shefeeld

City of Sheffield
City & Metropolitan borough
Top left: Sheffield City Hall; top right: the Crucible and Lyceum Theatres; middle left: St Pauls Tower; middle centre: Sheffield Town Hall and the Wheel of Sheffield; middle right: University of Sheffield Arts Tower; bottom left: Sheffield Supertram 109; bottom right: Sheaf Square and Sheffield station.

Coat of Arms of the City Council
upanaam: "Steel City"
dhyeya: "Deo Adjuvante Labor Proficit" "With God's help our labour is successful"
Sheffield shown within England
nirdeshaank : 53°a23′a01″aN 1°a28′a01″aW / 53.38361°aN 1.46694°aW / 53.38361; -1.46694
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region Yorkshire and the Humber
Ceremonial county South Yorkshire
Admin HQ Sheffield City Centre
Founded ~8th century
Town charter 10 August 1297
City status 1893
shaasan
• pranaali Metropolitan borough, City
• Governing body Sheffield City Council
• Lord Mayor Alan Law
• Council Leader Paul Scriven (LD)
• MPs: Clive Betts (L)
Paul Blomfield (L)
David Blunkett (L)
Nick Clegg (LD)
Meg Munn (L)
Angela Smith (L)
kshetr
• City & Metropolitan borough 142.06
janasankhya (2008 anu.)
• City & Metropolitan borough 520
• ghanatv 3,660
nagareeya 640
• nagareeya ghanatv 10,228.2
• County 1
samay mandal Greenwich Mean Time (UTC +0)
Postcode S
doorabhaash code 0114
ISO 3166-2 GB-SHF
ONS code 00CG
OS grid reference SK355875
NUTS 3 UKE32
Demonym Sheffielders
jaalasthal www.sheffield.gov.uk


shefeeld (uchchaarit/ˈaaʃaaɛaafiːaald/ (Speaker Icon.svg sunein)) south yaurkashaayar, England ka ek mahaanagareeya kshetr aur ek shahar hai. iska naam shef nadi se vyutpann hai, jo is shahar se hokar bahti hai. aitihaasik roop se yeh yaurkashaayar ke vest raaiding ka ek bhaag tha, ab yeh shahar apni adhikaanshat: audyogik jadon se viksit hokar aur adhik vistrut aarthik aadhaar ko samaaveshit karta hai. shefeeld shahar ki janasankhya 520,700 (2008 anu.)[1] hai aur yeh aath vishaal sthaaneeya angreji shaharon mein se ek hai jo english kor siteej group ke nirmaan mein yogadaan karta hai.

19veen shataabdi ke dauraan, shefeeld ko steel utpaadan hetu antarraashtreeya khyaati mili. yahaan sthaaneeya roop se kai naveekaran viksit kiye gaye, jismein kroosibl aur stenales steel (jangarodhi steel) bhi shaamil tha, jiske falasvaroop audyogik kraanti ke dauraan yahaan ki janasankhya mein lagbhag 10 gune ki vruddhi ho gayi. shefeeld ko 1893 mein nagareeya adhikaarapatr praapt hua aur yeh aadhikaarik roop se city of shefeeld ban gaya. lauh aur steel udyog mein antarraashtreeya pratispardha ke chalte 1970 aur 1980 ke dashak mein sthaaneeya paaramparik udyogon mein giraavat I aur isi dauraan is kshetr mein koyala khanan udyog ka bhi patan hua.

21veen sadi mein anya british shaharon ke saath shefeeld mein bhi vyaapak star par punarvikaas hua. 1997 se shefeeld ka kul atirikt aavardhan (graus vailyoo eded-jeeveee) 60 pratishat badh gaya hai, jo 2007 mein 9.2 billion pound tha. yahaan ki arth vyavastha ne lagbhag 5 pratishat vaarshik ki sthaayi vikaas dar ko praapt kiya hai jo yaurkashaayar aur hambar ke vistrut kshetr ke ausat se adhik hai.[2]

shefeeld shahar saat pahaadiyon par bana hai aur paanch nadiyon ke sangam ke nikat sthit hai. yeh aankalan kiya gaya hai ki shefeeld mein do million se bhi adhik vruksh hain, prati vyakti dar se yeh aankada Europe ke kisi bhi anya shahar ki tulana mein adhik hai; is shahar ka 61 pratishat bhaag hariyaali se ghira hai.[3]

anukram

itihaas

Lithograph drawing showing a large stately home in ruins
c1819 mein pravesh karte hi shefeeld menar vidhvans ho gaya

vah shetr jo ab city of shefeeld dvaara adhikrut hai vah lagbhag 12,800 varshon ya kam se kam uttar puraapaashaan yug se ek rihaayashi kshetr hai.[4] shefeeld kshetr mein maanav adhivaas ka praarambhik pramaan shahar ke poorvi bhaag mein kresvel kraigs mein mila tha. lauh yug mein yeh kshetr penaain jaati ka sudooradakshini praant ban gaya, jise brignets kaha jaata hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki yahi vah prajaati hai jisne shefeeld aur iske aas paas ke kshetron mein kai pahaadi durg banaaye hain.[5] romavaasiyon ki ravaanagi ke baad, shefeeld, elmet raajya ke kelt kshetr ka dakshini bhaag ban sakta tha, jahaan shef aur Don nadiyaan is raajya aur merika raajya ke beech seema ka hissa banaati hain.[6] dheere-dheere, merikvaasi (engliyn), dera raajya se pashchim ki or badhne lage. shefeeld kshetr ke antargat ek kelteeya upasthiti ka pramaan vels tatha vels vud naamak do upaniveshon dvaara milta hai, jo shefeeld ke nikat hain.[7] haalaanki, yeh upanivesh jo viksit hokar shefeeld ke nirmaan ke liye vilyit ho gaye, unka pramaan pehli sahastraabdi ke doosare antaraal se hai aur vah englo-saiksan tatha daanish mool ke hain.[5] englo saiksan kaal mein, shefeeld kshetr ki seema merika aur naurthumbriya raajyon ke beech donon or failane lagi. englo-saiksan kraunikl ke anusaar naurthumbriya ke King arnd ne 829 mein haimalet of dor (ab shefeeld ka baahari bhaag) mein veseks ke King egabart ke saamane samarpan kar diya,[8] yeh ghatna house of veseks ke antargat England raajya ke ekeekaran ki vishesh kunji rahi.[9] nauramain par vijay ke baad, sthaaneeya upaniveshon ki suraksha ke liye shefeeld kaisal ka nirmaan hua aur ek chhota kasba viksit kiya gaya jo aadhunik shahar ka kendra hai.[10]

1296 tak, ab kaisal square ke naam se jaane jaane vaale sthaan par ek baajaar ka vikaas ho chuka tha aur iske baad dheere-dheere shefeeld ek chhote baajaari kasbe ke roop mein viksit hone laga.[11] chaudahaveen shataabdi mein, shefeeld chaakuon ke nirmaan ke liye vikhyaat ho chuka tha, jaisa ki jyaufri chaukar ki pustak the keintarabari tels[12] mein bhi ullikhit hai aur 1600 shataabdi ki shuruaat tak yeh landan se baahar England mein katalari ke utpaadan ka pramukh kendra ban chuka tha jiska nireekshan hailamashaayar ki ek katalari nirmaan company dvaara kiya ja raha tha.[13] 1570 se 1584 tak, queen of skauts, meri, shefeeld kaisal aur shefeeld mainar mein bandi theen.[14]

View across a partially wooded valley containing a reservoir
Dale daaik jalaashaya ka mool baandh 1864 mein great shefeeld baadh ke kaaran vidhvans ho gaya

1740 ke dashak mein, krusibl steel prakriya ke ek praaroop ki khoj ki gayi jo pehle ki tulana mein adhik achhi gunavatta ke steel utpaadan ko sambhav banaata tha.[15] isi kaal mein, chaandi ki patali chaadar ko dhalava taanbe par pighlaane ki ek takaneek viksit ki gayi jiske dvaara chaandi ki parat ka nirmaan kiya ja sake, yeh shefeeld plate ke naam se vikhyaat ho gayi.[16] in aavishkaaron ne ek audyogik shahar ke roop mein shefeeld ke vikaas ko aur bhi protsaahit kar diya,[17] lekin kuchh mahattvapoorn niryaat baajaaron ke nuksaan ke kaaran 18veen shataabdi ke ant mein aur 19veen shataabdi ki shuruaat mein mandi aa gayi. iske falasvaroop aayi dukhad paristhitiyaan tab apne charam par pahunch gayeen jab Kalra ke ek mahaamaari ke roop mein failane se 1832 mein 402 logon ki mrutyu ho gayi.[5] poori 19veen shataabdi ke dauraan is shahar ki aabaadi teevrata ke saath badhti gayi; yeh 1801 mein 60,095 se badhkar 1901 mein 451,195 ho gayi.[5] 1842 mein is shahar ko ek nagareeya kshetr (jo Loksabha mein pratinidhi bhej sake) ke roop mein nigmit kar diya gaya aur 1893 mein ise ek nagar adhikaarapatr ki maanyata de di gayi.[18] logon ki badhti hui sankhya ke kaaran behtar jal aapoorti ki maang hone lagi aur shahar ke baahari ilaakon mein anekon nae jalaashaya banaaye gaye. 1864 mein in jalaashayon mein se ek ki deevaar dhah jaane ke falasvaroop shefeeld ki vishaal baadh I thi jisme 270 logon ki mrutyu ho gayi thi aur shahar ka kaafi bada hissa nasht ho gaya tha.[19] badhti hui aabaadi ke kaaran ek ke baad ek rihaayashi sthalon ka nirmaan hota gaya aur iske saath hi saath kaarkhaanon ke kaaran bhayaanak roop se badhaate hue pradooshan ke falasvaroop, 1937 mein George oravel ne vivsh hokar likha: "mujhe lagta hai ki shefeeld, imaanadaareepoorvak praacheen vishv ka sabse badasoorat shahar hone ka daava kar sakta hai."[20]

dviteeya vishv yuddh ki sambhaavnaaon ke kaaran antarraashtreeya chinta ke falasvaroop 1930 ke dashak mein aayi mandi mein kuchh thaharaav aaya; shefeeld ke steel kaarkhaane yuddh hetu hathiyaar aur anya saamagri banaane ke liye kaarya karne lage. iske parinaamasvaroop, yeh shahar bamabaari aakraman ka pramukh nishaana ban gaya, sarvaadhik bheeshan bamabaari 1940 mein 12 December aur 15 December ki raat ko hui, jise ab shefeeld blitj ke naam se jaana jaata hai. is dauraan 660 se adhik jaanein gayeen aur kai imaaratein nasht ho gayeen.[21]

Panorama of a brutalist housing estate
shefeeld mein park hil flaits 1950/60s parishad aavaas estate ka ek udaaharan hai

1950 aur 1960 ke dashak mein, shahar ki kai malin bastiyaan samaapt kar di gayeen aur unka sthaan rihaayashi yojanaaon ne le liya, jaise, park hil flaits. sadkon ki nayi pranaali ko sthaan dene ke liye city center ka bhi kaafi hissa hataaya gaya.[5] videshon mein badhte hue svachaalan aur pratispardha ke kaaran kai steel milein band ho gayeen. 1980 ke dashak mein shefeeld ke udyogon ka sabse bura patan hua aur iske saath hi Britain ke kai anya kshetron mein bhi aisa hi hua.[22] 1990 mein poorv, steelavarks ke sthaan par bani meedohaul shopping center ki imaarat ek mishrit varadaan siddh hui kyonki isse aavashyak rojagaar utpann hue lekin city center ke patan ki gati bhi badh gayi. shahar ke punarnirmaan ke prayaason ne tab gati pakadi jab 1991 mein is shahar ne world student gems ki mejabaani ki, jiske falasvaroop khel sambandhi naveen suvidhaaon ka nirmaan kiya gaya jaise shefeeld erena, Don valley stadium aur paunds forj complex.[5]

jaise-jaise nayi pariyojanaaon ke dvaara shahar ke mand pade hisse ka punarnirmaan ho raha hai vaise hi vaise shefeeld bhi sheeghrataapoorvak parivrtit hota ja raha hai. ek aisi hi pariyojana hai, heart of the city, jisne city center mein anekon lok nirmaan kaaryon ki aguaai ki hai; iske antargat 1998 ke the pees gaarden ka punarnirmaan hua, 2001 April mein the mileniym gailereej ka shubhaarambh hua, 2003 May mein winter gaarden khola gaya aur in sthalon ko jodne ke liye ek saarvajanik sthal banaaya gaya tatha May 2006 mein the mileniym square ka aarambh hua. iske atirikt hue vikaason mein railway station ke saamane abhi haal hi mein naveeneekrut, shef square ka punarnirmaan shaamil hai. nae square mein si eplaaid limited[23] (Si Applied Ltd) dvaara design ki gayi moorti, the cutting ej bhi hai jo shefeeld steel se nirmit hai.

2007 mein Britain mein I baadh aur 2010 mein aaye big freej ke dauraan shefeeld par vishesh roop se badi viptti aayi thi.

sarkaar

View across a garden containing people enjoying a sunny day towards a large Victorian building with a clock tower
viktoriyn yug gothik punarutthaan vaastukala ka shefeeld taaun hall, pis garden ke nikat ek udaaharan hai.

sthaaneeya star par shefeeld mein, shefeeld city kaaunsil ka shaasan chalta hai. ismein 84 paarshad hain jinka chunaav 28 wardon ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye kiya jaata hai-pratyek ward par teen paarshad. vartamaan mein yeh libral democrat ke shaasan mein hai, haalaanki unhein 2010 sthaaneeya chunaavon mein bahumat naheen praapt hua tha; par is chunaav ke baad kaaunsil ki seaton ka vitran kuchh is prakaar tha, libral democrat 42 seatein, the lebar party 39 seatein, the green party 2 seatein aur 1 nirdaleeya.[24] 2008 ke sthaaneeya english chunaav se paul skraaivein kaaunsil ke neta rahe hain.[25] city mein ek Lord mayor bhi hota tha; jo ab maatr ek aupachaarik pad hai, lekin poorv mein is pad par aaseen vyakti ke paas mahattvapoorn adhikaar hote the, in adhikaaron mein vitt ke sambandh mein visheshaadhikaar aur city kaaunsil ke maamale shaamil hote the. 2010 tak, Allen law laard mayor hain.[26]

apne itihaas ke adhikaansh bhaag mein kaaunsil par lebar party ka hi niyantran raha hai aur yeh vaamapanthi vichaaron ke prati sahaanubhooti rakhane ke liye jaani jaati thi; 1980 ke dauraan jab shefeeld city kaaunsil ka netrutv David blanket kar rahe the, to is kshetr ko ek vishesh upaadhi "soshalist ripblik of south yaurkashaayar" di gayi.[27] haalaanki 1999 aur 2000 ke beech kaaunsil par libral democrat ka niyantran raha aur apna bahumat kho dene par pun: 2008 se 2010 tak unhonne iska niyantran praapt kar liya. vartamaan mein kaaunsil trishanku avastha mein hai.[28]

kaaunsil ke adhikaar mein aane waali adhikaansh suvidhaaon ka sanchaalan svatantr anudaan sangathanon dvaara kiya ja raha hai. shefeeld ke antarraashtreeya kaaryakram sthal shahar ke anekon khel va avakaash suvidhaaon ka kriyaanvan kar rahe hain; jisme shefeeld erena aur Don valley stadium sammilit hain. shefeeld gailereej end myoojiym trast, kaaunsil ke adhikaar mein aane waali veetheekaaon aur sangrahaalayon ka rakharakhaav dekhte hain.[29][30]

shahar Loksabha ke sadasyon mein se paanch ko house of kaumans mein vaapas deta hai aur chhathaan sadasya, jo peniston end stauksabrij ki or se Loksabha ka sadasya hota hai, vah shefeeld aur baarnsale ke kuchh bhaagon ka bhi pratinidhitv karta hai.[31]

bhoogol

shefeeld 53°a23′aN 1°a28′aW / 53.383°aN 1.467°aW / 53.383; -1.467 mein sthit hai. yeh rautharahaim ke theek bagal mein sthit hai aur yeh usase M 1 motarave dvaara vichhedit hota hai. haalaanki baarnsale mahaanagareeya kshetr bhi uttar ki or se shefeeld ki seema banaata hai, lekin yeh shahar swayam yahaan se kuchh meal ki doori par sthit hai. shahar ki dakshini aur pashchimi seema darbeeshaayar dvaara sahabhaajit hai; 20veen shataabdi ke pratham uttaraardh mein shefeeld ne dakshin ki or darbeeshaayar mein apni seema ka vistaar kar liya jisse anek gaanv ismein jud gaye,[32] jisme totale, dor aur vah kshetr bhi shaamil hai jise ab mausaboro upanagar ke naam se jaana jaata hai. shahar ki pashchim disha mein theek seedh mein peek distrikt naishanal park or penaain parvat shrankhala hai.

shefeeld bhaugolik vividhta se poorn shahar hai.[33] yeh shahar kai pahaadiyon dvaara nirmit praakrutik golaakaar deergha[34] aur paanch nadiyon ke sangam mein basa hai, ye nadiyaan hain: Don, shef, rivlin, lauksale or porter. vaastav mein adhikaansh shahar pahaadi ki or bana hai jahaan se city center ya graameen kshetr ka najaara dikhaayi padta hai. shahar ka nimnatam bindu blaikabarn chaaraagaah ke sameep hai jo samudra tal se maatr 29 meter (95 fut) ki unchaai par sthit hai, jabki shahar ke kuchh anya bhaag samudra star se 500 meter (1,640 fut) ki unchaai par hain; uchchatam bindu jo maargare hills ke sameep haai stons par hai vah 548 meter (1,798 fut) meter ki unchaai par hai. haalaanki, shahar ke 79 pratishat rihaayashi ilaake samudra tal se 100 aur 200 meter (330 aur 660 fut) ke beech ki unchaai par sthit hain.[35]

[[|x300px|alt=Wide view from Meersbrook park|Panorama from Meersbrook Park following heavy snow in November and December 2010]]
Panorama from Meersbrook Park following heavy snow in November and December 2010

aankalan ke anusaar yahaan 2 million vruksh hain,[36] shefeeld mein Europe ki kisi bhi shahar ki tulana mein prati vyakti vrukshon ki sankhya sarvaadhik hai or shefeeld city kaaunsil ke anusaar yeh England ka sabse hara-bhara shahar hai,[37] yeh daava 2005 mein is shahar dvaara enteinte florel pratispardha jeetne ke baad se aur adhik sudrudh ho gaya. yahaan 170 se bhi adhik vanapradesh hain (jo 10.91 varg meal/28.3 kimi2 kshetr samaaveshit karte hain), 78 saarvajanik park hain (jo 7.07 varg meal/18.3 kimi2 kshetr samaaveshit karte hain) aur 10 saarvajanik udyaan hain. 52.0 varg meal (134.7 kimi2)naishanal park aur 4.20 varg meal (10.9 kimi2) jal stroton ke saath jode jaane par iska arth yeh niklata hai ki shahar ka 61 pratishat kshetr hariyaali yukt hai. iske baavajood bhi, shefeeld ke 64 pratishat se bhi adhik nivaasi apne niktatam hare-bhare kshetr se 300 meter (328 gaj) se adhik doori par rahate hain, haalaanki shahar ke kam samruddh ilaakon (hariyaali ke sandarbh mein) mein pahunchana adhik saral hai.[3][38]

shefeeld mein vaigyaanik drushti se vishisht abhiruchi vaale kshetron ki sankhya bhi adhik hai aur yeh vividh prakaar ke hain, Britain ke kisi bhi anya shahar se tulana karne par parinaam shefeeld ke paksh mein hi praapt honge: urban park land aur vanapradesh, krushi evam jotane yogya bhoomi, jungle, chaaraagaah aur taaje paani par aadhaarit vishisht vaigyaanik abhiruchi vaale kshetr. shahar ke andar chh: aise kshetr hain jinhein vaigyaanik drushti se vishisht laabh kshetron ka darja diya gaya hai.[39]

shahar ki vartamaan seema ka nirdhaaran 1974 mein kiya gaya tha (jisme 1994 mein kuchh maamooli parivartan kiya gaya), jab shefeeld ke poorv kshetreeya praant ka stauksabrij urban distrikt aur vaurtale rural distrikt ke do ilaakon ke saath vilay hua tha.[3] is kshetr mein pramukh shahari kshetr ka pariseeman karne vaale graameen kshetron ka mahattvapoorn bhaag shaamil hai. mote taur par, shefeeld ka ek tihaai bhaag peek distrikt naishanal park mein sthit hai. March 2010 mein south daauns naishanal park, jiska kuchh bhaag brightan end hoov mein shaamil hai, ke nirmaan se poorv tak kisi bhi anya angreji shahar ki seema mein naishanal park ka koi bhi hissa shaamil naheen tha.[40]

jalavaayu

shesh Britain ki tarah shefeeld mein bhi mausam aam taur par madhyam rahata hai. shahar ke pashchim mein sthit penaain vruksh ek thanda, udaas aur nam maahaul bana sakte hain lekin ve poore kshetr mein "ren shaido" daalne ke dvaara prabal pashchimi havaaon se aashray bhi pradaan karte hain.[41] 1971 aur 2000 ke beech shefeeld mein ausatan 824.7 mileemeetar (32.47 inch) prati varsh varsha hui; 91.9 mileemeetar (3.62 inch) ke saath December ka maheena sarvaadhik naam tha aur 51.0 mileemeetar (2.01 inch) ke saath July ka maheena sarvaadhik sookha tha. July varsh ka sarvaadhik garam maheena bhi tha, iska ausat adhiktam taapamaan 20.8 °ase (69.4 °afai) tha. January aur February mein ausat nyoonatam taapamaan 1.6 °ase (34.9 °afai)[42] tha, haalaanki in maheenon ke dauraan darj kiya gaya nyoonatam taapamaan −10 °ase (14 °afai) aur −15 °ase (5 °afai) ke beech ho sakta hai. ausatan, thand ke maheenon (December-March) mein, lagbhag 67 din aise hote hain jab bhootal se liya gaya taapamaan 0 degree ya usase kam hota hai (is prakriya ko ground fraust kehte hain).[41]

Sheffield ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 6.4
(43.5)
6.7
(44.1)
9.3
(48.7)
11.8
(53.2)
15.7
(60.3)
18.3
(64.9)
20.8
(69.4)
20.6
(69.1)
17.3
(63.1)
13.3
(55.9)
9.2
(48.6)
7.2
(45)
13.1
(55.6)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 1.6
(34.9)
1.6
(34.9)
3.1
(37.6)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50)
12.4
(54.3)
12.1
(53.8)
10.0
(50)
7.2
(45)
4.2
(39.6)
2.6
(36.7)
6.4
(43.5)
himpaat/varsha mm (inch) 86.5
(3.406)
63.4
(2.496)
67.9
(2.673)
62.5
(2.461)
55.5
(2.185)
66.7
(2.626)
51.0
(2.008)
63.5
(2.5)
64.3
(2.531)
73.9
(2.909)
77.7
(3.059)
91.9
(3.618)
824.7
(32.469)

Error: This template makes a table line with two values that applies a length of month factor to the background color formula, sunshine hours uses {{Weather box/oneline/date}}, which displays only one value.

srot: The Met Office[42]

western park weather station, jiski sthaapana 1882 mein hui thi, vah great Britain ka sabse adhik samay se chala aa raha weather station hai. yeh 125 se bhi adhik varshon se mausam ke mijaaj ko darj kar raha hai aur 2008 ki ek report ke anusaar shefeeld ka mausam atyant teevrata ke saath ooshn hota ja raha hai, ooshnata ki yeh gati is kaal ke dauraan kabhi naheen rahi, is dauraan 1990 aur 2006 ab tak ke sabse adhik garm varsh rahe the.[43] staukahom invaayarameint Institute ke saath saajhedaari mein shefeeld ne 5,798,361 tan prati varsh ka kaarban futaprint viksit kiya (yeh 2004/05 ke upabhog aankade par aadhaarit tha). yeh Britain ke samagr kaarban futaprint ke baraabar hai jo 698,568,010 tan prati varsh hai. vah kaarak jinka sabse adhik prabhaav padta hai vah hain: rihaayashi ghar (34%), parivhan (25%), upabhokta (11%), niji suvidhaaen (9%), bhojan (8%) aur poonji nivesh (5%).[44] shefeeld city kaaunsil ne 10:10 tak abhiyaanon par hastaakshar kiye hain.[45]

upavibhaag

shefeeld anekon baahya praanton aur padosi kshetron dvaara bana hai, jinme se adhikaansh gaanv aur bastiyon se viksit hue hain, inhein shefeeld ke vistaareekaran ke saath ismein shaamil kar liya gaya.[5] aadhunik prashaasakon aur raajanaitik vibhaagon dvaara in aitihaasik kshetron ki upeksha ki jaati hai, iske badle mein is shahar ko 28 chunaavi wardon mein baanta gaya hai, jisme se pratyek ward aam taur par 4-6 kshetr ki jimmedaari leta hai.[46] is chunaavi wardon ko 6 Loksabha nirvaachan kshetron ke roop mein samooheekrut kiya gaya hai. shefeeld adhiktar kshetreeya kaaunsil rahit hain lekin braidafeeld aur eklesafeeld mein kshetreeya kaaunsil hain aur stauksabrij mein shahari kaaunsil hai.[47]

janaankiki

United kingadam janaganana 2001 ke anusaae, shefeeld mein rahane vaalon ki janasankhya 513,234 hai, ismein 1991 ki janaganana ki tulana mein 1.9 pratishat ki giraavat aayi hai.[48] yeh shahar vistrut shefeeld shahari kshetr ka ek bhaag hai, jiski janasankhya 640,720 hai.[49] shefeeld ki janasankhya ka jaateeya sanghatan is prakaar tha, gore 91.2 pratishat, Asiaee 4.6 pratishat, kaale vyakti 1.8 pratishat aur 1.6 pratishat mishrit. dharman ke anusaar, yahaan ki 68.6 pratishat janasankhya isaai hai aur 4.6 pratishat janasankhya muslim hai. anya dharmon ko maanane vaalon ka pratishat 1 se bhi kam hai. kisi bhi dharm ko naheen maanane vaalon ka pratishat yahaan par raashtreeya ausat se bhi adhik hai, yeh 17.9 pratishat hai, jisme se 7.8 pratishat ne apna dharman naheen bataaya hai.[50] sabse bada panchasankhyak samooh 20-24 varsh ka hai (9.4 pratishat), aisa vishvavidyaalaya mein padhne vaale chhaatron ki badi sankhya ke kaaran hai.[51]

shefeeld tulanaatmak adhyayan[48][52]
shefeeld south yaurkashaayar England
kul janasankhya 513,234 1,266,338 49,138,831
videshi mein janme 6.4% 8.9% 9.2%
gore log 91% 95% 91%
Asiaee 4.6% 2.6% 4.6%
kaale 1.8% 0.9% 2.3%
isaai 69% 75% 72%
muslim 4.6% 2.5% 3.1%
hindu 0.3% 0.2% 1.1%
koi dharm naheen 18% 14% 15%
75 saal se adhik aayu vaale 8.0% 7.6% 7.5%
berojgaar 4.2% 4.1% 3.3%
varsh jan.
1801 60,095
1821 84,540 40.7%
1841 1,34,599 59.2%
1861 2,19,634 63.2%
1881 3,35,953 53.0%
1901 4,51,195 34.3%
1921 5,43,336 20.4%
1941 5,69,884 4.9%
1951 5,77,050 1.3%
1961 5,74,915 −0.4%
1971 5,72,794 −0.4%
1981 5,30,844 −7.3%
1991 5,28,708 −0.4%
2001 5,13,234 −2.9%
2007 (Est.) 5,30,300 3.3%
[53]

shefeeld ki janasankhya 1951 mein 577,050 hokar charam par pahunch gayi thi aur tab se nirantar girti ja rahi hai. haalaanki, 2007 ke madhya mein janasankhya aankalan 530,300 tha- jo 2001 se nivaasiyon ki sankhya mein lagbhag 17,000 ki vruddhi pradarshit kar raha tha.[54]

haalaanki shefeeld ek shahar hai, fir bhi yeh anaupachaarik roop se "England ke sabse bade gaanv"[55][56][57] ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, aisa sthalaakrutik vilgan aur janaankiki sthirta ke mishran ke kaaran hai.[55] yeh Britain ka sabse bada shahar hai jo upanagareeya vistaar ke liye aadhaar pradaan nahi karta[58] aur bhaugolik drushti se apekshaakrut vilgit hai, yeh pahaadiyon ke ek valaya dvaara anya sthaanon se alag ho jaata hai.[58][59] (sthaaneeya saahitya yeh daava karta hai ki, rom ke saamaan hi, shefeeld bhi "saat pahaadiyon par" basa hua hai.[59]) shefeeld ke chaaron or ki bhoomi audyogik istemaal ke liye upayukt naheen thi[55] aur ab ismein kai anya sanrakshit harit kshetr sammilit hain.[60] yeh sthalaakrutik kaarak nagareeya vistaar ko avarodhit karne ka ek kaaran rahe hain,[60] jiske falasvaroop yahaan ki janasankhya apekshaakrut sthir rahi aur yahaan par gatisheelata ki dar bhi nimn rahi.

1956 mein, hant ne kaha ki "aadhunik shefeeld, ek samruddh audyogik shahar hai jahaan par nivaasiyon ki sankhya 1/2 million se bhi adhik hai aur iski khyaati bhi vishv stareeya hai, lekin fir bhi ismein 5000 logon vaale us chhote baajaari shahar ki kai aavashyak visheshataaen abhi bhi barkaraar hain jisse viksit hone mein ise 2.5 shataabdiyon ka samay laga. 1970 mein kiye gaye ek sarvekshan ne bhi hant ke varnan ki pushti ki hai, jiske anusaar jab iski tulana anya vishaal praanteeya kshetron se ki gayi to iske adhikaadhik nivaasi shahar ke andar ek "ghareloo kshetr" ki pehchaan mein samarth rahe aur isse bhi adhik badi baat yeh hai ki anya vishaal praanteeya kshetr ke vaasiyon ki tulana mein shefeeld ke nivaasi apne shahar ko chhodne ke liye sarvaadhik anichhuk hain. sarvekshan vishleshan ke dauraan nivaasiyon ki apne shahar ko chhod kar jaane ke prati anichha ki or dhyaan diya gaya, kyonki in pratikriyaaon ki anek visheshataaen "ek vishaal praanteeya kshetr ke sthaan par chhote nagareeya ya graameen praadhikran" ke sarvekshan se praapt ki gayi theen.[55]

1851 ki janaganana se praapt aankade ne Sydney Pollard ko apne vishleshan mein yeh kehne ke liye vivsh kar diya ki shefeeld us samay ka "England ka sarvaadhik shramajeevi shahar tha", yahaan kaaryarat prati 1 lakh vyakti mein adhiktar utpaadan dhandhe mein lage the (leeds 146.1 ki tulana mein yeh aankada shefeeld ke liye 187.6 tha) aur prati 1 lakh vyaktiyon mein vyavasaayik dhandhon mein lage logon ki sankhya (yeh sankhya Birmingham, 65.8 aur leeds 43.1 se tulana kiye jaane par shefeeld ke liye 41 thi) kam thi. unhonne iska shreya shahar ke katalari vyavasaaya ko diya, jiska suniyojan dhruveeya poonji-banaam-shram vyavasaaya par naheen kiya gaya tha, balki yeh katalari kaarkhaanon, shilpakaaron aur vyaapaariyon ke beech ka ek jatil network tha, jiska samudaaya ki ekta aur samaanata par sakaaratmak prabhaav pada aur jo baad mein 19veen shataabdi mein shahar mein steel udyog ke abhyudaya tak bana raha. yahaan tak ki 1981 tak bhi shefeeld mein saamaajik dhruveekaran (jaisa ki janaganana aur rajistraar general dvaara paribhaashit hai) anya shaharon ki tulana mein kaafi kam tha, yahaan par maatr 4.1 pratishat janasankhya ke paas vyavasaayik rojagaar tha jabki 62.1 pratishat log kushal aur akushal shramikon ke roop mein vargeekrut the.[59]

arthavyavastha

inhein bhi dekhein: List of companies in Sheffield
lebar profaail
kul karmachaariyon ki naukariyon 255,700
poorn samay 168,000 65.7%
bhaag samay 87,700 34.3%
nirmaan 31,800 12.4%
nirmaan 8,500 3.3%
sevaaen 214,900 84.1%
vitran, hotel aur restaurant 58,800 23.0%
parivhan evam sanchaar 14,200 5.5%
vitt, IT, anya vyaavasaayik gatividhiyon 51,800 20.2%
saarvajanik vyavasthaapak shiksha aur svaasthya 77,500 30.3%
anya sevaaen 12,700 5.0%
paryatan se sambandhit 18,400 7.2%
St Pauls Tower, a new, mixed use development which forms part of the St Pauls Place development. In the top left corner is the Main St Paul's tower itself. Below it is the Tower 2, connected to the main tower but half the height. To the right is another office building in the same development. All have been completed within the last 5 years and represent some of the newest architecture in the city.
seint paul ka place, 2010.shefeeld mein sabse bada bhavan seint paul ka tauvar kendra mein hai.

patan ke kai varshon ke baad, shefeeld ki arthavyavastha ab sashakt punarutthaan se gujar rahi hai. baarakles bank ke 2004 ke vitteeya yojana adhyayan[61] mein yeh baat prakaash mein I hai ki 2003 mein hailam ka shefeeld nagar samagr sampatti ke maamale mein landan se baahar sheersh shreni par tha, jisme prati varsh 60,000 pound kamaane vaalon ka anupaat lagbhag 12 pratishat tha. naait Frank dvaara kiye gaye ek sarvekshan[62] mein yeh baat saamane aaye ki varsh 2004 ke dveeteeya bhaag mein shefeeld kaarya aur rihaayashi sthalon tatha unke kiraaye ke maamale mein landan se baahar sabse teevrata ke saath vikaas karne wala shahar tha. yeh shefeeld mein punarvikaas ki nayi lahar ke dvaara dekha ja sakta hai, jisme city laufts tauvar aur iske saath juda hua seint pauls place, velausiti living aur the moor ka punarvikaas,[63] aagaami enaaarakyoo (NRQ) aur abhi haal mein poorn kiye gaye winter gaardens, pees gaardens, mileniym gailereej aur shefeeld van reedevelapameint agency ke antargat anya kai pariyojanaaen shaamil hain. shefeeld ki arthavyavastha 1997 (1997 jeeveee)[64] mein 5.6 billion pound se badhkar 2007 mein (2007 jeeveee)[65] 9.2 billion pound par pahunch gayi.

"UK siteej maunitr 2008" ne shefeeld ko "best siteej too loket a business tude" sheersh das shaharon mein sthaan diya, is shahar ko kaaryaalaya hetu sarvottam sthal aur call center ke liye sarvottam nae sthal ke liye kramash: teesara aur chautha sthaan mila. yahi report "sarvaadhik harit chhavi" ke liye shefeeld ko teesare sthaan par rakhati hai aur vitteeya protsaahanon ki upalabdhata ke maamale mein ise doosare sthaan par rakhati hai.[66]

The Bessember Converter located at Kelham Island Museum. The converter is located within an old industrial facility typical of those constructed during the Industrial Revolution.
kelahaim aailaind myoojiym mein rakha the besemar kanvartar, shefeeld ki abhiyaantriki viraasat aur is kshetr mein iski nirantar kushalata ka ek prateek hai.

dhaatu shodhan aur steel utpaadan mein shefeeld antarraashtreeya roop se khyaatilbdh hai.[67] shefeeld mein is kshetr mein kai aavishkaar kiye gaye hain, udahaaran ke liye beinjaamin hantsamain ne 1740 ke dashak mein haindsavarth sthit apne kaarkhaane mein krusibl takaneek ka aavishkaar kiya.[68] 1856 mein henari besemar ki khoj besemar kanvartar ke aa jaane par beinjaamin ki prakriya upayog rahit ho gayi. 18veen shataabdi mein Thomas bolsovar ne shefeeld plate (chaandi ki parat chadha hua taanba) ka aavishkaar kiya. 1912 mein Harry briyrale dvaara jangarodhi steel ka aavishkaar kiya gaya[69] aur 1960, 70 va 80 ke sampoorn dashakon ke dauraan ef.bi. pikring aur ti. glaidamain dvaara kiye gaye kaarya aadhunik nyoon mishr dhaatu steel ke vikaas mein moolabhoot yogadaan rahe.[70] shefeeld ke vishvavidyaalaya aur anya svaayatt shodh sansthaanon dvaara edavaansd mainufekcharing park mein nayi unnat utpaadan praudyogiki aur takaneekon dvaara aur bhi aavishkaar jaari rahe.[71] eemapi (AMP) par sthit sansthaanon mein edavaansd mainufekcharing research center (eemaaarasi, shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya aur boing company ke beech ek anusandhaan saajhedaari), kaastings technology intaranaishanal (Cti) aur teedablooaai (the velding Institute) shaamil hain.[72]

forjamaastars jiski sthaapana 1805 mein hui thi, vah vishv ka ekamaatr shesh svaayatt steel kaarkhaana hai aur nichli Don valley ke aaspaas shefeeld ke uttar poorvi kshetr ko prabhaavit karta hai.[73] vishaal aur sabse jatil steel forjing aur kaasting ke utpaadan mein is firm ki chhavi vaishvik hai aur yeh jokhimyukt naabhakeeya ghatakon ke utpaadan ke liye pramaaneekrut hai, iski haal ki pariyojanaaon mein royal navy ki estyut class sabamareen shaamil hain.[74] yeh farm Europe mein sabse bade (570 tan) ekal dhalava dhaatu dhaalane ki kshamata rakhati hai aur vartamaan mein apni kshamataaon ke vistaar ki prakriya mein sanlagn hai.[75]

jahaan lauh aur steel shefeeld ke pramukh udyogon mein se rahe hain vahi koyala khanan bhi ek vishaal udyog raha hai visheshakar shefeeld ke seemaant ilaakon mein, landan mein pailes of vestaminstar ka nirmaan paas ke gaanv ensatan ki khadaanon ke laaimaston se banaaya gaya hai. rojagaar ke anya kshetron mein call center, the city kaaunsil, vishvavidyaalaya aur aspataal shaamil hain.

Fargate shopping precinct, Sheffield. Once a busy road, it has been pedestrianised for several decades and is Sheffield's main City Centre shopping area, home to many well known companies. The image shows classical architecture on both sides with one plan spaces in the centre, dotted with trees and the buildings on the High Street are visible beyond the trees.
faaraget khareedaari ke kshetr

shefeeld ek bahut bada khudara kendra hai aur yahaan kai haai street aur dipaartameint store tatha saath hi saath dijaainar buteek bhi hain.[76] city center ke mukhya baajaar sthal the moori prikinkt, faaraget aurchaard square aur devaunashaayar quarter mein hain. city center ke dipaartameint store mein John livaais, maarks end speinsar, etakinsans aur debenahaims shaamil hain. shefeeld ka pramukh baajaar kaisal market hai, jo ek durg ke avasheshon par bana hai. city center se baahar ke baajaaron mein meedohaul shopping center aur retail park, ekslesal road, landan road, hilsaboro, farth park aur kristal peek shopping sthal hain. 2010 mein khudara kendron par poorvakathan par kharch ke sarvekshan mein UK, meedohaul ko 12vaan sthaan aur shefeeld city center ko 19vaan sthaan mila.[77]

shefeeld shahar mein ek nagareeya oorja pranaali hai jo shahar ke ghareloo apashisht ko bhasm karne aur isse praapt oorja ko vidyut mein badalne ke dvaara iska dohan karti hai. yeh garam paani bhi pradaan karti hai, jise 25 meal (40 kimi) se bhi adhik paaipon ke maadhyam se shahar mein, do network dvaara vitrit kiya jaata hai. ye network poore shahar mein kai imaaraton ke liye ooshma aur garm paani ki aapoorti karte hain. iname sirf cinema, aspataal, dukaanein aur kaaryaalaya hi nahi balki vishvavidyaalaya (shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya aur shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya)) aur rihaayashi sanpattiyaan bhi shaamil hain.[78] ek apashisht sanyatr par bani oorja ke dvaara 60 megaavaut ooshmeeya oorja aur 225,000 tan apashisht dvaara lagbhag 19 megaavaut tak vidyut oorja praapt hoti hai.[79]

parivhan

raashtreeya aur antarraashtreeya yaatra

Night view across an open plaza dominated by a long curving water feature that is decoratively lit. At the far side of the plaza there is the arched frontage of a railway station building
shefeeld railway station

shefeeld M 1 aur M 18 motarave dvaara naishanal motarave network se juda hai.[80] M 1 shahar ke uttarapoorvi kshetr ko seemaankit karta hai, yeh dakshin mein shefeeld ko landan se aur uttar mein leeds se jodta hai, rautharahaim ke nikat yeh teensale vaayaadakt ko paar karta hai; shefeeld ke sameep se M1 dvaara M 18 ek shaakha ke roop mein niklata hai jo shahar ko daunakaustar, raubin hud daunakaustar shefeeld airport aur hambar ports se jodta hai. shefeeld paarkave, city center ko motarave se jodta hai.

shefeeld railway station ke pramukh rel maarg midlaind main line ko sammilit karta hai, jo East midlainds ke dvaara shahar ko landan se jodti hai, yeh ek kraus country maarg hai jo Scott land ke poorveeya bhaag ko aur England ke uttarapoorvi bhaag ko vest midlainds aur dakshin pashchim se jodta hai, yahi line hal aur poorvi engliya ko livrapool aur Manchester se jodti hai.[81] seint painakraas railway station (ab seint painakraas intaranaishanal) ke punarvikaas ke poorn hone ke saath shefeeld ka mahaadveepeeya Europe se seedha sampark ho gaya. East midlainds trens, seint painakraas intaranaishanal tak chalti hain aur yoorostaar yahaan se fraans aur Belgium ke liye train suvidha deta hai.[82]

October 2010 mein kanjrvetiv sarkaar ne ghoshana ki ki shefeeld ko prastaavit haai speed rel network mein shaamil kiya jaayega jo England ke uttari bhaag ko landan se jodega.[83] is yojana ke antargat shefeeld aur leeds donon sthaanon par ek hi line suvidha kaarya karegi jo aage Manchester jaane waali doosari line se Birmingham ke theek dakshin mein judegi aur ismein landan yoostan station, landan ka sambhaavit terminal hoga.[84] yaurkashaayar/East midlainds haai speed railway line ka nirmaan 2025 se shuroo hone ki sambhaavana hai aur iski suvidhaaon ka parichaalan 2032 se hoga.[85]

shefeeld rukane waali anya trainon (East midlainds ki trainon ke atirikt) ki suvidha kraus country trens, first traansapenaain express aur naurdarn rel dvaara di jaayegi.

chitr:Sheffield 560 service national express 2.png
shefeeld intaracheinj par ek raashtreeya express coach.

pramukh railway station ke atirikt shefeeld mein paanch anya railway station hain. meedohaul ek bas, train aur traam badalne wala sthal hai, yeh doosra sabse bada station hai aur ismein lambi doori ki kraus country suvidha ke atirikt anya kai suvidhaaen bhi upalabdh hain. dor end totale, vudahaaus, chepalataaun aur daarnal station upanagareeya samudaayon ke liye niyamit yaatriyon ka station ke roop mein kaarya karte hain lekin yeh raashtreeya rel network se bhi jude hain.

shefeeld se hokar jaane waali coach suvidhaaen raashtreeya express dvaara sanchaalit hoti hain aur kuchh had tak megaabas dvaara, jo stejakoch group ka ek bhaag hai. raashtreeya express service shefeeld intaracheinj, meedohaul intaracheinj aur meedohed basastaup par samaapt hoti hai. megaabas sarvises sirf meedohaul par samaapt hoti hai. raashtreeya express service 564, 560, 350, 320, 310 aur 240 shefeeld par samaapt hoti hain, anya bhi yahaan samaapt hoti hain par niyamit roop se naheen.[86] 560/564 service chestarafeeld aur miltan keens hote hue landan Victoria coach station ka ek seedha sampark hai, jo pratidin donon dishaaon mein 12 baar chalti hai. 350 aur 240 service shefeeld ko kramash: Manchester airport aur heethro end getavik airport se jodti hain.[87] do megaabas service, M12 aur M20 landan ke maarg mein kramash: nyookaisal upon taain aur invarnes hote hue shefeeld par samaapt hoti hain.[88]

the shefeeld end south yaurkashaayar nevigeshan (S&SY), yaurkashaayar aur linkanashaayar mein ek antardesheeya jahaaj khene yogya jalamaarg (naharein aur naharon ka roop di gayi nadiyaan) hai.[89] yeh pramukh roop se Don nadi par aadhaarit hai aur 43 meal (69 kimi) tak lamba hai, ismein 29 baandh hain. yeh shefeeld, rautharahaim aur daunakaustar ko kidbaai aur (new jankshan kainal dvaara) the air end kailadar nevigeshan par Trent nadi se jodta hai.[90]

shefeeld ka niktatam antarraashtreeya airport daunakaustar shefeeld airport hai, jo city center se 18 meal (29 kimi) ki doori par aaraeef (RAF) finningale ke sthal par sthit hai. airport ki shuruaat 28 April 2005 ko hui thi aur yahaan pramukh roop se niji aur sasti vimaan sevaaen chalti hain. isse ek varsh mein lagbhag 1 million yaatri yaatra karte hain.[91] leeds bredaford intaranaishanal airport aur East midlainds airport: nautingham, lisestar, darbi shahar se 1 ghante ki doori par hain aur Manchester airport shefeeld se ek seedhi train dvaara juda hai jo pratighante chalti hai.

sthaaneeya deshaatan

The start of the Sheffield Parkway, as viewed from Park Square, where it meets the City Centre. The road, in the centre, is six lanes wide and leads towards the Parkway Edge development (left-centre) where the road meets the Inner Ring Road. To the left is the Sheffield Supertram viaduct and beyond that a new apartment complex.
park square mein shefeeld paarkave tarmins.vipreet ant jankshan 33 par M1 motarave se jodta hai.

A57 aur A61 sadkein shefeeld se hokar jaane waali pramukh trank sadkein hain.[80] yeh sadkein kramash: poorv-pashchim aur uttar-dakshin dishaaon ko jaati hain, yeh city center se hokar gujaraati hain jahaan se aam taur par anya pramukh sadkein is prakaar niklati hain jaise pahiye ke ekandar se nikaalne waali teeliyaan. ek antarik ring road, jiska nirmaan adhikaanshat: 1970 ke dashak mein ho gaya tha use ring poorn karne ke liye 2007 mein vistrut kiya gaya,[92] isse aavaagaman ke saadhan city center hokar gujarane se bach jaate hain, ek baahari ring road shahar ke kinaare se hote hue poorv, dakshin poorv aur uttar ki or jaati hai kintu yeh shefeeld ke pashchim ki or naheen jaati hai.[80]

anya british shaharon ki tarah tulana mein shefeeld ka baahya praant aur antar-nagareeya railway network adhik vistrut naheen hai.[93] haalaanki yahaan anek sthaaneeya rel maarg hain jo shahar ki ghaati or uske aage tak jaate hain, yeh shahar ko south yaurkashaayar, vest yaurkashaayar, nautinghamashaayar, linkanashaayar aur darbeeshaayar se jodte hain. in sthaaneeya maargon me peniston line, the diyrne valley line, the hope valley line aur the hailam line shaamil hain. shefeeld aur meedohaul ke pramukh station ke saath hi vahaan chaar anya upanagareeya station bhi hain, chepalataaun, daarnal, vudahaaus aur dor.[94]

Sheffield Interchange, the main hub for bus and coach operations in Sheffield. In the foreground is the interchange itself. Visible in the bottom left corner is the new, main entrance to the interchange. In the centre are the long bus stands that form the interchange. Above that is the Digital Campus commercial development built upon an unused section of the interchange. In the top left corner is the 1960s Park Hill flats development and to the right is Sheffield Railway Station.
shefeeld intaracheinj

ek chhoti railway pranaali jo vartamaan mein menachestar mein aisi hi metrolink yojana ke baad 1994 mein khule jo stejakoch suparatraam dvaara sanchaalit hai. iske network mein 37 meal (60 kimi) track aur teen laainein hain, yeh haafave se melin brij (blue line), meedohaul se midlavud (yailo line) aur meedohaul se haardings park tak jaati hain, sabhi teen laainein city center se hokar gujarati hain.[95] yeh pranaali sadkon aur railway track donon par sanchaalit hogi, yeh vibhaag aur line par nirbhar karega. suparatraam shefeeld ke uttarapoorvi kshetron (jaise meedohaul aur valley seintaratenameint) aur city center ke beech mahatvapoorn sampark ke roop mein kaam karti hai. kyonki iska sanchaalan stejakoch samooh dvaara kiya jaata hai, isliye suparatraam ki ticket vyavastha shefeeld mein stejakoch bason ke saath ekeekrut hai, iska arth yeh hai ki yaatri bina doosra ticket liye hi yaayaayaat ke do saadhanon ke beech adala badli kar sakte hain.[96]

shefeeld ki sthaaneeya bas seva ki avasanrachana ka mukhya kendra shefeeld intaracheinj mein hai. anya bas station haafave, hilsaboro aur meedohaul mein hain. 1986 mein viniyman ke baad nae sanchaalakon ki bheedh ho gayi,[97] haalaanki vilyon ki ek shrankhala dvaara inki sankhya mein kami aayi hai.

A Sheffield Supertram in current blue, orange and red Stagecoach livery. The Tram shown is cross the Park Square junction. Behind it is the bridge connecting the junction and tracks to Sheffield city centre. The whole square (now 20 years since redevelopment) is covered in trees and plants and new buildings can be seen beyond them.
ek shefeeld suparatraam

shefeeld mein anekon bas sanchaalan sevaaen hain: first, stejakoch, teeem travel, haleej of baislo, pauvels ko, ke&H doyel aur shefeeld kamyuniti transport. first south yaurkashaayar jo first samooh ka ek bhaag hai, vah ab tak ka sabse bada bas sanchaalak ban gaya aur haal ke varshon mein kiraaye mein vruddhi ki ek shrrunkhala kaaryaanvit ki aur suvidhaaon mein kami kar di jiske falasvaroop bas se yaatra karne vaalon ki sankhya mein giraavat aayi hai.[98][99] haaliya vikaas ke antargat stejakoch shefeeld ne yaurkashaayar teriyr, endrayooj aur janak company yaurkashaayar traikshan par adhikaar kar liya, is prakaar sabko milaakar kar ek company gathit kar li gayi aur ab yeh shahar mein apni bas seva ke vistaar ki prakriya mein hai. is ghatna ke parinaamasvaroop pratispardha mein vruddhi ho gayi hai aur kuchh nishchit sthaanon ki yaatra ke kiraaye mein bhi kami aayi hai.[100] shoonya kiraaya bas seva- the freebi - shefeeld intaracheinj se city center ke charon aur vruttaakaar maarg par sanchaalit hoti hai.[101]

2008 mein, shefeeld aur rautharahaim ke beech bas raipid traansit yojana ko yaurkashaayar end hambar esembali ke sthaaneeya parivhan board dvaara sveekruti di gayi. iske antargat do maargon ki yojana hai; ek (uttari maarg) jo meedohaul aur tempalaboro se hokar jaayega aur doosra jo vikaasasheel rojagaar kendra aur vevarli se hokar jaayega.[102]

cycle chalaane ke liye, shefeeld pahaadi hone ke baavajood bhi saghan hai aur yahaan kuchh pramukh trank maarg (lambi doori ke maarg) bhi hain. yeh traans-penaain path par hai joki ek raashtreeya cycle network maarg hai aur uttar-pashchim mein saauthaport se lekar East raaiding mein haurnasi tak jaata hai.[103]

shiksha

Blue/Grey skyscraper with a glass curtain wall. In the foreground is park pond with a small wooden bridge and trees at either side. In between the Tower and the pond is a modern 2 storey building
shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya ke kaimpas par Art tauvar
hailam square aur shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya ke city kaimpas ka dwaar

vishvavidyaalaya aur mahaavidyaalaya

shefeeld mein do vishvavidyaalaya hain, shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya aur shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya. sanyukt roop se in donon ke shaharon mein prativrsh 54,000 chhaatr aate hain.[104][105] shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana 1897 mein university college shefeeld ke roop mein hui thi aur yeh 1905 mein shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya ban gaya.[106] ab yeh vishvavidyaalaya Europe mein 20vein sthaan par aur vishv mein 40vein sthaan par hai.[107][108] shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya ka itihaas san 1834 tak jaata hai jab shefeeld school of design ki shuruaat hui thi. 1960 ke dashak ke dauraan kai svaayatt mahaavidyaalayon ne sanyukt hokar shefeeld pauliteknik ka gathan kiya aur antat: 1992 mein iska naam badalkar shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya rakh diya gaya.[109] pravesh lene vaale vidyaarthiyon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya Britain ka aathavaan sabse bada vishvavidyaalaya hai.[110]

shefeeld mein do anya shikshan mahaavidyaalaya hain, the shefeeld college aur laaaingale park siksth form college. shefeeld college sangheeya aadhaar par bana college hai aur moolaroop se shahar ke chh: mahaavidyaalayon ke vilyan se bana tha, jo ab sirf chaar hi rah gaye hain: city center ke sameep shefeeld city (poorv mein kaisal),[111] hilsaboro jo shahar ke uttar mein apni sevaaen de raha hai aur dakshin disha mein naurtan aur peeks.

maadhyamik, praathamik aur pre school shiksha

yahaan 137 praathamik vidyaalaya, 25 maadhyamik vidyaalaya hain - jinme se 8 ke paas siksth form (haai storrs, King egbarts, King Edward VII, silvaradel, meedohed aur teptan, notredem Catholic haai tatha all seints Catholic haai[112]) hain - aur ek siksth form college bhi hai, laaaingale park siksth form college.[113] shahar ke paanch svaayatt vidyaalayon mein barkadel school aur shefeeld haai school for girls, shaamil hain.[114] shahar mein teen academy hain - shefeeld springs academy, shefeeld park academy aur paarkavud academy, anya vidyaalayon ke saath hi saath yahaan 12 vishesh school hain aur mukhya vidyaalayon mein anekon ekeekrut sansaadhan ikaaiyaan bhi hain jo shefeeld city kaaunsil dvaara sanchaalit ki jaati hain.[115] sabhi vidyaalaya gair-chayanaatmak, mishrit ling vidyaalaya hain.[116] shefeeld city kaaunsil ki the arli iyars education end chaaildakeyar service shahar mein 32 nursery aur shishu kendra chalaati hai.[117]

khel

Interior of a sports stadium. There is a running track surrounding a central grassed area. In the distance there are the outer stands. In the foreground is the main stand, with plenty of people seated
Don ghaati stadium

shefeeld ki khel sambandhi viraasat bahut praacheen hai. 1857 mein cricket khilaadiyon ke ek samooh ne milkar vishv ka pehla aadhikaarik football club, shefeeld ef.si.[118] aur vishv ka doosra, hailam ef.si., banaaya jo krausapool ke baahari ilaake mein sthit vishv ke praacheenatam football maidaan par bhi khelta hai. 1860 tak yahaan 15 foot baul club ho gaye the. iske saath hi shahar mein vishv ki pehli apraveen league aur cup pratispardha aayojit hone waali thi.[119] football league mein do peshevar club hain: shefeeld United aur shefeeld vednesade. shefeeld United football league championship mein khelta hai aur shefeeld vednesade football league van mein khelta hai. rautharahaim United jo football league too mein khelta hai, vah 2010 tak shahar mein apni ghareloo shrankhala bhi khelta tha, 2008 mein apne ghareloo maidaan milmoor, rautharahaim ke bhoosvaami se vivaad ke baad ve shefeeld ke Don valley stadium mein khelne lage. yahaan do pramukh league rahit paksh bhi hain: shefeeld ef.si aur hailam ef.si., haalaanki ab shefeeld shahar ke theek baahar sameep sthit draunfeeld mein khelta hai. shefeeld aur hailam, shefeeld darbi ke liye pratispardha karte hain, jabki United aur vednesade, steel city darbi ke liye pratispardha karte hain. yahaan golf, aarohan aur geindabaaji ki bhi suvidha hai aur saath hi raashtreeya aais-sketing kshetr (aaisashefeeld) bhi hai jiska udaghaatan haal hi mein kiya gaya hai.

A Modern sporting facility. The building is roughly rectangular in shape and is quite modern, with a wooden clad design. It is surrounded by greenery and has several tall, white spikes on its roof.
khel ke liye angreji sansthaan, shefeeld

shefeeld, shefeeld steelars aais hockey team ka bhi ghar hai jo 8,500 kshamata vaale shefeeld erena mein khelta hai. ye, 10 team peshevar eleet aais hockey league mein khelte hain. shefeeld ki kai khel sambandhi suvidhaaen world student gems ke liye banaayi gayi theen, jiski mejabaani is shahar ne 1991 mein ki thi. ismein Don valley intaranaishanal ethaletiks stadium, jo Britain ka sabse bada ethaletiks stadium hai aur jisme 25,000 logon ke baithane ki vyavastha hai,[120] shefeeld erena aur paunds forj intaranaishanal daaiving end sviming complex shaamil hain. paunds forj shefeeld city sviming club ka mool sthaan bhi hai, yeh ek sthaaneeya sviming club hai jo speedo league mein pratispardha karta hai. shefeeld ski vilej Europe ka sabse bada krutrim ski risaurt hai. shahar mein teen aatanrik aarohan kendra bhi hain. shefeeld Britain ka pehla naishanal city of sport tha aur ab yeh english Institute of sport ka gruhasthaan bhi hai.[121]

shefeeld snooker mein bhi sakriya raha hai, shahar ka krusibl theatre world snooker championship ka kaaryakram sthal bhi raha hai.[122] english Institute of sport prativrsh sheersh feinsing pratispardhaaon ki mejabaani karta hai, jisme varishthon, kanishthon (U20's) aur kaidet (U17's) ke liye naishanal championship aur saath hi saath 2011 ki varishth Europeeya feinsing championship bhi shaamil hai. yeh shahar prativrsh english skvaish open ki bhi mejabaani karta hai. the intaranaishanal open aur world maichaple championship bols tournament, donon ka hi aayojan paunds forj mein kiya ja chuka hai.[123] yeh shahar shefeeld igals ragbi league, shefeeld taaigars ragbi union, shefeeld shaarks baasketabaul, shefeeld university bainkars hockey, shefeeld steelars aais hockey aur shefeeld taaigars speedave teems ki bhi mejabaani karta hai.

[124]english 2018 aur 2022 efaaaiefae (FIFA) world cup ke liye hui neelaami mein 16 December 2009 ko shefeeld ko english football esosiyeshan (FA) ke dvaara mejabaani karne vaale ummeedavaar shahar ke roop mein chuna gaya tha. hilsaboro stadium ko shefeeld mein hone vaale maichon ke liye sambhaavit kaaryakram sthal ke roop mein chuna gaya tha.[125]

sanskruti aur aakarshan

shefeeld ko UK city of kalchar ke liye chune jaane vaale pehle shahar ke roop mein chayanit kar liya gaya tha, lekin July 2010 mein yeh ghoshana kar di gayi ki iske liye deri ka chunaav kar liya gaya hai.[126]

aakarshan

bishaup ka ghar.
maiping Art gaileri mein gred II* soocheebaddh

city center mein shefeeld vauk of fame theek Hollywood varjn ki hi tarah shefeeld ke vartamaan aur poorv prasiddh nivaasiyon ka sammaan karta hai.[127] shefeeld ki apni swayam ki ek fereej vheel bhi thi jise vheel of shefeeld ke naam se jaana jaata hai, yeh faaraget shauping preekinkt ke theek oopar sthit hai. October 2010 mein is vheel ke purjon ko alag kar diya gaya aur ise landan ke haaid park mein sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya.[128] heeli city faarm aur grevs park, shefeeld ke do faarm pashu sangrahon ke gruhasthaan hain, yeh donon hi janta ke liye poori tarah se khule hain.[129][130]

shefeeld mein lagbhag 1,100 soocheebaddh bhavan (jisme poori shefeeld postal distrikt shaamil hai) hain.[131] iname se, sirf paanch gred I mein soocheebaddh hain. unsath bhavan gred II* mein soocheebaddh hain, lekin gred II mein soocheebaddh bhavanon ki sankhya adhik hai.[132] anya angreji shaharon se tulana kiye jaane par shefeeld mein uchchatam gred I mein soocheebaddh bhavanon ki sankhya kam hai, udahaaran ke liye, livrapool mein 26 gred I soocheebaddh bhavan hain. is paristhiti ke falasvaroop vikhyaat itihaasakaar aur vaastushilpi nikolaus pevsnar, jo 1959 ke dauraan likhte the, ne tippani ke roop mein likha ki yeh shahar "vaastukala ki drushti se dayaneeya roop se niraashaajanak hai", jahaan 19veen shataabdi se poorv ke bhavanon mein koi antar nahi hai.[133] iske vipreet, November 2007 mein, shefeeld ke pees aur winter gaardens ne landan ke south bank ko royal insti tyoot of british aarkitekts academy of arbanism ke "great place" puraskaar praapt karne ke liye hara diya, yeh is baat ka ek utkrusht udahaaran hai ki kis prakaar shahari sthaanon ko jitna asambhav ho utana aakarshak aur sugamya banaane ke liye sudhaara ja sakta hai.[134]

sangeet

inhein bhi dekhein: List of musicians from Sheffield
shefeeld arena

shefeeld kai prasiddh sangeetajnyaon aur band ka gruhasthal raha hai, iske saath hi is shahar se kaafi sankhya mein sinth paup aur anya ilektraunik sajja upakaran bhi aarambh hue hain.[135] ismein the hyooman league, haiven 17, ABC (ABC) aur audyogik drushti se kaafi adhik pravrutt kaabaret volteyar shaamil hain. yeh ilektraunik parampara chalti rahi: tekno lebal vaarp record 1990 ke dashak ke praarambhik yaurkashaayar bleeps aur boss drushya ka kendreeya stambh tha aur ab yeh Britain ka ek sabse puraana aur sarvaadhik priya dance myujik lebal ban gaya hai. abhi haal mein, ilektraunik sangeet ki anya prasiddh vidhaaen jaise ki bausalaain house bhi isi shahar se praarambh hua tha.[136] shefeeld kai uchch vargeeya naait clubon ka bhi gruhasthal hai - getakraishar van tab tak uttari England ka ek sabse prasiddh club tha, jab tak ki 18 June 2007 ko yeh aag dvaara nasht naheen ho gaya.[137] pulp, def lepard, jo kaukar, paul karak, richrd haule, the laungapigs, milbarn, moloko aur bring mi the haurijn ke saath anya bhi kai prasiddh aur vaikalpik sangeetajnyaon ka janm shefeeld mein hua tha. haal hi mein kai Indy band, shahar se us ke ek bhaag ke roop mein utpann hue hain jise ऍnaemai (NME) dvaara the new yaurkashaayar movement ka naam diya gaya hain, jisme aarkatik mankeej aur the laung blaunds bhi shaamil hain.[138]

1999 mein, the naishanal center for paupular myujik ka shahar mein udaghaatan hua, yeh ek sangrahaalaya hai jo prasiddh sangeet ke vishay par samarpit hai.[139] yeh utana safal naheen raha jitni isse aasha ki gayi thi, haalaanki baad mein yeh ek sajeev sangeet kaaryakram sthal ke roop mein parivrtit ho gaya; iske baad February 2005 mein asaadhaaran, steel se dhaki hui imaarat shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya ke chhaatron ka sangathan ban gayi.[140] shahar ke sajeev sangeet kaaryakaran sthalon mein haarle hotel, leedamil, vest street live, the bordavauk, dav & renabo, the kaasabah, the kremorn, Corporation, new bairek taivarn, the braudafeeld hotel, the city hall, the university of shefeeld, krusibl theatre mein sthit studio theatre, the O2 academy shefeeld aur the greps, shaamil hain.[141][142][143][144][145][146]

shefeeld kai tyohaaron ki bhi mejabaani karta hai, jisme sabse adhik prasiddh green ap North shefeeld Comedy festival[147] aur traamalaains festival hain. traamalaains festival ka shubhaarambh 2009 mein ek vaarshik sangeet samaaroh ke roop mein hua tha,[148] iska aayojan shefeeld city center mein tamaam kaaryakram sthalon mein kiya jaata hai aur yeh sthaaneeya aur raashtreeya kalaakaaron ko pradarshit karta hai.[149] yeh shahar kai sthaaneeya orkestra aur gaayak dal ka bhi gruhasthal hai, jaise ki shefeeld seinfani orkestra, the shefeeld filhaaramonik orkestra, the shefeeld cheinbar orkestra, the city of shefeeld yooth orkestra aur the shefeeld filhaaramonik koras.[150][151][152][153]

theatre

kroosibl rangamanch (beech mein) aur liseyum rangamanch (daaen or)

shefeeld mein do vishaal theatre hain, the laaisiym theatre aur the krusibl theatre, jo chhote studio theatre ke saath milkar sabse bada theatre complex banta hai, yeh landan ke baahar tyudar square mein sthit hai.[154] krusibl theatre (1977 se) world snooker championship ka gruhasthal hai aur poore varsh anek suvikhyaat stage production ki mejabaani karta hai. the laaisiym jiski shuruaat 1897 mein hui thi, vah bhramanasheel vest end productions aur opera North ke opera ke saath hi anya sthaaneeya roop se nirmit kaaryakramon ke liye kaaryakram sthal ka bhi kaarya karta hai. shefeeld mein maaaintagomeri theatre bhi hai, yeh ek chhota, 420 logon ke baithane wala theatre hai jo tyudar square se kuchh hi doori par sare street mein taaun hall ke vipreet sthit hai.[155]

sangrahaalaya

shefeeld ka sangrahaalaya do bhinn sangathanon dvaara chalaaya jaata hai. myoojiym shefeeld, western park myoojiym (ek gred II, soocheebaddh bhavan), mileniym gailereej, grevs Art gaileri aur bishp house (ek sanrakshit tyudar bhavan jo city center ke dakshin mein sthit hai) ka prabandhan dekhti hai.[156] shefeeld industrial myoojiym trast un sangrahaalayon ka prabandhan dekhti hai jo shefeeld ki audyogik viraasat ko samarpit hain, vahaan teen is prakaar ke sangrahaalaya hain.[157] kelhem aailaind myoojiym (jo city center ke theek uttar mein sthit hai) shahar ke steel utpaadan ke itihaas ka pradarshan karta hai.[158] ebidel industrial haimalet (shahar ke dakshin mein) ek gred I soocheebaddh bhavan aur ek anusoochit praacheen smaarak hai.[159] shefard vheel (shahar ke dakshin-pashchim mein) ek puraani jal-sanchaalit gharshan kaarkhaana hai, jo gred II ke roop mein soocheebaddh hai aur ek anusoochit praacheen smaarak hai.[160]

harit kshetr

shefeeld winter garden

shefeeld 2 million vrukshon wala shahar hone ke liye prasiddh hain aur yeh Europe ke sabse hare-bhare shahar ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[161] isi ke falasvaroop vahaan poore shahar mein aur uske atirikt bhi anekon park aur vanapradesh hain. shefeeld mein 13 park hain (13 'city' park, 20 'distrikt' park aur 50 'sthaaneeya' park) jo poore shahar mein idhar-udhar sthit hain.[162] shefeeld ke 4 saarvajanik udyaanon mein se 3 shahar ke paarkon ki shreni mein (the shefeeld botainikl gaardens, the pees gaardensaaur hilsaboro vailed gaardens, iske saath hi winter gaardens ka ek alag astitv hai) shaamil hain.[163] shefeeld ke botainikl gaarden shahar ke dakshin-pashchim mein 19 ekad jameen par sthit hai aur iska astitv 1836 se hai. yahaan par ek vishaal, gred II soocheebaddh, viktoriyn kaal ka kaanchaghar (glaasahaaus) bhi hai. pees gaarden jo taaun hall ke sameep sthit hai aur heart of the city pariyojana ke ek hisse ka nirmaan karta hai, yeh shahar ke madhya mein 0.67 hekteyar jagah par sthit hai. yeh sthaan apni jal sambandhi visheshataaon ke liye prasiddh hai jisme gudavin faaunten pramukh hai. jal ke 89 alag-alag favvaaron se milkar bana yeh faaunten gole ke chauthaai hisse ki aakruti vaale pees gaardens ke ek kone mein sthit hai aur iska naam shefeeld ke ek prasiddh udyogapati ke naam par rakha gaya hai. 1998 mein inke punarvikaas ke saath, pees gaarden ko kai kshetreeya aur raashtreeya sammaan praapt hue hain.[164] hilsaboro vailed gaarden city center ke uttar-pashchim mein hilsaboro park mein sthit hai. is gaarden ka astitv 1779 se hai aur 1990 ke dashak mein punarvikaas ke baad se yeh hilsaboro aapada ke peediton ko samarpit hai.[165] the winter gaarden joki shahar ke madhya mein sthit hai, ek vishaal lakdi mein jada kaanch ka bana greenahaaus (chhote pedon ko hara rakhane ka ghar) hai jahaan vishv ke har kshetr se laaye gaye lagbhag 2,500 paudhe hain.[166]

shahar ke andar hi kai praakrutik aarakshit nidhiyaan bhi hain jo sanyukt roop se 1,600 ekad (6.5 kimi2) bhoomi par sthit hain.[167] yahaan shahar ke andar hi 170 vanapradesh bhi hain, jisme se 80 vargeekrut aur praacheen hain.[168]

shahar ki dakshin poorv seema peek distrikt naishanal park se atiachhaadit hai, yeh England ka pehla naishanal park (1951 mein sthaapit) hai.[169] iske falasvaroop, kai samudaaya vaastav mein donon sansthaaon (sthaanon) ke nivaasi hain. peek distrikt kai prasiddh, praakrutik visheshataaon ka sthaan hai aur yahaan kai manaav nirmit visheshataaen bhi hain jaise ki chaitsavarth house, joki BBC ki shrankhala pride end prejyoodis ka samaayojan hai.[170]

September 2010 mein shefeeld city kaaunsil ne paarkon ki ek nai shrrunkhala ke nirmaan ki yojana ki ghoshana ki, yeh park shefeeld station ke peechhe sthit pahaadi kshetr mein faile honge. shef valley park ke naam se jaane jaana vaale is park mein ek vanaspati vaatika aur ek khuli rangashaala (emfeethiyetar) bhi hai.[171] kisi samay is sthaan par medivl diyr park hua karta tha jo haaliya samay mein naurafok ke Duke ke adhikaar mein tha.[171]

manoranjan

meedohaul mein oesis khaadya nyaayaalaya

shefeeld mein chaar cinema complex hain, jinmein se 2 city center mein aur 2 nichli Don valley mein hain. valley seintaratenameint, Don valley mein sthit ek vishraam aur manoranjan complex hai. yeh ab meedohaul aur shefeeld erena ke naam se gyaat jagahon ke nikat us bhoomi par banaaya gaya tha jo pehle steel ke kaarkhaanon ke adhikaar mein thi. yahaan kai restaurant, madhushaalaaen, ek cinema malteepleks aur ek boling aile hain.[172] yeh Britain ka sabse bada cinema complex bhi hai, jahaan ek hi imaarat mein lagbhag 20 parade hain.[173] city center ke arundel gate par sthit, the odiyn aur meedohaul shauping center ke andar sthit vyoo, shahar ke do anya mukhya cinemaghar hain. the shoroom, ek svaayatt cinemaghar hai aur mukhyadhaara se alag nirmaanon ka pradarshan karta hai, yeh shefeeld station ke nikat shef square par sthit hai. 2002 mein, gaarjiyn reedars dvaara shoroom ko desh ke sarvashreshth svaayatt cinemaghar ke roop mein chuna gaya tha.[174]

iske praacheen aur lambe itihaas ke falasvaroop, shefeeld mein lagbhag poore shahar mein kai madhushaalaaen hain. old kveens head, shahar ki sabse praacheen madhushaala hai, yeh shefeeld intaracheinj ke bagal mein sthit hai, iske sambandh mein kaha jaata hai ki yeh shahar ki sabse praacheen antarraajyeeya imaarat hai, jiska astitv 1475 se hai.[175] vest street, jo city center ki vest end distrikt ke madhya se gujarati hai, mein bhi kai madhushaalaaen, sharaabaghar, sharaabaghar aur club sthit hain jisse yeh sthaan anekon chhaatr darshanaarthiyon ko aakarshit karta hai. shahar ke raatrijeevan mein liyopold square ke roop mein ek naya sthaan jud gaya hai, yeh vest street ke uttari chhor ke theek peechhe sthit hai. Agra, square mein sthit ek bhaarateeya restaurant hai jo Kashmiri bhojan parosata hai, ise haal mein pratishthit british curry avaards mein "Britain ke sarvashreshth restaurant samooh" ke roop mein chuna gaya hai.[176]

media aur film

shefeeld mein do vaanijyik akhbaar chalte hain, the star aur shefeeld teleegraaf, donon hi jaunastan press peeelasi (PLC) dvaara prakaashit kiye jaate hain. the star 1897 se rojaana prakaashit ho raha hai; the shefeeld teleegraaf, ab saaptaahik prakaashan hai, iska prakaashan 1855 se shuroo hua tha.[177]

shefeeld mein television station naheen hai; kshetreeya prasaaranakarta BBC yaurkashaayar aur yaurkashaayar telivijn hi shahar ka prasaaran chalaate hain. shahar mein paanch sthaaneeya radio station ke dvaara prasaaran kiya jaata hai. yahaan ki vyavasaayik sevaaon mein, BBC radio shefeeld, the indipeindeint hailam efaem aur iski sahayogi sanstha maijik eem hain. shefeeld mein efaem dvaara license praapt kamyuniti radio station bhi hai: shefeeld live 93.2 par aur 103.1 par barn greev kamyuniti radio.

echabeees (HBS) radio (hauspitl braudakaasting shefeeld) royal hailamashaayar, jesap ving, naurdarn general aur vestan park hauspitl ke liye ek 24 ghante waali seva ka prasaaran karta hai. echabeees, royal hailamashaayar hauspitl mein studio ke svayanseviyon dvaara sanchaalit kiya jaata hai aur hauspeediya va meediym vev 1431 eem ke maadhyam se bedasaaid terminal ko muft mein diya jaata hai, yeh naurdarn general hauspitl se ek traansameetar ke dvaara kiya jaata hai.

film aur naatak, the ful monti, threds, luks end smaails, ven saitarade kams, vaatevar haipeind too herauld smith?, the history bvaayaj aur for laayans, aadi is shahar mein hi filmaae gaye the.[178] ef.I.S.ti (F.I.S.T.) mein bhi shefeeld mein filmaae gaye kai drushya shaamil hain. daakyoomeintri festival shefeeld deeosi (Doc)/fest 1994 se vaarshik roop se shoroom cinema[179] mein aayojit kiya ja raha hai aur 2007 mein shefeeld ne intaranaishanal indiyn film ekedami avaards ki bhi mejabaani ki thi.[180]

saarvajanik sevaaen

chitr:Rhh.jpeg
royal hailamashaayar aspataal

shefeeld south yaurkashaayar police (jo ek praanteeya police bal hai) ki nigraani mein aata hai aur iska mukhyaalaya shahar mein sthit hai. shefeeld iske chaar besik command yoonits (baarnsale, daunakaustar aur rautharahaim anya teen hain) mein se ek hai.[181] yeh police bal lagbhag 1,554 varg kilometer kshetr ka niyantran dekhta hai aur England, vels tatha naurdarn Ireland ka 13vaan sabse bada police bal hai. iske paas siyera yainki 99 naamak ek police helicopter hai.[182]

shefeeld mein chikitsakeeya sevaaen ऍnaechaes (NHS) faaundeshan trast dvaara pradaan ki jaati hain. shefeeld ka shaikshanik aspataal ऍnaechaes (NHS) hauspitl trast poore shefeeld aur south yaurkashaayar mein logon ko svaasthya sevaaen muhaiya karta hai. trast ke sheershak mein 'shaikshanik' shabd bhi shaamil hai kyonki yeh shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya mein chikitsaashaastr ke chhaatron ko prashikshan bhi deta hai aur shefeeld hailam vishvavidyaalaya se bhi iske achhe sambandh hain. trast ke do parisar hain: pashchimi parisar jisme royal hailamashaayar hauspitl, jesap ving (prasootikaagruh vibhaag), vestan park hauspitl (vishesh Cancer upachaar) aur Charles klifrd deintal hauspitl hain. doosra parisar, naurdarn general hauspitl hai aur shefeeld ke baahya praanton ke liye yeh ek badi suvidha hai, shahar ka A end E (A&E) vibhaag bhi isi mein hai. shefeeld childrens NHS faaundeshan trastashefeeld shahar, south yaurk shaayar aur lagbhag poore Britain mein bachchon ke liye svaasthya sevaaen muhaiyya karaati hai.[183]

18 November 2010 ko, mahaaraani queen elijaabeth II ne shefeeld Institute for motor nyuraun diseej (ise shefeeld Institute for traansleshnal nyoorosaains - SITraN ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai) ka udaghaatan kiya, joki shefeeld vishvavidyaalaya dvaara viksit ek vishisht, vishv stareeya suvidha hai.[184]

embyuleins ki suvidha south yaurkashaayar embyuleins service dvaara di jaati hai, jo swayam bhi ek NHS (NHS) trast hai.[185]

shefeeld mein agnishaman suvidha south yaurkashaayar fire end reskyoo service dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai. agnikaandon se bachaav aur unase nipatne ke liye shefeeld ko poorveeya aur pashchimi prabhaagon mein vibhaajit kar diya gaya hai.[186]

sahaayak shahar

"shefeeld intaranaishanal linking committee" videshon mein shefeeld ka prachaar karti hai, khaaskar chaar sahaayak shaharon ke saath:[187]

iske alaava anya chaar shaharon se bhi shefeeld ka mitrata anubandh hai:

shefeeld mein do sadkon ke naam iske sahaayak shaharon ke naam par rakhe gaye hain; naurtan mein A6102 ke ek prabhaag ka naam bocham paarkave rakha gaya hai aur haikeinthorp mein ek sadak ka naam donetsk ve rakha gaya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • sabse bada Europeeya mahaanagareeya kshetr
  • shefeeld city center
  • shefeeld itihaas ke ghatnaakram
  • shefeeld se logon ki soochi
  • shefeeld ke log
  • shefeeldamein sthaapit kalpana ki soochi

sandarbh aur nots

  1. office for naishanal staiteestiks ke anusaar poorn shefeeld shahar ke liye madhya 2008 anu. janasankhya 520,700 thi,saaaincha:English district population citation haalaanki kuchh janasankhya sambandhi aankade, jaise ki janasankhya ke aadhaar par angreji shaharon ki di gayi soochi, mein shaahar ke nagareeya bhaag hi shaamil kiye jaate hain aur iseeliye vah kam hote hain.
  2. "Income & Wealth". Sheffield City Council. 30 November 2007. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/sheffield-facts-figures/sheffield-economy/income--wealth. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2010.
  3. a aa i "Sheffield Geography". Sheffield City Council. 17 December 2007. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/sheffield-facts-figures/sheffield-profile/geography. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2010.
  4. Pike, Alistair W.G.; Gilmour, Mabs; Pettitt, Paul; Jacobid, Roger; Ripoll, Sergio; Bahn, Paul; Muñaoz, Francisco (2005). "Verification of the age of the Palaeolithic cave art at Creswell Crags, UK". Journal of Archaeological Science 32 (11): 1649–1655. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2005.05.002.
  5. a aa i E u oo A Vickers, J. Edward (1999). Old Sheffield Town. An Historical Miscellany (2nd san॰). The Hallamshire Press Limited. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-874718-44-X.
  6. Cox, Tony (2003). "The Ancient Kingdom of Elmet". The Barwicker 39: 43. http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/FeaturesBritain/BritishElmet.htm. abhigman tithi: 17 July 2010.
  7. vels, shabd jarman shabd vaalha se liya gaya hai aur moolat: iska prayog englo-saiksan logon dvaara britn ke mool nivaasiyon ke liye kiya jaata tha. vels ke gaanv aur velsavud ke sambandh mein, S.O. aidi ne apni A glausari of vards yoosd in the nebarahud of shefeeld, prushth 274, mein kaha hai ki "englo-saiksan aakramanakaari ya upaniveshi is desh ke puraane nivaasiyon ya aadivaasiyon ko vils ya videshi kehte the." Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press. 1989. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 019210019X. mein "velsh" ko bhi dekhein.
  8. 827 ki ek pravishti ke anusaar, the englo-saiksan kraunikl kehta hai "egabart ne naurthrumbiya nivaasiyon ke viruddh, dor tak ek sena ka netrutv kiya, jahaan vah unase mile aur aajnyaa aur paraadheenata ki sharton ka prastaav rakha, is prastaav ke sveekaar kar liye jaane par vah vaapas ghar laut gaye" (pratilekhan) anek strot (udahaaran ke liye vikrs, old shefeeld taaun) kehte hain ki kraunikl mein di gayi taareekh galat hai aur is ghatna ki adhik uchit taareekh 829 hai.
  9. Fry, Plantagenet Somerset (1990). The Kings & Queens of England & Scotland. Grove Atlantic Press. pa॰ 11. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0802113869.
  10. Hunter, Joseph (1819). "Sheffield under De Busli and De Lovetot". Hallamshire: The History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield in the County of York. Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mayor, and Jones. pp. 24–29.
  11. "Markets history - 1700's and before". Sheffield City Council. 30 April 2008. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/business-economy/markets/history-and-visits/history-of-the-markets-in-sheffield/markets-history---1700s-and-before. abhigman tithi: 7 October 2008.
  12. Geoffrey chaukar apni kitaab the kaintebari tels ke the reevs tel mein kehte hain ki: "deyar vaas no mein, for peril, dorste haaim tache. A shefeeld thvitl baar hi in his hos. round vaas his face, end kaimas vaas his nos"
  13. Hey, David (1997). "The Establishment of the Cutlers Company". In Clyde Binfield & David Hey. Mesters to Masters: a History of the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. Oxford University Press. pp. 12–25. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0198289979.
  14. Leader, John Daniel (1880). Mary queen of Scots in captivity: a narrative of events from January 1569, to December, 1584, whilst George Earl of Shrewsbury was the guardian of the Scottish Queen. Leader & Sons. OCLC 57701910.
  15. Tweedale, Geoffrey (1986). "Metallurgy and Technological Change: A Case Study of Sheffield Specialty Steel and America, 1830–1930". Technology and Culture (The Johns Hopkins University Press on behalf of the Society for the History of Technology) 27 (2): 189–222. doi:10.2307/3105143. http://jstor.org/stable/3105143. abhigman tithi: 17 July 2010.
  16. Phillips, Helen L. (2004). "Boulsover, Thomas (1705–1788)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online san॰). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/53918.
  17. Southall, Aidan William (2000). "The transformation of the city: from the Feudal to the Capitalist mode of production, and on to the apocalypse". The city in time and space. Cambridge University Press. pp. 306–419. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521784328.
  18. "History of the Lord Mayor". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/lord-mayor/history-of-lord-mayor. abhigman tithi: 19 September 2007.
  19. Harrison, Samuel (1864). A complete history of the great flood at Sheffield on March 11 & 12, 1864. S. Harrison. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0904293017. OCLC 2905832.
  20. Orwell, George (1937). "Chapter 7". The Road to Wigan Pier. Victor Gollancz Ltd. pa॰ 72. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0905712455.
  21. Walton, Mary; Lamb, Joseph Percy (1980). Raiders over Sheffield: the story of the air raids of 12th & 15th December 1940. Sheffield City Libraries. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0900660554. OCLC 7273086.
  22. Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen & Fraser, Penny (1996). "The catastrophic decline of Sheffield's industrial district". A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England : a study in Manchester and Sheffield. Taylor & Francis. pp. 63–72. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415138299.
  23. "SI (Chris Knight, Keith Tyssen and Brett Payne) with Keiko Mukaide 'Cutting Edge', 2006". Public Art Research Archive. Sheffield Hallam University. http://public-art.shu.ac.uk/sheffield/kni420.html. abhigman tithi: 15 March 2007.
  24. "Paul Scriven retains leadership of Sheffield Council". BBC News (BBC). 19 May 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/8693454.stm. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2010.
  25. "Lib Dems take power in Sheffield". BBC News (BBC). 2 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/7378924.stm. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  26. "The Lord Mayor". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/lord-mayor/current-lord-mayor. abhigman tithi: 12 August 2010.
  27. Price, David (2008). "Blunkett and the Socialist Republic of South Yorkshire". Sheffield Troublemakers: Rebels and Radicals in Sheffield History. Phillimore & Co. Ltd. pp. 149–160. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1-86077-569-7.
  28. Harston, Jonathan G. (2005). "Sheffield City Council Members: 1974–2004". MDFS. Jonathan G. Harston. http://mdfs.net/Docs/Sheffield/Members/1974.htm. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  29. "Introducing Museums Sheffield". Museums Sheffield website. Sheffield Galleries & Museums Trust. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/coresite/html/background.asp. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  30. "About SIMT". Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust website. Sheffield Industrial Museums Trust. http://www.simt.co.uk/about. abhigman tithi: 15 July 2010.
  31. Harston, Jonathan G.. "Sheffield Parliamentary Boundary Review". MDFS. Jonathan G. Harston. http://mdfs.net/User/JGH/Docs/Politics/ParlReview/per2.htm. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2010.
  32. Harston, Jonathan G. (2005). "The borders of Sheffield from 1843 to 1994". MDFS. http://mdfs.net/Docs/Sheffield/Borders/. abhigman tithi: 26 December 2005.
  33. "Greenstructure and Urban Planning - Case Study - Sheffield, UK". Greenstructures and Urban Planning. European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research. Archived from the original on 29 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071229084359/http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/sheffield-case.htm. abhigman tithi: 17 July 2010.
  34. yeh kaha gaya hai ki shefeeld saat pahaadiyon par banaaya gaya hai (udaaharan ke liye George oravel ki the road too vign piyr dekhein). haalaanki, J.ji. haarstan dvaara adhyayan dvaara aath paaya gaya hai.
  35. Beer, A. R. (2000). "Sheffield Metropolitan District - Major Greenspace and other Land Use Statistics". Greenstructure and Greenspace in Urban Planning. Map21 Ltd.. Archived from the original on 4 January 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080104062412/http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11/arb-sheff.htm. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  36. "Trees & Woodlands in Sheffield". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2006.
  37. "Gardens and Open Spaces". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/tourist-information/visitor-attractions/green-spaces-gardens. abhigman tithi: 28 September 2009.
  38. Barbosa, O; Tratalos, Jamie A.; Armsworth, Paul R.; Davies Richard G.; Fuller Richard A.; Johnson, Pat and Gaston Kevin J. (2007). "Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK.". Landscape and Urban Planning 83: 187–195. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.04.004.
  39. "About Us - Trees & Woodlands Section". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands/about-the-trees--woodlands-section. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  40. "New village officer will boost rural communities". Peak District National Park Authority. 22 June 2009. Archived from the original on 18 August 2009. http://web.archive.org/20090818215714/www.peakdistrict.gov.uk/index/news/news-display-page.htm?id=19530. abhigman tithi: 7 August 2009.
  41. a aa "North East England: climate". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/ne/. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2010.
  42. a aa "Sheffield 1971–2000 averages". Met Office. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/averages/19712000/sites/sheffield.html. abhigman tithi: 17 July 2010.
  43. Boon, Gaynor. "Whatever the Weather Changing Climate Changing Cultures". Museums Sheffield. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/PDFs/climate_change.pdf. abhigman tithi: 13 August 2010.
  44. "Sheffield's Carbon Footprint". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/environment/climate-change. abhigman tithi: 16 September 2009.
  45. "Sheffield Is My Planet". Sheffield Is My Planet. Sheffield City Council. http://sheffieldismyplanet.co.uk/. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2010.
  46. "Sheffield's Ward Boundaries". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/elections/ward-boundaries. abhigman tithi: 29 December 2005.
  47. "Types of Elections". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/your-city-council/elections/types-of-elections. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  48. a aa United Kingdom Census 2001. "Sheffield (Local Authority)". Office for National Statistics. http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadAreaSearch.do?a=7&c=&i=1001&m=0&enc=1&areaSearchText=sheffield&areaSearchType=13&extendedList=true&searchAreas=Search. abhigman tithi: 11 July 2007.
  49. "Usual Resident population: Census 2001, Key statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 2004-07-23. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20040723231324/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D8271.xls.
  50. "Sheffield". United Kingdom Census 2001. Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/00cg.asp. abhigman tithi: 21 December 2005.
  51. "Mid-2005 Population Estimates; Quinary age groups and sex for Primary Care Organisations (PCOs) for England; estimated resident population (experimental). On boundaries as at 1 October 2006". National Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. http://web.archive.org/20071030212733/www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=9585&Pos=&ColRank=1&Rank=128. abhigman tithi: 2 April 2007.
  52. "South Yorkshire (Met County)". United Kingdom Census 2001. Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/2C-A.asp. abhigman tithi: 11 July 2007.
  53. "Sheffield District: Total Population". A Vision of Britain Through Time. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_TOT_POP&u_id=10076882&c_id=10001043&add=N. abhigman tithi: 16 August 2009.
  54. "Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland". National Statistics Online. Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Product.asp?vlnk=15106. abhigman tithi: 22 July 2009.
  55. a aa i E Baldwin, John; Bottoms, A.E; and Walker, Monica A. (1976). The urban criminal: a study in Sheffield. Social science paperbacks. 159. Taylor & Francis. pa॰ 47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0422748706.
  56. Clyde Binfield, san (1993). The History of the City of Sheffield, 1843–1993: Society. 2. Sheffield Academic Press. pa॰ 5. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1850754314.
  57. Burgoyne, Jacqueline Lesley; and Clark, David (1984). Making a go of it: a study of stepfamilies in Sheffield. Routledge. pa॰ 45. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0710203187.
  58. a aa Hampton, William A. (1970). Democracy and community: a study of politics in Sheffield. Oxford University Press. pa॰ 28. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0192153218.
  59. a aa i Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen and Fraser, Penny (1996). A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England : a study in Manchester and Sheffield. International library of sociology. Routledge. pp. 28,87–88. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415138280.
  60. a aa Peter H. Mann (1965). An approach to urban sociology. International library of sociology and social reconstruction (2nd san॰). Taylor & Francis. pa॰ 91. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0710034539.
  61. "Wealth hotspots 'outside London'". BBC News (BBC). 7 July 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3871857.stm. abhigman tithi: 4 January 2010.
  62. "Sheffield 'hotbed' for investment". BBC News (BBC). 6 November 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/4314628.stm. abhigman tithi: 4 January 2010.
  63. "Metamorphosis of The Moor - Sheffield Telegraph". Sheffield Telegraph. http://www.sheffieldtelegraph.co.uk/commercial/Metamorphosis-of-The-Moor.3637645.jp. abhigman tithi: 22 June 2009.
  64. "Office for National Statistics GVA figures 2006, released 2008" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 January 2009. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20090129033453/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/gva1208.pdf. abhigman tithi: 13 August 2010.
  65. "Office for National Statistics GVA figures 2007, released 2009" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. December 2009. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100104180202/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/gva1209.pdf. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2010.
  66. UK Cities Monitor 2008. Cushman & Wakefield. 2008.
  67. dhaatushodhan mein shefeeld ki antarraashtreeya chhavi ko vahaan ke kai strot pradarshit karte hain aur visheshat: steel aur katalari utpaadan mein. iske kuchh udahaaran hain: the Oxford english dikshanari, jo shefeeld ki pravishti ki shuruaat is prakaar karti hai, "yaurkashaayar ke utpaadanakarta shahar ka naam, jo katalari utpaadan ke liye prasiddh hai"; aur inasaaiklopeediya britainika, jo shefeeld ki pravishti par likhta hai ki 1830 tak shefeeld ne "vishv ke uchch stareeya utpaadan kendra ke roop mein" maanyata praapt kar li thi. apni 1997 ki kitaab mestars too masters: a history of the company of katlars in hailamashaayar ki prastaavana mein David he likhte hain. (Oxford university press, aaiesabeeen 0-19-828997-9) ke anusaar "yeh (shefeeld) 1624 mein katlars company ke nigman ke bahut pehle se hi apne katalari utpaadon ke liye jaana jaata tha aur yeh iske dvaara vishv ki steel rajdhani ke roop mein antarraashtreeya chhavi praapt karne se bhi kaafi pehle ki baat hai."
  68. Mezenin, N. (1972). "Huntsman". Metallurgist (Springer) 16 (7): 510–512. doi:10.1007/BF00731738.
  69. "Harry Brearley 1871–1948". Tilt Hammer. http://www.tilthammer.com/bio/brear.html. abhigman tithi: 30 December 2006.
  70. Llewellyn, D.T.; Hudd, Roger C. (1998). Steels: metallurgy and applications. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 196–290. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0750637579.
  71. Rae, Bob (25 January 2008). "Hi-tech centre celebrates a year of success". The Star (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). http://www.thestar.co.uk/business/Hitech-centre-celebrates-a-year.3710800.jp. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  72. "The AMP". Advanced Manufacturing Park website. Yorkshire Forward. http://www.ampwaverley.com/the-amp. abhigman tithi: 23 July 2009.
  73. "History: 19th century". Sheffield Forgemasters International. http://www.sheffieldforgemasters.com/sfm/history/1800s. abhigman tithi: 26 August 2010.
  74. "Overview - Sheffield Forgemasters International Ltd.". Sheffield Forgemasters International. http://www.sheffieldforgemasters.com/sfm/overview. abhigman tithi: 26 August 2010.
  75. http://www.sheffieldforgemasters.com/sfm/overview
  76. Taylor, Ian R.; Evans, Karen & Fraser, Penny (1996). "Shop 'Til You Drop: The 'Nice Shops' and the Markets in Manchester and Sheffield". A tale of two cities: global change, local feeling and everyday life in the North of England: a study in Manchester and Sheffield. Taylor & Francis. pp. 115–162. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415138299.
  77. "Retail Footprint 2010 reveals Britain's shopping successes and strugglers". CACI Ltd. 21 May 2010. http://www.caci.co.uk/492.aspx. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2010.
  78. Pierce, Morris A. (1996). "Sheffield Heat and Power". District Energy in Great Britain. World Wide Web Virtual Library for District Energy. http://www.energy.rochester.edu/uk/sheffield/. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  79. "Facts & Figures". Veolia Environmental Services website. Veolia Environmental Services. http://www.veoliaenvironmentalservices.co.uk/sheffield/pages/district_facts.asp. abhigman tithi: 6 August 2009.
  80. a aa i "Grid reference SK 35 87". Get A Map. Ordnance Survey. http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/oswebsite/getamap/. abhigman tithi: 20 July 2009.
  81. "national rail train operators" (PDF). Network Rail website. Network Rail. May 2009. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/passenger_services/maps/trainoperators.pdf. abhigman tithi: 15 July 2010.
  82. http://www.eurostar.com/UK/uk/leisure/travel_information/interlining/uk_destinations/sheffield_to_paris_train.jsp Eurostar (2010). Sheffield to Paris
  83. http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/250mph-rail-link-back-on.6563343.jp
  84. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-11465786%7Cbeebeesi news - 'ministar baiks haai-speed rel too Manchester end leeds'. 4th October 2010
  85. http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/250mph-rail-link-back-on.6563343.jp
  86. "Coach Timetables for National Express" (PDF). National Express Coaches. National Express. March 2010. http://www.nationalexpress.com/destinations/timetables.cfm. abhigman tithi: 26 August 2010.
  87. "Coach Timetables for National Express 350 service". Carlberry. Carlberry. March 2010. http://www.carlberry.co.uk/rfnshowr.asp?RN=NX350B. abhigman tithi: 26 August 2010.
  88. url=www.carlberry.co.uk/rfnlistr.asp?O=MEGA Carl Berry (2009). Megabus services in the UK
  89. "History of the Sheffield & South Yorkshire Navigation". waterscape. British Waterways. http://www.waterscape.com/canals-and-rivers/sheffield-and-south-yorkshire-navigation/history. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  90. Edwards, Lewis A. (2007). "Sheffield & South Yorkshire Navigation". Inland Waterways of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Read Books. pp. 269–273. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1406714704.
  91. "Robin Hood Airport Background Information". Robin Hood Airport website. Robin Hood Airport. http://www.robinhoodairport.com/media-centre/background-information.html. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  92. Brown, Deborah (2008). "Project History - The Inner Relief Road". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/?pgid=87823&fs=b. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  93. Townroe, Peter (1995). "The Coming of Supertram: The Impact of Urban Rail Development in Sheffield". In Banister, David. Transport and urban development. Taylor & Francis. pa॰ 163. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0419203907.
  94. "Liverpool, Leeds, Manchester, Sheffield rail map" (PDF). National Rail Enquiries. ATOC Limited. http://www.nationalrail.co.uk/system/galleries/download/print_maps/liverpool.pdf. abhigman tithi: 7 August 2009.
  95. "About Us". Stagecoach Supertram website. Stagecoach Group. http://www.supertram.net/about.html. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  96. http://www.stagecoachbus.com/tickets.aspx?action=&sid=20100826214621-5659&product_id=14&location_id=17&period_filter=any
  97. Bayliss, David (1997). "Bus Privatisation in Great Britain". ICE Proceedings, Transport 123 (2): 81–93. doi:10.1680/itran.1997.29377.
  98. "Call for action to halt fall in bus passengers". The Star. 16 August 2005. http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/Call-for-action-to-halt.1115892.jp. abhigman tithi: 7 October 2008.
  99. "Next stop in bus protest campaign". The Star. 31 January 2006. http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/Next-stop-in-bus-protest.1332988.jp. abhigman tithi: 7 October 2008.
  100. Marsden, Richard (17 January 2007). "Anger over 14 per cent bus fare rise". The Star (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/Anger-over-14-per-cent.1975609.jp. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  101. "FreeBee". Travel South Yorkshire. South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (SYPTE). http://www.travelsouthyorkshire.com/Whats_New/FreeBee.htm. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  102. "Regional approval for Rotherham / Sheffield transport scheme". Rotherham Business News. 7 April 2008. http://www.rothbiz.co.uk/2008/04/news-regional-approval-for-rotherham.html. abhigman tithi: 8 April 2008.
  103. "Welcome to the Trans Pennine Trail - Home Page". Trans Pennine Trail. http://www.transpenninetrail.org.uk/. abhigman tithi: 7 August 2009.
  104. "University Guide: University of Sheffield". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. 10 May 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/may/10/universityguide-uni-sheffield. abhigman tithi: 22 July 2009.
  105. "University Guide: Sheffield Hallam University". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. 10 May 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/may/10/universityguide-sheffield-hallam-uni. abhigman tithi: 22 July 2009.
  106. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheffield_University#Origins
  107. http://www.globaluniversitiesranking.org/images/banners/top-100(eng).pdf
  108. "University of Sheffield". The Times (London). 23 September 2007. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/education/sunday_times_university_guide/article2496304.ece.
  109. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sheffield_Hallam_University#History
  110. http://www.hesa.ac.uk/index.php/component/option,com_datatables/Itemid,121/task,show_category/catdex,3/
  111. "Castle College Milestone". The Sheffield College. 11 December 2008. http://www.sheffcol.ac.uk/index.cfm?parentid=e69ba9a6-2eff-427f-af5a-2af03712076a. abhigman tithi: 21 June 2009.
  112. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/education/our-schools/school-information#typesofschools
  113. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/education/our-schools/school-information#typesofschools
  114. "Independent Private Schools in Sheffield". Independent Schools Council (ISC) website. Independent Schools Council. http://www.isc.co.uk/isc_YorkshireAreaSouth_Sheffield.htm. abhigman tithi: 22 July 2009.
  115. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/education/our-schools/school-information#typesofschools Sheffield City Council (2010). School Information
  116. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/education/our-schools/school-information#typesofschools Sheffield City Council (2010). School Information
  117. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/education/our-schools/school-information#typesofschools Sheffield City Council (2010). School Information
  118. "Stars mark team's 150th birthday". BBC News (BBC). 24 November 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/7060059.stm. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  119. Harvey, Adrian (2005). "Britain's first football culture—aSheffield 1857–67". Football: the first hundred years: the untold story. Routledge. pp. 92–125. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415350190.
  120. Grose, Tim (2003). "Sheffield: Don Valley Stadium". UK Running Track Directory. Tim Grose. http://www.runtrackdir.com/details.asp?track=sheffield&country=uk. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  121. Fielder, Nancy (27 December 2008). "Party time as EIS celebrates five years". The Star (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/Party-time-as-EIS-celebrates.4823062.jp. abhigman tithi: 22 July 2009.
  122. "World Snooker to stay at Crucible". BBC Sport (BBC). 28 April 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/snooker/8022313.stm. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  123. "Tournament Archive". World Bowls Tour website. World Bowls Tour. http://www.worldbowlstour.com/fshow.php?uid=WBOWLS&men=PAGE89. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  124. "Candidate host cities revealed". england2018bid.com,. http://www.england2018bid.com/news/158/candidate-host-cities-revealed.aspx. abhigman tithi: 17 December 2009.
  125. 10304~1906839,00.html "Hillsborough success in World cup bid". SWFC.co.uk. http://www.swfc.co.uk/page/News/0, 10304~1906839,00.html. abhigman tithi: 17 December 2009.
  126. "Londonderry named the UK City of Culture". BBC News. 15 July 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-10653989. abhigman tithi: 7 September 2010.
  127. http://www.thestar.co.uk/news/City-legends-honoured-by-walk.1400516.jp
  128. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-south-yorkshire-11409368
  129. http://www.heeleyfarm.org.uk/
  130. http://www.gravesparksheffield.info/
  131. "Listed Buildings". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/planning-and-city-development/urban-design--conservation/listed-buildings. abhigman tithi: 16 July 2010.
  132. "Images of England". English Heritage. http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk. abhigman tithi: 10 August 2009.
  133. Harman, R; Minnis, J (2004). Pevsner City Guides: Sheffield. Yale University Press. pa॰ 3. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-300-10585-1.
  134. Campbell, Duncan (10 November 2007). "Sheffield honoured". The Guardian (London: Guardian News and Media Limited). http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/nov/10/architecture.arts. abhigman tithi: 21 June 2009.
  135. Reynolds, Simon (1999). Generation ecstasy: into the world of techno and rave culture. Routledge. pa॰ 116. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0415923735.
  136. Collins, Hattie (29 November 2007). "Deep down and dirty". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2007/nov/29/urban. abhigman tithi: 15 July 2010.
  137. "Nightclub collapses in city fire". BBC News (BBC). 18 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/6765331.stm. abhigman tithi: 21 July 2009.
  138. Huhn, Mary (13 May 2007). "Pub Pals: Arctic Monkeys Take Their Sheffield Local Wherever They Go". New York Post (NYP Holdings, Inc.). Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. https://archive.is/ny3yF. abhigman tithi: 15 July 2010.
  139. "Entertainment Sheffield steels itself for pop centre". BBC News (BBC). 26 fravari 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/286909.stm. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2009.
  140. "Doomed pop centre opens as union". BBC News (BBC). 13 fravari 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/south_yorkshire/4261863.stm. abhigman tithi: 18 July 2009.
  141. Dunn, David (1 May 2008). "10 top music venues in Sheffield". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2008/may/01/uk.bars. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  142. "Sheffield City Hall – Music". Sheffield City Hall. http://www.sheffieldcityhall.co.uk/events/list/music/. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  143. "Corporation – Info". Corporation. http://www.corporation.org.uk/info.php. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  144. "Venues". Sheffield Theatres. http://www.sheffieldtheatres.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseaction=content.view&SectionID=2&CategoryID=10&ContentID=2. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  145. "O2 Academy Sheffield – Venue Info". O2 Academy Sheffield. http://www.o2academysheffield.co.uk/venue.php. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  146. "The Octagon Centre". The University of Sheffield Corporate Information and Computing Services. The University of Sheffield. http://www.shef.ac.uk/cics/octagon. abhigman tithi: 13 August 2009.
  147. "Grin Up North – The Sheffield Comedy Festival". Grin Up North. Sheffield Comedy Festival. http://www.sheffieldcomedyfestival.com/. abhigman tithi: 8 March 2010.
  148. Dunn, David (27 July 2009). "Sheffield's 'Urban Glastonbury' is on the right lines". The Star. http://www.thestar.co.uk/video/Sheffield39s-39Urban-Glastonbury39-is-on.5495682.jp. abhigman tithi: 12 August 2010.
  149. "Tramlines Festival". Tramlines. http://www.tramlines.org.uk/. abhigman tithi: 7 July 2010.
  150. "City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra". City of Sheffield Youth Orchestra. http://www.csyo.org.uk/navigation/index.html. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  151. "Home Page of the Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus". Sheffield Philharmonic Chorus. http://www.sheffieldphil.org/. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  152. "The Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra Welcomes You". Sheffield Philharmonic Orchestra. http://www.sheffieldphilharmonic.org.uk/. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  153. "Sheffield Symphony Orchestra". Sheffield Symphony Orchestra. http://www.sheffieldsymphony.org.uk/. abhigman tithi: 11 August 2009.
  154. http://www.sheffieldtheatres.co.uk/creativedevelopmentprogramme/corporate_learning.asp
  155. http://www.montgomerytheatre.org.uk/ Sheffield Christian Education Council (2010). Montgomery Theatre
  156. http://www.museums-sheffield.org.uk/coresite/html/
  157. http://www.simt.co.uk/
  158. http://www.simt.co.uk/kelham-island-museum/about
  159. http://www.simt.co.uk/abbeydale-industrial-hamlet/about
  160. http://www.simt.co.uk/shepherd-wheel-workshop/what-to-see
  161. "Trees & Woodlands in Sheffield". Sheffield City Council. SSC. January 2010. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands. abhigman tithi: 4 January 2010.
  162. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/parks/a-z-city-district--local--parks Sheffield City Council (2010). Sheffield Parks
  163. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/gardens Sheffield City Council (2010). Gardens
  164. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/gardens/the-peace-gardens/peace-gardens-awards Sheffield City Council (2010). Peace Gardens awards
  165. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/parks/a-z-city-district--local--parks/hillsborough-park/hillsborough-walled-garden Sheffield City Council (2010). Hillsborough Walled Garden
  166. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/gardens/the-winter-garden Sheffield City Council (2010). Winter Garden
  167. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands/about-the-trees--woodlands-section Sheffield City Council (2010). Local Nature Reserves
  168. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/trees--woodlands/about-the-trees--woodlands-section Sheffield City Council (2010). Parks and Woodland
  169. http://web.archive.org/20110720112805/www.peakdistrict.gov.uk/index/index/learning-about/factsheets/factsheet01-peak-district-national-park.htm
  170. http://www.chatsworth.org/media-centre/current-news
  171. a aa http://www.sheffieldtelegraph.co.uk/news/local/medieval_deer_park_set_for_greener_future_1_1607808
  172. "Valley Centertainment Leisure". Leisure Fund Limited Partnership. http://www.valley-leisure.co.uk/. abhigman tithi: 16 July 2010.
  173. http://www.britinfo.net/T/1002387.htm
  174. http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2002/feb/28/2002inreview.features The Guardian (2002). Guardian readers' favourite independent cinemas
  175. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/parks-woodlands--countryside/parks/a-z-city-district--local--parks/cholera-monument-grounds--clay-wood/norfolk-heritage-trail/history-of-the-old-queens-head Sheffield City Council (2010). History of the Old Queen's Head
  176. http://www.leopoldsquare.com/sheffield-restaurants#aagrah Leopold Square (2010). Aagrah Indian restaurant in Sheffield
  177. "British Library Newspaper Catalogue". British Library website. The British Library Board. http://catalogue.bl.uk:80/F/2GIKL9K9C3MVTXQ3N29DDTAMVRTQEUEPEREHL3TM63S5JBBXNX-17584?func=file&file_name=find-b&local_base=NPL. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  178. "Locations: Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, UK". The Internet Movie Database. IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/List?locations=Sheffield,+South+Yorkshire,+England,+UK&&tv=on. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  179. Dunn, David (7 November 2008). "Every Doc has its day". The Star (Johnston Press Digital Publishing). http://www.thestar.co.uk/Register.aspx?ReturnURL=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.thestar.co.uk%2Ftheatre%2FEvery-Doc-has-its-day.4672330.jp. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  180. "Thousands cheer Bollywood stars". BBC News (BBC). 10 June 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/6737805.stm. abhigman tithi: 19 July 2009.
  181. http://www.southyorkshire.police.uk/ South Yorkshire Police (2010). South Yorkshire Police homepage
  182. http://www.aeroflight.co.uk/waf/uk/police/ukaf-police-home.htm#sthyork Aero Flight (2006). Public Service Aviation
  183. http://www.sheffieldchildrens.nhs.uk/about/index.php
  184. [http://www.sifoundation.com/index.htm%7Csitran - echaem the queen dvaara udaghaatan. 18 November 2010
  185. http://www.yas.nhs.uk/AboutUs/aboutus.html Yorkshire Amubulance Service (2010). About us
  186. http://www.syfire.gov.uk/389.asp
  187. "International Links". Sheffield City Council. http://www.sheffield.gov.uk/out--about/international-links. abhigman tithi: 6 May 2010.

baahari links

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
shefeeld ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.


Spoken Wikipedia
This is an audio file which was created from an article revision dated 2007-04-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
ye ek aavaaj-lekh hai, jo is lekh ka 2007-04-01 dinaank ko bana aavaaj pratiroop hai . ise aap sun sakte hain .

saaaincha:Sheffield saaaincha:County saaaincha:Yorkshire and the Humber

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 53°a23′a01″aN 1°a28′a01″aW / 53.38361°aN 1.46694°aW / 53.38361; -1.46694

saaaincha:Good article