shareer kriya vigyaan

Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

fijiyauloji (Physiology) shabd yoonaani bhaasha se vyutpann hai aur iska mool arth "praakrutik gyaan" hai. iska laitin samaanaarthak shabd hai, fijiyaulojiya (Physiologia). is shabd ka pratham baar upayog 16veen shataabdi mein hua, par yeh vyavahaar mein 19veen sadi mein aaya. jeevit praaniyon se sambandhit praakrutik ghatnaaon ka adhyayan aur unka vargeekaran; ghatnaaon ka anukram aur saapeksh mahatva; pratyek kaarya ke upayukt anganirdhaaran aur un avasthaaon ka adhyayan, jinse pratyek kriya nirdhaarit hoti hai; fijiyauloji ya shareerakriyaavijnyaaan ke antargat aate hain.

anukram

mool praakrutik ghatanaaeain

sabhi jeevit jeevon ke jeevan ki mool praakrutik ghatanaaeain ek si hai. atyant asamaan jeevon mein kriyaavijnyaaan apni samasyaaeain atyant spasht roop mein upasthit karta hai. uchchastareeya praaniyon mein shareer ke pradhaan angon ki kriyaaeain atyant vishisht hoti hai, jisse kriyaaon ke sookshm vivran par dhyaan dene se unhein samajhna sambhav hota hai.

nimnalikhit mool praakrutik ghatanaaeain hain, jinse jeev pahachaane jaate hain:

(k) sangathan - yeh uchchastareeya praaniyon mein adhik spasht hai. sanrachana aur kriya ke vikaas mein samaantarata hoti hai, jisse shareerakriyaavidon ka yeh kathan siddh hota hai ki sanrachana hi kriya ka nirdhaarak upaadaan hai. vyakti ke vibhinn bhaagon mein sookshm sahayog hota hai, jisse praani ki aaspaas ke vaataavaran ke anukool banane ki shakti badhti hai.

(kh) oorja ki khapat - jeev oorja ko visrjit karte hain. manushya ka jeevan un shaareerik kriyaakalaapon (movements) se, jo use paryaavaran ke saath sambandhit karte hain nirmit hain. in shaareerik kriyaakalaapon ke liye oorja ka satat vyaya aavashyak hai. bhojan athva okseejan ke abhaav mein shareer ke kriyaakalaapon ka ant ho jaata hai. shareer mein adhik oorja ki aavashyakta hone par usaki poorti bhojan evam okseejan ki adhik maatra se hoti hai. at: jeevan ke liye shvasan evam svaangeekaran kriyaaeain aavashyak hain. jin vastuon se hamaare khaadya padaarth bante hain, ve okseekaran mein saksham hoti hain. is okseekaran ki kriya se ooshma utpann hoti hai. shareer mein honevaali okseekaran ki kriya se oorja utpann hoti hai, jo jeevit praani ki kriyaasheelata ke liye upalabdh rahati hai.

(g) vruddhi aur janan - yadi upachayi (anabolic) prakram pradhaan hai, to vruddhi hoti hai, jiske saath kshatipoorti ki shakti judi hui hai. vruddhi ka prakram ek nishchit samay tak chalta hai, jiske baad pratyek jeev vibhkt hota hai aur usaka ek ansh alag hokar ek ya anek nae vyaktiyon ka nirmaan karta hai. inmein pratyek un sabhi gunon se yukt hota hai jo mool jeev mein hote hain. sabhi uchch koti ke jeevon mein mool jeev kshayasheel hone lagta hai aur antat: mrutyu ko praapt hota hai.

(gh) anukoolan (Adaptation) - sabhi jeevit jeevon mein ek saamaanya lakshan hota hai, vah hai anukoolan ka saamathrya. aantar sambandh tatha baahya sambandhon ke satat samanvaya ka naam anukoolan hai. jeevit koshikaaon ka vaastavik vaataavaran vah ootak taral (tise fluid) hai, jismein ve rahati hain. yeh aantar vaataavaran, praani ke saamaanya vaataavaran mein honevaale parivrtanon se prabhaavit hota hai. jeev ki atijeevita (survival) ke liye vaataavaran ke parivrtanon ko prabhaavaheen karna aavashyak hai, jisse saamaanya vaataavaran chaahe jaisa ho, aantar vaataavaran jeene yogya seemaaon mein rahe. yahi anukoolan hai.


fijiyauloji ki vidhi

fijiyauloji ka adhikaansh gyaan dainik jeevan aur rogiyon ke adhyayan se upalabdh hua hai, parantu kuchh gyaan praaniyon par kiye gaye prayogon se bhi upalabdh hua hai. rasaayan, bhautiki, shareerarachana vigyaan (anatomy) aur ootakavijnyaaan se iska atyant nikat ka sambandh hai.

is prakaar vishleshik fijiyauloji, jeevit praaniyon par, athva unase pruthakkrut bhaagon par, jo anukool avastha mein kuchh samay jeevit rah jaate hain, kiye gaye prayogon se praapt gyaan se nirmit hai. prayogon se vibhinn sanrachanaatmak bhaagon ke gun aur kriyaaeain gyaat hoti hain. sanshleshik fijiyauloji mein ham yeh pata lagaane ki koshish karte hain ki kis prakaar sanghatanasheel prakramon se shareer ki kriyaaeain sanshleshit hokar, vibhinn bhaagon ki sahakaari prakriyaaon ka nirmaan karti hain aur kis prakaar jeev samashti roop mein apne bhinn bhinn angon ko samyak roop se samanjit karke, baahya paristhiti ke parivartan par pratikriya karta hai.

pratimaan (Normal) - sanrachana aur shareerakriyaatmak gunon mein ek hi jaati ke praani aapas mein bahut milte julate hain aur jaiv lakshanon ke maanak praroop ki or unmukh yeh pravrutti jeev aur uske vaatavaran ke beech sannikt saamanjasya ki abhivyakti hai. ek hi janak se, ek hi samay mein, utpann praaniyon mein yeh samaanata sarvaadhik hoti hai. jyon jyon ham anya jaatiyon ke praaniyon ki samaanataaon ke sambandh mein vichaar karte hain, unamein bhed badhta jaata hai aur praaniyon ke vargeekaran mein jantujagat ke chhoron par sthit praaniyon ka antar itna adhik hota hai ki unki tulana aspasht hoti hai.

fir bhi, vyashti praaniyon mein jahaaain bahut nikat ka sambandh hota hai, jaise manushya jaati mein, vaheen inmein antar bhi spasht hota hai. saamaanya maanav vyashti ka adhyayan karna, maanav fijiyauloji ka kartavya hai, kyonki isse rog ke adhyayan ki mahatvapoorn aadhaarabhoomi taiyaar hoti hai, parantu yeh kehna ki kisi prastut lakshan (character) ka praakrutik svaroop kya hai, kathin hai. iske atirikt sabhi shareerakriyaatmak prayogon ke parinaamon mein paryaapt spasht antar pradarshit hota hai, jo prayojya praaniyon ki vyattigt prakruti par nirbhar karta hai. iseeliye mahatvapoorn samuchit niyantranon ka aur mahatvapoorn parinaam ka adhimoolyan naheen hona chaahiye. praaya: parinaam ke nishchaya ke liye aadarsh parinaamon ka vichaar kiya jaata hai. prayogon ki punaraavruttiyaaain aavashyak hain. prekshan ki truti, jo yathaarth vijnyaaanon mein praaya: alp hoti hai, jaiviki mein bahut adhik hoti hai, kyonki parivrti vyashti ke kaaran prekshan mein parivrtanasheelata aa jaati hai. jis prakaar anya vijnyaaanon mein parinaamon ko saankhyiki dvaara vivechit kiya jaata hai, vaise hi fijiyauloji ko parinaamon ki sanbhaavita ke niyam ki prayukti se vivechit kiya jaata hai. seemit sankhya mein kiye prayogon se nirnaya lene mein bahut saavadhaani is drushti se apekshit hai ki praapt parinaam niyantrit shreniyon se bhinn hain athva naheen.

kathinaaiyon ko door karne ki ek vidhi ke roop mein ausaton, arthaat samaantar maadhya (arithmetic mean), ka aashray liya jaata hai, jaise ham kehte hain, maanav ke kisi samudaaya vishesh mein prati ghan milimeetar rakt mein laal selon ki ausat sankhya 5 karod 20 lakh hai. yeh vidhi yadyapi sabse taral aur ati vyavahrut hai, parantu yeh isliye asantoshajanak hai ki isse yeh gyaat naheen hota ki maadhya se vichlan kis parimaan mein aur aapekshik roop se kitne adhik baar (relatively frequent) hota hai. hamaare paas yeh gyaat karne ka koi saadhan naheen rah jaata ki uparyukt udaaharan mein 4 karod 50 lakh saamaanya paraas ke andar hai ya naheen. parinaamat:, saankhyiki ke parinaamon ki abhivyakti ke liye adhik yathaarth saadhan ke upayog ka vyavahaar badhta ja raha hai.

fijiyauloji ka vikaas

chooainki kisi vigyaan ki vartamaan avastha ko samajhne ke liye uske vikaas ka itihaas gyaat hona aavashyak hai, isliye fijiyauloji se ruchi rakhanevaale vyakti ke liye uske itihaas ki rooparekha se parichit hona aavashyak hai. jahaaain tak samagr vishay ke vikaas ka prashn hai, yeh dhyaan rakhane ki baat hai ki vigyaan ka koi ang alag se viksit naheen ho sakta, sabhi bhaag ek doosare par nirbhar karte hain. udaaharanaarth, ek nishchit seema tak shaareer (Anatomy) ke gyaan ke bina fijiyauloji ki kalpana asambhav thi aur isi prakaar bhautiki aur rasaayan ki ek seema tak viksit avastha ke bina bhi iski pragati asambhav thi.

aaaindres viseliys (Andreas Veasilius) dvaara 1543 E. mein febrika hyoomani kaarporeej (Fabrica Humani Corpories) ke prakaashan ko aadhunik shaareer ka sootrapaat maankar, neeche ham un mahatvapoorn naamon ki soochi prastut kar rahe hain jinhonne samay samay par vishay ko yugaantarakaari mod diya hai :


naam jeevanakaal varsh mahatva 

viseliys 1514-64 E. 1543 E. aadhunik shaareer ka praarambh
haarvi 1578-1667 E. 1628 E. jeevavijnyaaan mein praayogik vidhi
maalapeegi 1628-1694 E. 1661 E. jeevavijnyaaan mein sookshmadarshi ke prayog ka aarambh
nyootan 1642-1727 E. 1687 E. aadhunik bhautiki ka vikaas
haalar 1708-1777 E. 1760 E. fijiyauloji ka paathyagranth
laavvaajye 1743-1794 E. 1775 E. dahan aur shvasan ka sambandh sthaapit hua
moolar johaineej 1801-1858 E. 1834 E. mahatvapoorn paathyagranth
shvaan 1810-1882 E. 1839 E. koshika siddhaant ki sthaapana
bernaar (Bernard) 1813-1878 E. 1840-1870 E. mahaan prayogavaadi
lootavikh (Ludwig) 1816-1895 E. 1850-1890 E. mahaan prayogavaadi aarekhavidhi ka aavishkaarak
helmaholts 1821-1894 E. 1850-1890 E. bhautiki ki prayukti


1795 E. mein fijiyauloji ki pehli patrika nikli. 1878 E. mein english journal ov fijiyauloji tatha 1898 E. mein amareek journal aav fijiyauloji prakaashit hui. 1874 E. mein London mein yunivrsiti kaaleje aur amareeka ke Harvard mein 1876 E. mein fijiyauloji ke english chair ki sthaapana hui. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki fijiyauloji ek naya vishay hai, jiska praarambh mushkil se ek sadi poorv hua. jeevarasaayan aur bhi naya vishay hai tatha fijiyauloji ki ek prashaakha ke roop mein viksit hua hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain