shauraseni

shauraseni naamak praakrut madhyakaal mein uttari Bhaarat ki ek pramukh bhaasha thi. yeh naatakon mein prayukt hoti thi (vastut: sanskrut naatakon mein, vishisht prasangon mein). baad mein isse hindi-bhaasha-samooh va punjabi viksit hue. diganbar jain parampara ke sabhi jainaachaaryon ne apne mahaakaavya shauraseni mein hi likhe jo unke aadrut mahaakaavya hain.

shauraseni us praakrut bhaasha ka naam hai jo praacheen kaal mein Madhya Pradesh mein prachalit thi aur jiska kendra shoorasen arthaat Mathura aur uske aaspaas ka pradesh tha. saamaanyat: un samast lokabhaashaaon ka naam praakrut tha jo madhyakaal (E. poo. 600 se E. san 1000 tak) mein samast uttar Bhaarat mein prachalit huin. moolat: pradeshabhed se hi varnochchaaran, vyaakaran tatha shaili ki drushti se praakrut ke anek bhed the, jinmein se pradhaan the - poorv desh ki maagadhi evam ardh maagadhi praakrut, pashchimottar pradesh ki paishaachi praakrut tatha Madhya Pradesh ki shauraseni praakrut. maurya samraat ashok se lekar alabhya praacheenatam lekhon tatha saahitya mein inheen praakruton aur visheshat: shauraseni ka hi prayog paaya jaata hai. bharat naatyashaastr mein vidhaan hai ki naatak mein shauraseni praakrut bhaasha ka prayog kiya jaae athva prayoktaaon ke ichhaanusaar anya deshabhaashaaon ka bhi (shaurasenan samaashratya bhaasha kaarya tu naatake, athva chhandat: kaarya deshabhaashaaprayoktrubhi - naatyashaastr 18,34). praacheenatam naatak ashvaghoshakrut hain (pratham shataabdi E.) unke jo khandaavashesh upalabdh hue hain unamein mukhyat: shauraseni tatha kuchh anshon mein maagadhi aur ardhamaagadhi ka prayog paaya jaata hai.

bhaas ke naatakon mein bhi mukhyat: shauraseni ka hi prayog paaya jaata hai. pashchaatkaaleen naatakon ki pravrutti gadya mein shauraseni aur padya mein mahaaraashtri ki or pai jaati hai. aadhunik vidvaanon ka mat hai ki shauraseni praakrut se hi kaalaantar mein bhaashaavikaas ke kramaanusaar un visheshataaon ki utpatti hui jo mahaaraashtri praakrut ke lakshan maane jaate hain. vararuchi, hemachandr aadi vaiyaakaranon ne apne-apne praakrut vyaakaranon mein pehle vistaar se praakrut saamaanya ke lakshan batalaae hain aur tatpashchaat shauraseni aadi prakruton ke vishesh lakshan nirdisht kiye hain. inmein shauraseni praakrut ke mukhya lakshan do svaron ke beech mein aanevaale t ke sthaan par d tatha th ke sthaan par dh. jaise ateet > adeed, kathan > kadhan ; isi prakaar hi kriyaapadon mein bhavati > bhodi, hodi ; bhootva > bhodoon, hodoon. bhaashaavijnyaaan ke anusaar isa ki doosari shati ke lagbhag shabdon ke madhya mein aanevaale t tatha d ev k g aadi varnon ka bhi lop hone laga aur yahi mahaaraashtri praakrut ki visheshata maani gayi. praakrut ka upalabhya saahitya rachana ki drushti se is kaal se paravarti hi hai. ataev usamein shauraseni ka ukt shuddh roop na milkar mahaaraashtri mishrit roop praapt hota hai aur isi kaaran pishl aadi vidvaanon ne use ukt pravruttiyon ki bahulataanusaar jain shauraseni ya jain mahaaraashtri naam diya hai.

jain shauraseni saahitya dingabar jain parampara ka paaya jaata hai. pramukh rachanaaeain ye hain - sabse praacheen pushpadant ev bhootavalikrut shatkhandaagam tatha gunadharakrut kashaaya praabhrut naamak sootragranth hain (samay lagbhag dviteeya shati E.). veerasen tatha jinsenakrut inki vishaal teekaaeain bhi shauraseni praakrut mein likhi gayi hai (9veen shati E.). ye sab rachanaaeain gadyaatmak hain. padya mein sabse praacheen rachanaaeain kundakundaachaaryakrut hain (anumaanat: teesari shati E.). unke baarah terah granth prakaash mein aa chuke hain, jinke naam hain - samayasaar, pravachanasaar, panchaastikaaya, niymasaar, rayanasaar, baaras anuvekkha tatha darshan, bodh paahudaadi asht paahud. in granthon mein mukhyataya jain darshan, adhyaatm evam aachaar ka pratipaadan kiya gaya hai. muni aachaar sambandhi mukhya rachanaaeain hain- shivaarya krut bhagavati aaraadhana aur vattaker krut moolaachaar. anupreksha arthaat anitya, asharan aadi baarah bhaavanaaeain bhaavashuddhi ke liye jain muniyon ke vishesh chintan aur abhyaas ke vishay hain. in bhaavanaaon ka sankshep mein pratipaadan to kundakundaachaarya ne apni 'baaras anuvekkha' naamak rachana mein kiya hai, unheen ka vistaar se bhale prakaar varnan kaarttikeyaanupreksha mein paaya jaata hai, jiske karta ka naam svaami kaarttikeya hai. (lagbhag chauthi paaainchaveen shati E.).

(1) yati vrushabhaachaaryakrut tiloyapannatti (9veen shati E. se poorv) mein jain maanyataanusaar trailaakya ka vistaar se varnan kiya gaya hai, tatha padmanandeekrut janboodeevapannatti mein janboodveep ka.

(2) syaadvaad aur naya jain nyaayashaastr ka praan hai. iska pratipaadan shauraseni praakrut mein devasenakrut laghu aur bruhat nayachakr naamak rachanaaon mein paaya jaata hai (10veen shati E.).

jain karm siddhaant ka pratipaadan karanevaala shauraseni praakrut granth hai- nemichandrasiddhaant chakravarti krut gommatasaar, jiski rachana ganganaresh maarasinh ke raajyakaal mein unke unheen mahaamantri chaamundaraaya ki prerana se hui thi, jinhonne Mysore pradesh ke shravanabelagola nagar mein us suprasiddh vishaal baahubali ki moorti ka udghaatan karaaya tha (11veen shati E.). uparyukt samast rachanaaeain praakrut-gaatha-nibddh hain.

jain saahitya ke atirkt shauraseni praakrut ka prayog raajashekharakrut karpooramanjari, radradaasakrut chandralekha, ghanashyaamakrut aanandasundari naamak sattakon mein bhi paaya jaata hai. yadyapi karpooramanjari ke pratham vidvaan sampaadak da. stenakono ne darjanon praacheen pratiyon ke pramaan ke viruddh apni ek dhaarana ke bal par gadya mein shauraseni aur padya mein mahaaraashtri praakrut ki pravruttiyaaain laane ka prayaas kiya, tathaapi da. Manmohan ghosh ne is pravrutti ko anuchit batalaakar samast sattak mein hi shauraseni ki pravrutti pramaanit ki hai. shesh sattakon mein bhi gadya aur padya mein praaya: ek si hi praakrut bhaasha drushtigochar hoti hai, jo bahulata se shauraseni ke lakshanon ko liye hue hai.

sandarbh granth

  • pishl ke granth ka hindi anuvaad, praakrut bhaashaaon ka vyaakaran;
  • dineshachandr sarkaar : graamar ov di praakrut laingvej;
  • boolanar - introduction tu praakrut;
  • haim praakrut vyaakaran;
  • da. a. na. upaadhye : introduction tu pravachanasaar.

yeh bhi dekhein

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