shataranj

shataranj
ChessSet.jpg
ek stauntan shataranj set ke bhaag (baaen se daaen): ek safed raaja, ek kaala haathi, ek kaale rang ka vajeer ya raani, ek safed pyaada ya sainik, ek kaala ghoda aur ek safed oont.
sarvochch niyantran nikaaya world ches federation
sabse pehle khela gaya chhatthi shataabdi – vartamaan
visheshataaeain
dal ke sadasya donon or 2 khilaadi
aakasmik khel aam taur par 10 se 60 minute, tournament khel das minute se chhah ghante ya adhik samay ke liye.
sthal board game
saar rananeeti khel
olanpik 1900

shataranj (chais) do khilaadiyon ke beech khela jaane wala ek bauddhik evam manoranjak khel hai. kisi agyaat buddhi-shiromani ne paaainchaveen-chhathi sadi mein yeh khel sansaar ke buddhijeeviyon ko bheint mein diya. samjha jaata hai ki yeh khel moolat: Bhaarat ka aavishkaar hai, jiska praacheen naam tha- 'chaturang'; jo Bhaarat se arab hote hue Europe gaya aur fir 15/16veen sadi mein to poore sansaar mein lokapriya aur prasiddh ho gaya. is khel ki har chaal ko likh sakane se poora khel kaise khela gaya iska vishleshan anya bhi kar sakte hain.

shataranj ek chaupaat (board) ke oopar do vyaktiyon ke liye bana khel hai. chaupaat ke upar kul 64 khaane ya varg hote hai, jismein 32 chauras kaale ya anya rang or 32 chauras safed ya anya rang ke hote hai. khelne vaale donon khilaadi bhi saamaanyat: kaala aur safed kahalaate hain. pratyek khilaadi ke paas ek raaja, vajeer, do ooaint, do ghode, do haathi aur aath sainik hote hai. beech mein raaja va vajeer rahata hai. baajoo mein ooaint, uske baajoo mein ghode or antim kataar mein do do haathi rahate hai. unki agali rekha mein aath paidal ya sainik rahate hain.

chaupaat rakhate samay yeh dhyaan diya jaata hai ki dono khilaadiyon ke daayein taraf ka khaana safed hona chaahiye tatha vajeer ke sthaan par kaala vajeer kaale chauras mein va safed vajeer safed chauras mein hona chaahiye. khel ki shuruaat hamesha safed khilaadi se ki jaati hai.[1]

anukram

khel ki shuruaat

shataranj sabse puraane va lokapriya pat (board) mein se ek hai, jo do pratidvandeeyon dvaara ek chaukor pat (board) par khela jaata hai, jispar vishesh roop se bane do alag-alag rangon ke saamanyaat: safed va kaale mohare hote hain. safed pehle chalta hai, jiske baad khelaadi nirdhaarit niyamon ke anusaar ek ke baad ek chaalein chalte hain. iske baad khilaadi vipakshi ke pramukh moharein, raaja ko shaah-maat (ek aisi avastha, jismein paraajaya se bachana asambhav ho) dene ka prayaas karaate hain. shataranj 64 khaanon ke pat ya shataranji par khela jaata hai, jo raink (darja) kahalaane waali aath anulanb panktiyon va file (kataar) kahalaane waali aath aadi panktiyon mein vyavasthit hota hai. ye khaane do rangon, ek halka, jaise safed, matamaila, peela aur doosra gahra, jaise kaala, ya hara se ek ke baad doosare ki sthiti mein bane hote hain. patt do pratispardhiyon ke beech is prakaar rakha jaata hai ki pratyek khilaadi ki or daahine haath ke kone par halke rang wala khaana ho. safed hamesha pehle chalta hai. is praarambhik kadam ke baad, khilaadi baari baari se ek baar mein keval ek chaal chalte hain (sivaaya jab "kesling" mein do tukade chale jaate hain). chaal chal kar ya to ek khaali varg mein jaate hain ya ek virodhi ke mohare vaale sthaan par kabja karte hain aur use khel se hata dete hain. khilaadi koi bhi aisi chaal naheen chal sakte jisse unka raaja hamle mein aa jaaye. yadi khilaadi ke paas koi vaidh chaal naheen bachi hai, to khel khatm ho gaya hai; yeh ya to ek maat hai - yadi raaja hamle mein hai - ya ek gatirodh ya shah - yadi raaja hamle mein naheen hai. har shataranj ka tukada badhne ki apni shaili hai.[2]

mohra raaja vajeer/raani kishti feel ghoda pyaada
sankhya 1 1 2 2 2 8
simbal (chinh) Chess klt45.svg
Chess kdt45.svg
Chess qlt45.svg
Chess qdt45.svg
Chess rlt45.svg
Chess rdt45.svg
Chess blt45.svg
Chess bdt45.svg
Chess nlt45.svg
Chess ndt45.svg
Chess plt45.svg
Chess pdt45.svg


vargon ki pehchaan

Diagram showing how squares are named - columns are a through h, rows are 1 through 8
beejaganiteeya ankanapaddhati mein vargon/vargon ka naamakaran

bisaat ka pratyek varg ek akshar aur ek sankhya ke ek vishisht yugm dvaara pahachaana jaata hai. khadi panktiyon|panktiyon (faails) ko safed ke baaen (arthaat vajeer/raani wala hissa) se safed ke daaen A (a) se lekar H (h) tak ke akshar se soochit kiya jaata hai. isi prakaar kshaitij panktiyon (rainks) ko bisaat ke niktatam safed hisse se shuroo kar 1 se lekar 8 ki sankhya se niroopit karte hain. iske baad bisaat ka pratyek varg apne file akshar tatha raink sankhya dvaara vishisht roop se pahachaana jaata hai. safed baadshah, udaaharan ke liye, khel ki shuruaat mein i1 (e1) varg mein rahega. bee8 (b8) varg mein sthit kaala ghoda pehli chaal mein e6 (a6) athva see6 (c6) par pahunchega.

pyaada ya sainik

khel ke shuroo mein mohare

khel ki shuruaat safed khilaadi se ki jaati hai. saamaanyat: vah vajeer ya raaja ke aage rakhe gaya paidal ya sainik ko do chauras aage chalta hai. pyaada (sainik) turant apne saamane ke khaali varg par aage chal sakta hai ya apna pehla kadam yeh do varg chal sakta hai yadi donon varg khaali hain. yadi pratidvandvi ka tukada vikrn ki tarah iske saamane ek aasann pankti par hai to pyaada us tukade par kabja kar sakta hai. pyaada do vishesh chaal, "N paasaant" aur "padonnati-chaal " bhi chal sakta hai. hindi mein ek puraani kahaavat paidal ki isi vishesh chaal par bani hai- " pyaada se farji bhayo, tedho-tedho jaaya !"[3]

raaja

raaja kisi bhi disha mein ek khaane mein ja sakta hai, raaja ek vishesh chaal bhi chal sakta hai jo "kesling" kahi jaati hai aur ismein haathi bhi shaamil hai. agar raaja ko chalne baadhya kiya aur kisi bhi taraf chal naheen sakta to maan leejiye ki khel samaapt ho gaya. naheen chal sakane vaale raaja ko khilaadi haath mein lekar bolata hai- 'maat' ya 'main haar sveekaar karta hooain'.

vajeer ya raani

vajeer (raani) haathi aur oont ki shakti ko jodta hai aur oopar-neeche, daayein-baaeain tatha tedha kitne bhi varg ja sakta hai, lekin yeh anya tukade par chhalaang naheen laga sakta hai. maan leejiye paidal sainik ka ek ank hai to vajeer ka 9 ank hai.

oont

kaisaling ke udaaharan

keval apne rang vaale chauras mein chal sakta hai. yaane kaala ooaint kaale chauras mein or safed oont safed chauras mein. sainik ke hisaab se iska teen ank hai. oont kisi bhi disha mein tedha kitne bhi varg chal sakta hai, lekin anya tukade par chhalaang naheen sakta hai.

ghoda

ghoda "L" prakaar ki chaal ya dedh ghar chalta hai jiska aakaar do varg lamba hai aur ek varg chauda hota hai. ghoda hi ek tukada hai jo doosare tukado par chhalaang laga sakta hai. sainik ke hisaab se iska teen ank hai.

haathi

haathi kisi bhi pankti mein daayein baaeain ya oopar neeche kitne bhi varg seedha chal sakta hai, lekin anya tukade par chhalaang naheen laga sakta. raaja ke saath, haathi bhi raaja ke "kesling" ; ke dauraan shaamil hai. iska sainik ke hisaab se paanch ank hai.

ant kaise hota hai?

apni baari aate par agar khilaadi ke paas chaal ke liye koi chaara naheen hai to vah apni 'maat' ya haar sveekaar kar leta hai.

kaisaling

kaisaling ke antargat baadshah ko kishti ki or do varg badhaakar aur kishti ko baadshah ke doosari or uske theek bagal mein rakhakar kiya jaata hai.[4] kaisaling keval tabhi kiya ja sakta hai jab nimnalikhit shartein poori hon:

  1. baadshah tatha kaisaling mein shaamil kishti ki yeh pehli chaal honi chaahiye;
  2. baadshah tatha kishti ke beech koi mohra naheen hona chaahiye;
  3. baadshah ko is dauraan koi shah naheen pada hona chaahiye na hi ve varg dushman mohare ke hamle ki jad mein hone chaahiye, jinse hokar kaisaling ke dauraan baadshah ko gujarana hai athva jis varg mein antat: use pahunchana hai (yadyapi kishti ke liye aisi baadhyata naheen hai);
  4. baadshah aur kishti ko ek hi kshaitij pankti (raink) mein hona chaahiye(Schiller 2003:19).[5]

anpaisaan

Three images showing en passant. First a white pawn moves from the a2 square to a4; second the black pawn moves from b4 to a3; third the white pan on a4 is removed

yadi khilaadi A (A) ka pyaada do varg aage badhta hai aur khilaadi bi (B) ka pyaada sambandhit khadi pankti mein 5veen kshaitij pankti mein hai to bi (B) ka pyaada A (A) ke pyaade ko, uske keval ek varg chalne par kaat sakta hai. kaatne ki yeh kriya keval iske theek baad waali chaal mein ki ja sakti hai. is udaaharan mein yadi safed pyaada e2 (a2) se e4 (a4) tak aata hai, to bee4 (b4) par sthit kaala pyaada ise anpaisaan vidhi se kaat kar e3 (a3) par pahunchega.

samay ki seema

mohare ki chaal ka udaaharan: promotion (baaen) aur raaste mein (daaen)

aakasmik khel aam taur par 10 se 60 minute, tournament khel das minute se chhah ghante ya adhik samay ke liye.

Bhaarat mein shataranj

yeh bhi dekhein, chaturang

shataranj chhathi shataabdi ke aaspaas Bhaarat se madhya-poorv va Europe mein faila, jahaan yeh sheegra hi lokapriya ho gaya. aisa koi vishvasaneeya saakshya naheen hai ki shataranj chhatthi shataabdi ke poorv aadhunuk khel ke samaan kisi roop mein vidyamaan tha. roos, cheen, Bhaarat, madhya Asia, Pakistan aur sthaanon par paaye gaye mohare, jo isse puraane samay ke bataae gaye hain, ab pehle ke kuchh milte-julate patt khelon ke maane jaate hain, jo bahudha paason aur kabhi-kabhi 100 ya adhik chaukhaanon vaale patt ka prayog karaate the.

shataranj un praarambhik khelon mein se ek hai, jo chaar khilaadiyon vaale chaturang naamak yuddh khel ke roop mein viksit hua aur yeh bhaarateeya mahaakaavya mahaabhaarat mein ullikhit ek yuddh vyooh rachana ka sanskrut naam hai. chaturang saataveen shataabdi ke lagbhag pashchimottar Bhaarat mein fal-fool raha tha. ise aadhunik shataranj ka praacheenatam poorvagaami maana jaata hai, kyonki ismein baad ke shataranj ke sabhi roopon mein paayi jaane waali do pramukh visheshataaeain thi, vibhinn moharon ki shakti ka alag-alag hona aur jeet ka ek mohare, yaani aadhunik shataranj ke raaja par nirbhar hona.

rudrat virchit kaavyaalankaar mein ek shlok aaya hai jise shataranj ke itihaasakaar Bhaarat mein shataranj ke khel ka sabse puraana ullekh tatha 'ghod ki chaal' (knight's tour) ka sabse puraana udaaharan maanate hain-

sena leeleeleena naali leenaana naanaaleeleeli .
naaleenaaleele naaleena leeleeli naanaanaanaali . 15 .

chaturang ka vikaas kaise hua, yeh spasht naheen hai. kuchh itihaasakaar kehte hain ki chaturang, jo shaayad 64 chaukhaanon ke patt par khola jaata tha, kramash: shataranj (athva chatarang) mein parivrtit ho gaya, jo uttari Bhaarat,Pakistan, Afghanistan aur madhya Asia ke dakshin bhaagon mein 600 E ke pashchaat lokapriya do khilaadiyon wala khel tha.

ek samay mein uchch vargon dvaara sveekaarya ek bauddhik manoranjan shataranj ke prati ruchi mein 20 veen shataabdi mein bahut bruddhi huyi. vishv bhar mein is khel ka niyantran federation intaraneshanal di eches (fide) dvaara kiya jaata hai. sabhi pratiyogitaaen feede ke kshetraadhikaar mein hai aur khilaadiyon ko sangathan dvaara nirdhaarit niyamon ke anusaar kram diya jaata hai, yeh ek khaas star ki utkrushtata praapt karne vaale khilaadiyon ko "graindamaastar" ki upaadhi deta hai. Bhaarat mein is khel ka niyantran akhil bhaarateeya shataranj mahaasangh dvaara kiya jaata hai, jo 1951 mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha.[6]

bhaarateeya vishv khilaadi

bhootapoorv vishv shataranj champion vishvanaathan aanand (baaen) apne poorvavarti vlaadimeer kraimanikke khilaaf shataranj khelte huye

Bhaarat ke pehle pramukh khilaadi meer sultaan Khan ne is khel ke antaraashtreeya svaroop ko vayask hone ke baad hi seekha, 1928 mein 9 mein se 8.5 ank banaakar unhone akhil bhaarateeya pratiyogita jeeti. agale paaainch varshon mein sultaan Khan ne teen baar british pratiyogita jeeti aur antaraashtreeya shataranj ke shikhar ke najadeek pahunche. unhone hestings pratiyogita mein kyooba ke poorv vishv vijeta jos raaool kaapaablainka ko haraaya aur bhavishya ke vijeta maiks yoob aur us samay ke kai anya shaktishaali graindamaastaron par bhi vijay paayi. apne bolabaale ki avadhi mein unhein vishv ke 10 sarvashreshth khilaadiyon mein se ek maana jaata tha. sultaan british dal ke liye 1930 (hainbarg), 1931 (praag) aur 1933 (fokaston) olanpiyaad mein bhi khele.

mainuel Aaron ne 1961 mein Asiaee spaaraddha jeeti, jisse unhein antarrshtruya master ka darja mila aur ve Bhaarat ke pratham aadhikaarik shataranj khitaabadhaari va is khel ke pehle arjun puraskaar vijeta bane. 1979 mein bi. ravikumaar Tehran mein Asiaee junior spaaraddha jeetkar Bhaarat ke doosare antarrshtruya master bane. England mein 1982 ki laayads bank shataranj spardha mein pravesh karne vaale 17 varsheeya divyeindu baruaa ne vishv ke dviteeya kram ke khilaadi Victor korchnoi par sanasaneekhej jeet haasil ki.

vishvanaathan aanand ke vishv ke sarvochch khilaadiyon mein se ek ke roop mein udaya hone ke baad Bhaarat ne antarraashtreeya star par kaafi upalabdhiyaan haasil ki. 1987 mein vishv junior spardha jeetkar vah shataranj ke pehle bhaarateeya vishv vijeta bane. iske baad unhone vishv ke adhikaansh pramukh khitaab jeete, kintu vishv vijeta ka khitaab haath naheen aa paaya. 1987 mein aanand Bhaarat ke pehle grand master bane. aanand ko 1999 mein feede anukram mein vishv vijeta Gary kaaspaarov ke baad doosra kram diya gaya tha. vishvanaathan aanand paanch baar (2000, 2007, 2008, 2010 aur 2012 mein) vishv champion rahe hain.[7][8]

iske pashchaat Bhaarat mein aur bhi graindamaastar huye hain, 1991 mein divyeindu baruaa aur 1997 mein praveen thipse, anya bhaarateeya vishv vijetaaon mein pi. harikrushn va mahila khilaadi koneru hampi aur aarti ramaasvaami hain.

graindamaastar vishvanaathan aanand ko 1998 aur 1999 mein pratishthit oscar puraskaar ke liye bhi naamaankit kiya gaya tha. aanand ko 1985 mein praapt arjun puraskaar ke alaava, 1988 mein padm shri va 1996 mein Rajiv Gandhi khel ratn puraskaar mila. subbaaramaan vijyalakshmi va Krishnan shashikirn ko bhi feede anukram mein sthaan mila hai.[9]

vishv ke kuchh pramukh khilaadi

aadhunik computer ke program

  • (1) chesamaastar
  • (2) fritj

antararaashtreeya sansthaaeain

samaachaar

sandarbh

  1. "50 moves rules". FICGS. http://www.ficgs.com/membership.html#chess. abhigman tithi: 2013-5-08.
  2. "Laws of Chess". FIDE. http://www.fide.com/component/handbook/?id=124&view=article. abhigman tithi: 2013-05-08.
  3. Bodlaender, Hans. "The rules of chess". Chess Variants. http://www.chessvariants.org/d.chess/chess.html. abhigman tithi: 2013-05-08.
  4. baadshah aur kishti ko ek saath chalne ki anumati naheen hoti kyonki “apratyek chaal keval ek hi haath se chala jaana chaahiye” (efaaaideei (FIDE) ke shataranj niyam ki dhaara 4.1).
  5. bina is atirikt pratibandh ke, khadi pankti (file) e ke pyaade ko kishti mein tarakki dena sambhav tha aur tab bisaat par kaheen bhi udagr roop se kaisaling kiya ja sakta tha (yadi anya sharte poori hoteen to). 1972 mein ise nirast karne ke liye efaaaideei (FIDE) ke niyamon mein sanshodhan se poorv ek shataranj paheli (chess puzzle) ke dauraan kaisaling ka yeh tareeka maiks paim (Max Pam) dvaara khoja gaya tha aur tim kraib (Tim Krabbé) dvaara prayog mein laaya gaya tha. dekhiye kraib ki ches kyoorositij (Chess Curiosities), saath hi online chitr bhi dekhiye.
  6. [Bhaarat jnyaaanakosh, khand: 5, prakaashak: paapayular prakaashan, Mumbai, prushth sankhya : 259]
  7. "India's Anand seizes chess title". USA Today. 2007-09-30. http://www.usatoday.com/sports/2007-09-30-anand_N.htm. abhigman tithi: 2013-5-9.
  8. "maignas Carlson bane shataranj ke world champion". navabhaarat taaims. 22 November 2013. http://hindi.economictimes.indiatimes.com/sports/other-sports/Magnus-Carlsen-become-chess-world-champion/articleshow/26219360.cms. abhigman tithi: 23 November 2013.
  9. [Bhaarat jnyaaanakosh, khand: 5, prakaashak: paapayular prakaashan, Mumbai, prushth sankhya : 260]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahya strot