008, kareeb 733,000 logon ko sheingen soochana pranaali mein pravesh se mana karne ke liye panjeekrut kiya gaya.[95]

sheingen niyamon ka kaanooni aadhaar

Europeeya sangh ki sandhiyon mein praavadhaan

Europeeya sangh ki sandhiyon mein sheingen ke liye kaanooni aadhaar emstardam sandhi ke anuchhed 2, bindu 15 ke maadhyam se Europeeya samudaaya ko sthaapit karne waali sandhi mein daala gaya. isse sandhi mein ek nae naam ka sheershak daala gaya "veeja, sharan, aapravaas aur logon ki svatantr aavaajaahi se sambandhit neetiyaan" aur vartamaan mein sheershak chaturth hai aur ismein 61 se 69 shaamil hai.[96][97] lisban sandhi sheershak mein lekh ke praavadhaanon ko kaafi sanshidhit karti hai, sheershak ko punarnaamit kiya "svatantrata, suraksha aur nyaaya ka kshetr" aur use paanch adhyaayon mein vibhaajit karti hai jise "saamaanya praavadhaan", "seema jaanch, sharan aur aavrajan par neeti", "naagrik maamalon mein nyaayik sahayog", "aaparaadhik maamalon mein nyaayik sahayog" aur "police sahayog" kaha jaata hai.[98]

do sheingen samjhaute

do samjhaute jise aam taur par sheingen samjhauta kaha jaata hai:

  • benelaks ikonomik union, Germany sangheeya ganaraajya aur France ganaraajya ke beech apni saajha seemaaon par jaanch ke kramik unmoolan ka 1985 ka samjhauta,[99] jise sheingen I bhi kaha jaata hai, jisne niji vaahanon ki drushya nigraani jo seema par bina ruke, seema ko kam gati par paar karti hai ve vyakti jinhein aantarik seemaaon par vishesh aavashyakataaon ko poora naheen karna padta, udaaharan ke liye, veeja aavashyakataaen, ve fast len prakriya ka upayog kar sakte hain, ke liye, jo naheen hai vyaas mein kam se kam aath seinteemeetar maapane disk is sakta hai ka upayog teji se len hari ek ko vindaskreen se jaati hai.
  • 1990 ke aam seemaaon ke samjhaute ko laagoo karne ke 14 kanveinshan sheingen unke check par ki kramik unmoolan benelaks aarthik sangh, Germany ke sangheeya ganaraajya aur France ganaraajya par raajyon ki sarkaaron ke June 1985 ke beech,[100] bhi sheingen ke roop mein jaana dviteeya ya seeaaies.

in do samjhauton sheingen akvis ke sarkaari journal mein kiya gaya hai punarprakaashit Europeeya samudaaya ki paribhaasha ke vishay mein nirnaya ke maadhyam se parishad[101] aur Europeeya sangh ke baare mein sheingen ka vidhaan firm maadhyamik ka hissa sabse mahatvapoorn hai.

Europeeya sangh viniym

anya kaanooni sheingen kaanoonon se sambandhit granthon mein shaamil hain:

  • sheingen borders sanhita,[102] naagrikon se desh teesara nirast kanveinshan bhaagon ke kaaryaanvayan se pravesh ke liye aavashyak shartein sheingen samjhaute aur niyantran seema ke saath, nipatne mein vistaar;
  • parishad ke viniyman (isi) naheen 539/2001,[103] raashtreeyata ko sheingen kshetr ke anusaar aavashyakta ke liye veeja nipatne mein rahata kam;
  • parishad ke viniyman (isi) naheen 693/2003,[104] jo kshetr kaliningraad ko roos ke paaragaman ke saath saude bhaag se mukhya;
  • raajanayik missiono daak, kaansuli aur aam kaansuli nirdesh par veeja ke liye[105] jo veeja jaari karne ke liye prakriya ka niyam hota hai;
  • parishad) viniyman (isi 29 May 1995 san 1683-1695 veeja bichhaane vardi praaroop ke liye ek neeche;[106]
  • viniyman (isi) dviteeya) naheen 1987/2006 ke Europeeya sees doosra (system soochana peedhi sheingen sansad aur parishad ke upayog ki 20 December 2006 ko sthaapana, sanchaalan aur, sheingen ki peedhi ka doosra parichay shaasi soochana pranaali.[107]
  • parishad 343/2003 viniyman (isi naheen), raashtreeya desh se nipatne ke savaal hai jo tihaai sadasya ek raajya hai ke dvaara darj karaai anurodh jimmedaar sanbhaal karne ke liye sharan ek,[108] bhi dviteeya dabalin ke roop mein sandarbhit karne ke liye;
  • aayog viniyman (isi) naheen 1560/2003,[109] viniyman seting dabalin dviteeya aavedan ke baahar vistrut prakriyaaon ke liye.
  • parishad ke nirnaya ki 2008/615/JHA June 23, 2008[110] aur uske nirnaya ko laagoo karne 2008/616/2008, saamaanyat: ke roop mein sandarbhit karne ke liye aaparaadhik maamalon Prüam nirnaya aur operation mein sahayog ke liye ke praavadhaanon ke kuchh Europeeya sangh ke kaanoon mein laagoo prum kanveinshan, khud samjhaute III ke roop mein jaana sheingen.[111]

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/e' not found.

  • sheingen samjhaute
  • sheingen soochana pranaali
  • madhya America 4-seema niyantran karaar
  • dabalin viniyman
  • prum kanveinshan
  • fronteks
  • efaedeeo
  • predo - online yaatra aur pehchaan dastaavej ke saarvajanik panjeekaran
  • svatantrata, suraksha aur nyaaya ka kshetr
  • sahayog aur satyaapan ke liye tantr
  • opt Europeeya sangh mein bahishkaar

sandarbh

tippani
  1. 6 December 2007 ke parishad nirnaya (2007/801/EC), check ganaraajya, estoniya ganaraajya, estoniya ganaraajya, lithuaaniya ganaraajya, Hungary ganaraajya, maalta ganaraajya, pauleind ganaraajya, sloveniya ganaraajya aur slovaak ganaraajya ke sheingen ekvis ke sampoorn aavedan patra ka praavadhaan (OJ L 323, 8 December 2007, p. 34)
  2. "Eurostat Population Estimate". yoorostet. 2010-01-01. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&language=en&pcode=tps00001&tableSelection=1&footnotes=yes&labeling=labels&plugin=1. abhigman tithi: 2010-01-08.
  3. a aa yeh shabdaavali hai, udaaharan ke liye, "Agreement concluded by the Council of the European Union and the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway concerning the latters' association with the implementation, application and development of the Schengen acquis - Final Act (Official Journal EC 1999 No. L 176, p. 36)". EU Publications Office. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:21999A0710(02):EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 19 January 2008. mein istemaal kiya.
  4. "The final step of Schengen enlargement – controls at internal air borders to be abolished in late March". Slovenia's EU Presidency. 25 March 2008. http://www.eu2008.si/en/News_and_Documents/Press_Releases/March/0325MNZschengen.html. abhigman tithi: 25 March 2008.
  5. "General Information on Schengen Short-Term Visas". Royal Danish Embassy in London date=4 June 2009. http://www.amblondon.um.dk/en/menu/consularservices/visas/shorttermvisas. abhigman tithi: 1 fravari 2010.
  6. seuta aur melila shaharon mein ghoshana
  7. a aa i E "Embassy of the Republic of Cyprus in Berlin – Current Issues Archived" ((yoonaani) mein). Mfa.gov.cy. http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/Embassies/BerlinEmbassy.nsf/All/9E3EA74BCAD066E5C125727D00493F03?OpenDocument&print. abhigman tithi: 3 fravari 2010.
  8. (saaaincha:ISO 639 name ro) sheingen: "Schengen: Franţaa nu are îaancredere că Româania păaazeşaate bine graniţaaa Europei cu Republica Moldova Adevăarul ", in Adevăarul, 9 December
  9. a aa "Romania and Bulgaria's adhesion to Schengen was postponed". Hotnews.ro. 6 January 2011. http://english.hotnews.ro/stiri-top_news-8185234-hungarian-presidency-the-quoted-german-press-romania-and-bulgarias-adhesion-schengen-was-postponed.htm. abhigman tithi: 6 January 2011.
  10. "Grosser Schritt in Richtung Schengen". Volksblatt. 2011-02-15. http://volksblatt.li/?newsid=54496&src=vb. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-21.
  11. "French Overseas Departments (DOM) and French Overseas Territories (TOM)". Consulate General of France in New York. http://www.consulfrance-newyork.org/spip.php?article368. abhigman tithi: 31 July 2010.
  12. "Visas for the French Overseas Departments and Territories". French Consulate of Cape Town. http://www.consulfrance-lecap.org/article.php3?id_article=342#sommaire_4. abhigman tithi: 31 July 2010. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  13. a aa "Entry and residence". http://www.sysselmannen.no/hovedEnkel.aspx?m=45270. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2010.
  14. "Passport and visa regulations – Official Greenland Travel Guide". Greenland. http://www.greenland.com/content/english/tourist/travel_info/passport_and_visa_regulations. abhigman tithi: 3 fravari 2010.
  15. saaaincha:Cite hansard
  16. nyaaya mantri, nora oven, del dibets khand 450 stambh 1171 (14 March 1995) [1] ; nyaaya mantri, John O'donoghi, Dail dibets khand 501 stambh 1506 (9 March 1999) [2] ; "protokaul ke anuchhed 3 mein Ireland dvaara United Kingdom aur Ireland ki sthiti par ghoshana, emstardam ki sandhi se jude.
  17. sheingen protokaul ke anuchhed 4 dekhein (protokaul na.30
  18. sheingen protokaul ke anuchhed 4 dekhein (protokaul na.19.) aur nyaaya Europeeya nyaayaalaya ke maamale mein nirnaya C-77/05 aur C-137/05 United Kingdom v kaaunsil
  19. ) 29 May 2000 ke parishad nirnaya (2000/365/EC) aur uttari Britain Kingdom ke mahaan sanyukt vishay mein anurodh ki Ireland sheingen ke praavadhaanon mein se kuchh ke liye le bhaag OJ 131 L, 2000/01/06, 43 pi.)
  20. ) 22 December 2004 ko (2004/926/EC) Ireland uttari aur Britain Kingdom dvaara sanyukt prabhaav ke kuchh hisson ke sheingen par parishad nirnaya OJ 395 L, 2004/12/31, prushth 70)
  21. ) 2002 ki 28 fravari 2002/192/EC parishad (nirnaya anurodh Ireland ke vishay mein hai (acquis sheingen ke praavadhaanon ka kuchh hissa lene mein OJ 64 L, 2002/07/03 pi. 20)
  22. a aa nyaaya, samaanata, kaanoon sudhaar ke mantri ahern darmot, Dale dibets khand 698 sankhya: 1 praathamikta prashn - antarraashtreeya samjhauton (10 December 2009) [3] .
  23. European Communities Select Committee of the House of Lords, Part 4: Opinion of the Committee, [[{{{publisher}}}]], 2 March 1999.
  24. Govern d'Andorra Ministeri de Turisme i Medi Ambient. "Frequently asked questions". http://www.andorra.ad/en-US/useful_information/Pages/frequently_asked_questions.aspx. abhigman tithi: 25 December 2007.
  25. saaaincha:Cite press realease
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  27. "Liechtenstein's Schengen-Accession Stopped". SR international - Radio Sweden. 19 May 2009. http://sverigesradio.se/cgi-bin/international/nyhetssidor/amnessida.asp?programID=2054&Nyheter=0&grupp=3575&artikel=2845515. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2010.
  28. Council of the European Union (7 March 2011). 3073rd Council meeting, Employment and Social Policy (Provisional Version). press release. 17. http://consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cms_data/docs/pressdata/en/lsa/119656.pdf. abhigman tithi: 8 March 2011.
  29. "Search the agreements database". Council of the European Union. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/App/accords/Default.aspx?command=details&id=297&lang=EN&aid=2007007&doclang=EN. abhigman tithi: 2011-03-20.
  30. AFP (2011-03-07). "Le Liechtenstein intèaagre Schengen". Le Figaro. http://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/2011/03/07/97001-20110307FILWWW00548-le-liechtenstein-integre-schengen.php. abhigman tithi: 2011-03-08.
  31. "Füarstentum Liechtenstein neues Mitglied im Schengenraum". Stern.de. 2011-03-07. http://www.stern.de/news2/aktuell/fuerstentum-liechtenstein-neues-mitglied-im-schengenraum-1661096.html. abhigman tithi: 2011-03-08.
  32. a aa "Pragmatic interim solution before joining Schengen". Liechtenstein Government Spokesperson's Office. 18 November 2008. http://www.liechtenstein.li/en/fl-portal-aktuell?newsid=16565. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2010. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  33. "rolliges". "Liechtenstein Customs on Flickr". Flickr.com. http://www.flickr.com/photos/olliges/254214959/. abhigman tithi: 6 May 2009.
  34. "Minutes". European Parliament. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=PV&reference=20110215&secondRef=ITEM-008-05&language=EN&ring=A7-2011-0008. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-21.
  35. "Liechtenstein : un pas vers l'intéagration à la Convention Schengen". MCSInfo. http://mcsinfo.u-strasbg.fr/article.php?cPath=31&article_id=12309. abhigman tithi: 2011-02-21.
  36. "Schengen agreement and the Schengen Area". Immihelp.com. http://www.immihelp.com/visas/schengenvisa/schengen-agreement.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-15.
  37. "Vatican seeks to join Schengen borderless zone". euobserver.com. http://euobserver.com/9/20680.
  38. sheingen borders code ka anuchhed 22.
  39. sheingen borders code ka Article 21 (b) .
  40. "Border checks are back". timesofmalta.com. http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20100405/local/border-checks-are-back. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-09.
  41. "Passport Control & Schengen". Keflavik International Airport. http://www.kefairport.is/English/Before-Departure/Passport-Control-Schengen/. abhigman tithi: 30 September 2010. "It should also be kept in mind that airlines may request travellers to produce passports prior to flight embarkation."
  42. sheingen kanveinshan ka anuchhed 45.
  43. "Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)". 13 April 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0562:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 24 January 2008. ke prati anuchhed 21.
  44. "Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)" (PDF). 13 April 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0562:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 15 January 2008.
  45. anuchhed 7 (kh) aur (g) ki ("Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)" (English mein) (PDF). 13 April 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0562:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 15 January 2008.
  46. "Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)" (English mein) (PDF). 13 April 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0562:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 25 November 2007. ke liye enaiks VI mein vivran sthaapit hai
  47. seema ke har 186 meter ki doori par ek camera: "Stories from Schengen: Smuggling cigarettes in Schengen Slovakia" (English mein). 9 January 2008. http://www.cafebabel.com/en/article.asp?T=T&Id=13469. abhigman tithi: 9 March 2008. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  48. anuchhed 26 second. sheingen kanveinshan ka 1 lit. bi.
  49. sheingen borders code ka anuchhed 5 - "Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)" (English mein) (PDF). 13 April 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006R0562:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 25 November 2007.
  50. anuchhed 6 ke "Council Regulation (EC) No 539/2001 of 15 March 2001 listing the third countries whose nationals must be in possession of visas when crossing the external borders and those whose nationals are exempt from that requirement" (English mein). 19 January 2007. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32001R0539:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 25 November 2007. dekhein
  51. sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 19 mein teesare desh ke naagrikon ke liye veeja ki aavashyakta hoti hai; sheingen kanveinshan ke anuchhed 20 mein teesare desh ke naagrik jinhein vaase veeja ki aavashyakta naheen hoti.
  52. sheingen kanveinshan ka anuchhed 21.
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  59. anuchhed 12 bhaag. ek vaakya ke do sheingen sammelan .
  60. anuchhed 12 bhaag. do sheingen sammelan ka 2 .
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  83. Cf. "Prüam Agreement (Schengen III Agreement)" (German mein) (PDF). http://www.statewatch.org/news/2005/jul/schengenIII-german-full.pdf. abhigman tithi: 22 January 2008. ki dhaara 24 aur jarman sangheeya police adhiniyam ki anubhaag 64 (4).
  84. SIC sheershak III police aur suraksha (arts.39-91), adhyaaya 6, (70-76 arts.), par 'naarakotik drags'
  85. chikitsa pramaanapatr udaaharan ki pratilipi choonki naarkotik drag aur maadak nirdhaarit (SCH/Com-ex (94) 28 rev.) ke liye anuchhed 75 ke liye pramaaneekaran pradaan kiya gaya aur ke Netherland ke nireekshanaalaya svaasthya dvaara jaari kiye gaye Netherland ke Kingdom ke liye (10) dinon ke liye dava vihit bachche ko ek ritaalin faarmesi par rakha gaya
  86. sheingen ekvis.22 December 1994 ki kaaryakaari samiti ke nirnaya ke anusaar anuchhed 75 mein nasheeli davaaon aur maadak padaarthon SCH/Com-ex (94)28 rev, ko le jaane ke liye sarkaari journal L239 22-09-2000 P.0463-0468 pramaan patra pradaan kiya gaya
  87. SIC sheershak III, adhyaaya 7 hathiyaar aur gola baarood
  88. "Council Directive 91/477/EEC of 18 June 1991 on control of the acquisition and possession of weapons" (English mein). 13 September 1991. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31991L0477:EN:NOT. abhigman tithi: 22 January 2008.
  89. prakriya ka vivran viniyman (isi sankhya 539/2001 ke anuchhed 1 bhaag 4 aur 5 mein sthaapit kiya gaya hai.
  90. "News Release – Canada imposes a visa on the Czech Republic". Cic.gc.ca. 13 July 2009. http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/media/releases/2009/2009-07-13a.asp. abhigman tithi: 3 fravari 2010.
  91. . Cf Europeeya samudaaya aayog: is prakaar ke teesare desh, veeja ke maamale mein rakharakhaav ke ullanghan ke maamalon mein Europeeya sansad aur parishad ke liye aayog se teesari report aur paarasparikta , doc. COM(2007) 533 antim dinaank 13 sitmbar 2007 ; cf. pi. 10: Canada ke pradhaanamantri ki bhaageedaari, pi. 10 se 11: homalaind suraksha vibhaag, America, ke sachiv ki bhaageedaari aur sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapati; pi. 11-12: nishkarsh.
  92. "Press release: New tools for an integrated European Border Management Strategy" (English mein). 13 fravari 2008. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/08/85&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en. abhigman tithi: 3 March 2008.
  93. dhaara Grenzgäangerbeschäaftigung – Das Anwachsen der Grenzgäangerströame häalt in der Großaregion unvermindert an on Government of Luxembourg in the name of the Greater Region of Luxembourg (27 fravari 2008). "Die Grossregion: Arbeitsmarkt" (German mein). Archived from the original on 24 fravari 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080224050102/http://www.granderegion.net/de/about/index.html. abhigman tithi: 9 March 2008.
  94. dhaara Grenzgäangerbeschäaftigung par Government of Luxembourg in the name of the Greater Region of Luxembourg (27 fravari 2008). "Die Grossregion: Arbeitsmarkt" (German mein). Archived from the original on 24 fravari 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080224050102/http://www.granderegion.net/de/about/index.html. abhigman tithi: 9 March 2008.
  95. Minister of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany (15 October 2008). "Schengen nach der Erweiterung – eine erste Bilanz; speech given by the German Federal Minister of the Interior" (German mein). http://www.bmi.bund.de/Internet/Content/Nachrichten/Reden/2008/10/BM__Schengen__Europaunion.html. abhigman tithi: 17 October 2008. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  96. emstardam ki sandhi
  97. TEC aur samekit sanskaranon ke TEU
  98. lisban sandhi, 2 lekh, 63-68 ank
  99. seemaaon French aur Germany sangheeya ganaraajya ke beech samjhaute ki sarkaaron ke Benelux raajya aarthik sangh, aam unmoolan par unke check ganaraajya ke kramik par .
  100. seemaaon aam samjhaute ko laagoo karne ke 14 kanveinshan sheingen unke check par ki kramik unmoolan Benelux aarthik sangh, Germany ke sangheeya ganaraajya aur France ganaraajya par raajyon ki sarkaaron ke June 1985 ke beech .
  101. sheingen Acquis kaanooni taur par kiya gaya tha dvaara paribhaashit praasangik ke saath, anuroop par sandhi aur Europeeya samudaaya ki sthaapana sandhi ke praavadhaanon ka nirdhaaran karne ke uddeshya Europeeya May 20, 1999 ki parishad nirnaya paribhaasha ke sheingen acquis ke liye vishay mein sangh, (1999/435/EC) acquis gathan kaanooni aadhaar ke liye jinmein se pratyek ke praavadhaanon ya nirnaya .
  102. viniyman (isi) naheen sansad Europeeya 562/2006 ki aur) borders sanhita ki sheingen (seemaaon ke paar vyaktiyon aandolan parishad gavarning niyamon par code samudaaya ke 15 March 2006 sthaapit ek .
  103. parishad aavashyakta viniyman (isi) ki 539/2001 naheen 15 March hai ki 2001 listing deshon tihaai se mukt kar rahe naagrikon jiska jiska naagrikon un jaana chaahiye mein kabje ki jab veeja aur seemaaon ko paar baahya, mool paath; is viniyman tha kai baar sanshodhan kiya gaya hai, is prakaar, se jude dastaavej mein ullikhit soochi chaaloo naheen hai.
  104. parishad viniyman (isi) naheen 14 693 / 2003 April 2003 ki sthaapana ke ek vishesh madad ki traanjit) dastaavej (FTD, ek madad ki rel traanjit dastaavej (FRTD) aur mainual mein sanshodhan aam kaansuli nirdesh aur aam .
  105. aur kaansuli missiono daak raajanayik aam kaansuli nirdesh par veeja ke liye
  106. parishad) viniyman (isi 29 May 1995 san 1683-1695 veeja bichhaane vardi praaroop ke liye ek neeche .
  107. viniyman (isi) naheen 1987/2006 Europeeya sansad ke aur) sees dviteeya (informeshan system sheingen parishad ke 20 December 2006 ko doosari peedhi sthaapana, sanchaalan aur upayog ki .
  108. parishad viniyman (isi) naheen 18 fravari 2003 raashtreeya 343/2003 ek teesare desh dvaara raajya ki sthaapana ke maapdand sadasya ke raajya mein darj karaai jimmedaar ke liye aavedan ki jaanch ke ek aspataal sadasya aur tantr ke liye nirdhaarit
  109. aayog viniyman (isi) naheen 1560/2003 2 September 2003 aavedan bichhaane ek aspataal ki jaanch ke liye jimmedaar raajya neeche ke liye vistrut niyam ke aavedan sadasya tantr ke liye nirdhaarit karne aur maapdand naheen 343/2003 ki sthaapana) chunaav aayog parishad viniym (raashtreeya desh raajyon dar ek tihaai sadasya darj karaai mein ek ki .
  110. "Council Decision 2008/615/JHA of 23 June 2008 on the stepping up of cross-border cooperation, particularly in combating terrorism and cross-border crime". http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32008D0615:EN:NOT.
  111. "Prüam Agreement (Schengen III Agreement)" (German mein) (PDF). http://www.statewatch.org/news/2005/jul/schengenIII-german-full.pdf. abhigman tithi: 22 January 2008.

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