shani (grah)

yeh pej grah ke baare mein hai. devata ke liye shanidevata dekhein.
shani Astronomical symbol for Saturn
The planet Saturn
kaisini dvaara kheenchi gayi tasveer mein, shani vaastavik rang mein
upanaam
visheshan Saturnian, Cronian
yug J2000.0
upasaur 1,51,33,25,783 kimi (10.11595804 AU)
apasaur 1,35,35,72,956 kimi (9.04807635 AU)
ardh mukhya aksh 1,43,34,49,370 kimi (9.5820172 AU)
vikendrata 0.055723219
parikraman kaal
  • 10 759.22 days
  • 29.4571 yr
  • 24 491.07 Saturn solar days[2]
sanyuti kaal 378.09 days[3]
ausat parikraman gati 9.69 km/s[3]
maadhya konaantar 320.346 750°
jhukaav
  • 2.485 240° to Ecliptic
  • 5.51° to Sun's equator
  • 0.93° to invariable plane[4]
aaroh paat ka anulamb 113.642 811°
Argument of perihelion 336.013 862°
upagrah ~ 200 observed (62 with secure orbits including 53 that are named)
bhautik visheshataaeain
vishuvateeya trijya
  • 60 268 ± 4 km[5][b]
  • 9.4492 Earths
dhruveeya trijya
  • 54 364 ± 10 km[5][b]
  • 8.5521 Earths
sapaatata 0.097 96 ± 0.000 18
tal-kshetrafal
  • 4.27×a1010 km²[b][6]
  • 83.703 Earths
aayatan
  • 8.2713×a1014 km3[3][b]
  • 763.59 Earths
dravyamaan
  • 5.6846×a1026 kg[3]
  • 95.152 Earths
maadhya ghanatv 0.687 g/cm3[3][b]
(less than water)
vishuvateeya satah gurutvaakarshan
palaayan veg 35.5 km/s[3][b]
naakshatr ghoornan
kaal
10.57 hours[7]
(10 hr 34 min)
vishuvateeya ghoornan veg
  • 9.87 km/s[b]
  • 35 500 km/h
aksheeya naman 26.73°[3]
uttari dhruv daayaan adhirohan
  • 2h 42m 21s
  • 40.589°[5]
uttari dhruvavanaman 83.537°[5]
albedo
  • 0.342 (Bond)
  • 0.47 (geometric)[3]
satah ka taapamaan
1 bar level
0.1 bar
nyoon maadhya adhi
134 K[3]
84 K[3]
spasht parimaan +1.47 to −0.24[8]
koneeya vyaas 14.5"–20.1"[3]
(excludes rings)
vaayu-mandal[3]
skel haait 59.5 km
sanghatan )
~96% haaidrojan (H2)
~3% hiliym (He)
~0.4% methane (CH4)
~0.01% amoniya (NH3)
~0.01% haaidrojan dyooteraaid (HD)
0.0007% ithen (C2H6)
Ices:
  • amoniya (NH3)
  • jal (H2O)
  • amoniym haaidrosalfaaid (NH4SH)

shani (Saturn), soorya se chhathaan grah hai tatha bruhaspati ke baad sauramandal ka sabse bada grah hain. ausat vyaas mein pruthvi se nau guna bada shani ek gas daanav hai.[9][10] jabki iska ausat ghanatv pruthvi ka ek aathavaan hai, apne bade aayatan ke saath yeh pruthvi se 95 gune se bhi thoda bada hai.[11][12][13] iska khagoliya chinh ħ hai.

shani ka aantarik dhaancha sanbhavataya, loha, nikal aur chattaanon (silikaun aur okseejan yaugik) ke ek kor se bana hai, jo dhaatu haaidrojan ki ek moti parat se ghira hai, taral haaidrojan aur taral heeliym ki ek madhyavarti parat tatha ek baahya gaiseeya parat hai.[14] grah apne oopari vaayumandal ke amoniya kristal ke kaaran ek halka peela rang darshaata hai. maana gaya hai dhaatu haaidrojan parat ke bheetar ki vidyuteeya dhaara, shani ke graheeya chunbakeeya kshetr ko ubhaar deti hai, jo pruthvi ki tulana mein kamjor hai aur bruhaspati ki ek-beesaveen shakti ke kareeb hai.[15] baahya vaayumandal aam taur par neeras aur spashtata mein kami hai, haalaanki dirghaayu aakrutiyaan dikhaai de sakti hai. shani par hava ki gati, 1800 kimi/ghanta (1100 meal) tak pahunch sakti hai, jo bruhaspati par ki tulana mein tej, par utani tej naheen jitni vah nepchyoon par hai.[16]

shani ki ek vishisht valaya pranaali hai jo nau satat mukhya chhallon aur teen asatat chaap se milkar bani hain, jyaadaatar chattaani malabe va dhool ki chhoti raashi ke saath barf ke kanon ki bani hui hai. baasath[17] chandrama grah ki parikrama karte hai; tirepan aadhikaarik taur par naamit hain. inmein chhallon ke bheetar ke saikadon " chhote chandrama" shaamil naheen hai. taaitan, shani ka sabse bada aur sauramandal ka doosra sabse bada chandrama hai. yeh budh grah se bada hai aur ek bade vaayumandal ko sanjokar rakhane wala sauramandal ka ekamaatr chandrama hai.[18]

anukram

bhautik lakshan

shani aur pruthvi ke aakaar ki tulana.

shani ek gas daanav ke roop mein vargeekrut hai kyonki baahya bhaag mukhya roop se gas ka bana hai aur ek satah ka ni:sandeh abhaav hai, yadyapi iska ek thos kor hona chaahiye.[19] grah ka ghoornan iske chapate andaakaar aakaar dhaaran karne ka kaaran hai, is kaaran, yeh dhruvon par chapata aur bhoomadhyarekha par ubhara hua hai. iski bhoomadhyarekheeya aur dhruveeya trijyaaon ke beech kareeb 10% ka fark hai - kramash: 60,268 kimi banaam 54,364 kimi.[3] sauramandal mein anya gas daanav, bruhaspati, yoorenas aur nepachyoon bhi chapate hain magar kuchh had tak. shani sauramandal ka ekamaatr grah hai jo paani se kam ghana - lagbhag 30% kam hai.[20] yadyapi shani ka kor paani se kaafi ghana hai, gaiseeya vaataavaran ke kaaran grah ka ausat vishisht ghanatv 0.69 gram/semi3 hai. bruhaspati pruthvi ke dravyamaan ka 318 guna hai[21] jabki shani pruthvi ke dravyamaan ka 95 guna hai,[3] bruhaspati aur shani ek-saath sauramandal ke kul graheeya dravyamaan ka 92% sahejate hai.[22]

aantarik dhaancha

shani ek gas daanav ghoshit hua hai par yeh poori tarah se gaiseeya naheen hai. grah mukhya roop se haaidrojan ka bana hain, jo ek gair aadarsh taral ho jaata hai jab ghanatv 0.01 gram/semi3 ke oopar hota hai. yeh ghanatv ek trijya par shani ke dravyamaan ka 99.9% shaamil karne jitna badha hai. grah ke bheetar ke taapamaan, dabaav aur ghanatv sabhi kor ki disha par teji se badhte hai, jisse grah ki gahari paraton mein, haaidrojan ek dhaatu mein parivartan ka kaaran banta hai.[22]

maanak graheeya model bataate hai ki shani ki bruhaspati ke jaisi hi aantarik banaavat hai, ansh maatra ki bhinn-bhinn vaashpasheelon ke saath haaidrojan va heeliym se ghira ek chattaani kor,[23] jo sanrachana mein pruthvi ke kor ke samaan, magar adhik saghan hai. aantarik banaavat ke bhautik model ke saath sanyojan mein, grah ke gurutv vibhv ke pareekshan ne fraanseesi khagolavidon didiyer saaumon aur tristan guilot ko graheeya kor ki badi raashi par rok ko sthaan dene ke liye anumati di. 2004 mein, unhone aakalan kiya ki kor pruthvi ke dravyamaan ka 9-22 guna avashya hona chaahiye,[24][25] jo lagbhag 25,000 kimi ki ek vyaas se mel khaati hai.[26] yeh kor ek mote taral dhaatu haaidrojan parat se ghira hua hai, jo heeliym-santrupt aanavik haaidrojan ki ek taral parat dvaara anugamit hui hai jiska badhti oonchaai ke saath dheere-dheere gas mein badlaav hua. baahyatam parat 1,000 kimi tak faili hai evam ek gaiseeya vaataavaran se bani hain.[27][28][29]

shani ka ati tapt bheetari bhaag hai. kor mein paara 11,700 degree celcius tak chadh jaata hai. grah soorya se jitni oorja praapt karta hai usase 2.5 guna adhik antariksh mein chhodta hai. is atirikt oorja ki adhikaansh mand gurutveeya sanpeedn ke kelvin-helmaholtj tantr dvaara utpann hui hai, par yeh akeli shani ke ooshma upaj ko samajhaane ke liye paryaapt naheen ho sakti. vahaan ek atirikt tantr ki bhoomika honi chaahiye jiske dvaara shani apne gahre aantarik bhaag mein apni kuchh ushma heeliym ki boondon ki ho rahi fuhaar ke maadhyam se utpann karta hai. jaise hi boonde nimn-ghanatv haaidrojan se hokar utarati hai, yeh prakriya gharshan se garmi jaari karti hai aur heeliym se khaali ho chuke grah ki baahari parat ko chhod deti hai.[30][31] ye utarati boonde kor ke aaspaas ek heeliym khol mein jama ho sakti hain.[23]

vaayumandal

shani ka baahya vaayumandal 96.3% aanavik haaidrojan aur 3.25% heeliym shaamil karta hai.[32] heeliym ka yeh anupaat soorya mein is tatv ki prachurata ki tulana mein kaafi kam hai.[23] heeliym se bhaari tatvon ki maatra theek theek gyaat naheen hai, lekin anupaaton ko saur mandal ke gathan se nikli praarambhik prachurata se Milan ke liye grahan kiya hua hai. shani ke kor kshetr mein sthit ek mahatvapoorn ansh ke saath, in bhaari tatvon ka kul dravyamaan pruthvi ke dravyamaan ka 19-31 guna hone ka anumaan hai.[33]

ansh maatra ki amoniya, esitileen, ithen, propen, fosfaain aur methane shani ke vaayumandal mein khoji gayi hai.[34][35][36] oopari baadal amoniya kristal se bane hue hain, jabki nichle star ke baadal ya to amoniym haaidrosalfaaid (NH4SH) ya jal se milkar bane hue dikhaai dete hain.[37] soorya se nikli paraabaingani vikirn oopari vaayumandal mein methane viyojan ka kaaran banti hai aur bavandaron va visran se neeche le jaae ja rahe parinaami utpaadon ke saath ek hydrocarbon raasaayanik pratikriyaaon ki shrrunkhala ka pratinidhitv karti hai. yeh prakaash raasaayanik chakr shani ke vaarshik mausami chakr dvaara theek ki hui hai.[36]

baadal paratein

2011 mein grah ko gherata ek vaishvik toofaan.

shani ka vaayumandal bruhaspati ke samaan ek dhaareedaar svarup darshaati hai, parantu shani ki dhaariyaan behad halki hain tatha bhoomadhya rekha ke paas bahut chaudi hain. in dhaariyon ka varnan karne ke liye prayukt naamakaran bruhaspati par ke jaise hi hai. shani ke maheen baadal svarup 1980 ke dashak ke vauyajar antariksh yaan ke flaaibaai tak prekshit naheen hue the. tab se, pruthvi-aadhaarit doorabeenata us disha ke liye sudhaari gayi jis taraf niyamit prekshan hona ban sakta hai.[38]

baadalon ki sanrachana gaharaai aur badhte dabaav ke saath badalti rahati hai. oopari baadal paraton mein, 100-160 kelvin had ke taapamaan evam 0.5-2 baar ke beech vistaarit rahe dabaav ke saath, baadal amoniya barf se milkar bante hai. jal barf baadal us star par shuroo hote hai, jahaan dabaav kareeb 2.5 baar hai evam 9.5 baar neeche tak vistaarit hota hai, vaheen taapamaan seema 185-270 kelvin hoti hai. is parat mein antarmishrit hui hai vah amoniym haaidrosalfaaid barf ki ek dhaari hai, jo 290-235 kelvin ke taapamaan ke saath 3-6 dabaav seema mein rahati hai. ant mein, nichli paratein, jahaan dabaav 10-20 baar ke beech aur taapamaan 270-330 kelvin hain, jaleeya ghol mein amoniya ke saath paani ki boondon ka ek kshetr shaamil karte hain.[39]

shani ka aamtaur par neeras vaayumandal kabhi kabhi deerghaayu ande aur anya aakrutiyaan darshaate hai jo bruhaspati par aam hai. 1990 mein, habal space teleeskop ne shani ki bhoomadhya rekha ke paas ek vishaal safed baadal pratichitrit kiya jo vauyajar muthabhedon ke dauraan maujud naheen tha. 1994 mein ek anya chhota toofaan dekha gaya tha. 1990 toofaan ek vishaalakaaya shvet dhabba ka ek udaaharan tha. ek adviteeya lekin alpakaalik ghatna jo uttari golaarddh ki greeshm sankraanti ke samay ke aaspaas, har shani varsh mein, mote taur par har 30 pruthvi varsh mein, ek baar hoti hai.[40] suprasiddh hue 1933 ke toofaan ke saath, pichhle vishaalakaaya shvet dhabbe 1876, 1903, 1933 aur 1960 mein dekhe gaye the. yadi kaalakramata bani hui hai, to ek aur toofaan lagbhag 2020 mein ghatit hoga.[41]

shani par sauramandal ke grahon mein dvitiya sabse tej havaaen hain. vauyajar deta poorvi havaaon ke charam ko 500 meter/second (1800 kimi/ghanta) hona dikhaate hai.[42] 2007 ke daramyaan kaisini antariksh yaan se kheenchi chhaviyon mein, shani ke uttari golaarddh ne yoorenas ke samaan ek ujjval neele rang ka pradarshan kiya. is rang ka sarvaadhik sambhaavit kaaran releh prakeernan dvaara hona tha.[43] avarakt pratichitran ne dikhaaya hai ki shani ka dakshin dhruv ek garm dhruveeya bhanvar rakhata hai, saur mandal mein is tarah ki ghatna ka ekamaatr gyaat udaaharan.[44] vaheen shani par taapamaan saamaanyaya -185° celcius hain, bhanvar par taapamaan aksar adhik se adhik -122 degree celcius pahuainchata hai, yeh shani par sabse garm sthaan hona maana gaya hai.[44]

uttari dhruv shatakoneeya baadal paddhati

uttari dhruveeya shatakoneeya meghaakruti, vauyajar 1 dvaara khoji aur 2006 mein kaisini dvaara pusht ki gayi.
shatkon ke kendra mein uttar dhruveeya bhanvar ka niktatam drushya.

vaayumandal mein uttari dhruveeya bhanvar ke aaspaas lagbhag 78°aau. par ek drudh shatakoneeya lahar svarup sarvapratham vauyajar ki chhaviyon mein ullekhit hua tha.[45][46]

uttari dhruveeya shatkon ki pratyek seedhi bhujaaen lagbhag 13,800 kimi (8,600 meal) lambi hain, jo unhein pruthvi ke vyaas se bada banaati hai.[47] yeh poora dhaancha 10ghante 39meenat 24sekand ki avadhi (grah ke radio utsarjan ke jitni hi samaan avadhi) ke saath ghoomta hai, jo shani ke aantarik dhaache ke ghoornan avadhi ke baraabar maana hua hai.[48] yeh shatakoneeya aakruti drushyamaan vaayumandal ke anya baadalon ki tarah deshaantar mein badlaav naheen karta.[49]

is svarup ka mool bade atkalon ka vishay hai. adhikaansh khagolavid vishvaas karte hain yeh vaayumandal mein kuchh khadi-lahar paddhati ki vajah se hua tha. bahubhuji aakaar taral padaarth ke antareeya ghoornan ke maadhyam se prayogashaala mein doharaaya ja chuka hai.[50][51]

dakshini dhruv bhanvar

shani ka dakshini dhruv toofaan

dakshin dhruveeya kshetr ke habal doorabeen ke pratichitran ek tej dhaara En ki upasthiti ka sanket karte hai, par na hi kisi shaktishaali dhruveeya bhanvar ka aur na hi kisi shatakoneeya khadi-lahar ka.[52] naasa ne November 2006 mein soochana di ki kaisini ne dakshini dhruv ke saath jakada hua ek " chakravaat sadrushya" toofaan dekha tha jo ki ek spasht roop se paribhaashit aaivolEn tha.[53][54] yeh avlokan vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai kyonki aaivol baadal pehle kabhi pruthvi ke alaava kisi anya grah par naheen dekhe gaye the. udaaharan ke liye, gaililiyo antariksh yaan se praapt chhaviyaan bruhaspati ke vishaalakaaya laal dhabbeEn mein koi aaivol naheen dikhaate.[55]

dakshini dhruv toofaan arabon varshon tak ke liye maujood hona chaahiye.[56] yeh bhanvar pruthvi ke aakaar ke baraabar hai aur iski 550 kimi ki havaaen hai.[56]

anya aakrutiyaan

kaisini ne "moteeyon ki maala" ke rup mein upanaamit meghaakrutiyon ki ek shrrunkhala prekshit ki, jo uttari akshaansh mein pai gayi. These features are cloud clearings that reside in deeper cloud layers.[57]

chumbakeeya kshetr

vishuv ke nikat li gayi shani ki habal paraabaingani chhavi donon dhruveeya jyotiyaan dikhaate hue.
habal esateeaaies paraabaingani aur eseees drushya prakaash shani ke dakshini dhruveeya jyotiyon ko prakat karne ke liye mishrit ki gayi.

shani ka ek aantarik chumbakeeya kshetr hai jiska ek saral, sudaul aakaar hai - ek chumbakeeya dvidhruv. bhoomadhya rekha par iski taakat - 0.2 gaus (20 μaT) - bruhaspati ke aaspaas ke kshetr ka takareeban ek beesavaan aur pruthvi ke chumbakeeya kshetr ki tulana mein thoda kamjor hai.[15] falasvaroop shani ka bruhaspati ki tulana mein kaafi chhota chumbakeeya kshetr hai.[58] jab vauyajar 2 ne chumbakeeya kshetr mein pravesh kiya, saur vaayu ka dabaav adhik tha aur chumbakeeya kshetr keval 19 shani trijyaaon jitna vistaarit hua, ya 1.1 lakh kimi (7,12,000 meal),[59] haalaanki yeh kai ghanto ke bheetar badha aur to aur kareeb teen dinon tak bana raha.[60] adhikaansh sambhaavana hai, iska chumbakeeya kshetr bruhaspati ke samaan hi utpann hua hai - taral dhaatu mein dhaaraaon dvaara - haaidrojan parat ek dhaatu-haaidrojan daainemo kahalaati hai.[58] yeh chumbakeeya kshetr soorya se nikle saur vaayu kanon ko vikshepit karne mein kushal hai. taaitan chandrama shani ke chumbakeeya kshetr ke baahari hisse ke bheetar parikrama karta hai aur taaitan ke baahari vaayumandal ke aayanit kanon se nikle plaajma ka yogadaan karta hai.[15] shani ka chumbakeeya kshetr, pruthvi ki hi tarah, dhruveeya jyoti paida karta hai.[61]

parikrama evam ghoornan

shani aur soorya ke beech ki ausat doori 1.4 arab kilometer se adhik (9 eyoo) hai. 9.69 kimi/second ki ek ausat parikraman gati ke saath, yeh soorya ke chaaron or ek ghumaav poorn karne ke liye, shani ke 10,759 pruthvi diwas leta hain (ya lagbhag 29½ varsh).

shani aur soorya ke beech ki ausat doori 1.4 arab kilometer se adhik (9 eyoo) hai. 9.69 kimi/second ki ek ausat parikraman gati ke saath,[3] soorya ke chaaron or ek ghumaav poorn karne ke liye,[3] yeh shani ke 10,759 pruthvi diwas leta hain (ya lagbhag 29½ varsh)[62]. shani ki deerghavruttaakaar kaksha pruthvi ke parikrama tal ke saapeksh 2.48° jhuki hui hai.[3] 0.056 ki vikendrata ke kaaran, shani aur soorya ke beech ki doori upasaur aur apasaur ke beech lagbhag 15.5 karod kilometer se bhinn hoti hai,[3] jo uske parikraman maarg ke saath-saath grah ke soorya se kramash: niktatam aur sabse door ke bindu hain.

shani par drushyamaan aakrutiyaan bhinn-bhinn daron par ghoomti hai jo ki akshaansh par nirbhar karti hai aur ye bahul ghoornan avadhiyaan vibhinn kshetron ke liye aavantit ki gayi hai (jaise bruhaspati ke maamale mein ki gayi): pranaali I ka kaal 10ghante 14mint 00sekand (844.3°/ din) hai aur bhoomadhyarekheeya kshetr sammilit karta hain, jo dakshini bhoomadhyarekheeya patti ke uttari kinaare se lekar uttari bhoomadhyarekheeya patti ke dakshini kinaare tak vistaarit hai. shani ke baaki sabhi akshaansh 10ghante 38mint 25.4sekand (810.76°/din) ki ek ghoornan avadhi ke saath aavantit kiye gaye hai jo ki pranaali II hai. pranaali III, vauyajar daure ke dauraan grah se utsarjit radio utsarjan par aadhaarit hai. iska 10ghante 39mint 22.4sekand (810.8°/din) ka ek kaal hai. chunki yeh pranaali II ke behad kareeb hai, isne usaka kaafi had tak atikraman kiya hua hai.[63]

aantarik dhaanche ke ghoornan kaal ka ek sateek maan rahasya rah gaya hai. 2004 mein jab shani tak pahunch hui, kaisini ne paaya ki shani ka radio ghoornan kaal kaafi badha hua hai, lagbhag 10ghante 45meenat 45sekand (± 36 second) tak.[64][65] March 2007 mein, yeh paaya gaya tha ki grah se nikle radio utsarjan ki ghatabadh shani ke ghoornan ki dar se mel naheen khaati. yeh antar shani ke chandrama enaseledas par geejar gatividhi ki vajah se ho sakta hai. is gatividhi dvaara shani ki kaksha mein utsarjit hui jal vaashp chaarj ho jaati hai aur shani ke chunbakeeya kshetr par ek kheenchaav paida karti hai, jo uske ghoornan ko grah ke ghoornan ki apeksha thoda dheema kar deti hai.[66][67][67] shani ke ghoornan ka naveenatam aakalan kaisini, vauyajar aur pioneer se mile vibhinn maapanon ke ek sankalan par aadhaarit hai, jiski soochana September 2007 mein mili thi aur yeh 10ghante, 32mint, 35sekand hai.[68]

graheeya chhalle

shani ke chhalle (2007 mein kaisini dvaara pratibimbit) saur mandal mein sabse vishaal aur vishisht hain.[28]
shani ki baahari B aur A chhalle ki krutrim rang paraabaingani chhavi; kaisini diveejan mein matamaile chhalle aur upar laal enke vibhaajan dikhaate hue.

shani sanbhavataya graheeya chhallon ki pranaali ke liye behtar jaana jaata hai jo use drushtigt roop se anootha banaata hai.[28] yeh chhalle shani ki bhoomadhya rekha ke oopar 6,630 kimi se lekar 1,20,700 kimi tak vistaarit hai, ausatan takareeban 20 meter ki motaai mein tatha ansh maatra ki tholeen ashuddhiyon evam 7% anaakaar kaarban ke saath 93% jal barf se bane hue hain.[69] chhallon ko banaane vaale kanon ke aakaar ke paraas dhool kanon se lekar 10 meter tak hai.[70] haalaanki anya gas daanavon ki bhi valaya pranaaleeyaan hai, par shani ki sabse badi aur sarvaadhik drushyamaan hai. chhallon ki utpatti ke baare mein do mukhya pariklpanaaen hain. ek parikalpana hai ki chhalle shani ke ek nasht chaand ke avashesh hain. doosari parikalpana hai ki chhalle chhodi gayi mool neehaarikeeya saamagri hain jinse shani bana hai. keindreeya chhallon ki kuchh barf enaseledas chandrama ke barf jvaalaamukhi se aati hai.[71] ateet mein, khagolavidon ne maana chhalle grah ke saath-saath bane jab arabo varshon pehle grah ka gathan hua.[72] baavajud, in graheeya chhallon ki umr shaayad kuchh saikadon lakh varshon ki hai.[73]

grah se 12 lakh kilometer ki doori par mukhya chhalle se pare virl fobe valaya hai, jo ki anya chhallon se 27 degree ke kon par jhuka hua hai tatha, fobe ki tarah, pratigaami reeti mein parikrama karta hai.[74] paindora aur promethiys sahit, shani ke chandramaaon mein se kuchh, chhallon ko seemit rakhane aur unhein baahar failane se rokane ke liye saifard En chaand ke roop mein kaarya karte hai.[75] paan aur etalas shani ke chhallon mein nirbal, raikhik ghanatv tarangon ke kaaran hai that have yielded more reliable calculations of their masses.[76]

praakrutik upagrah

shani ka ek kalaatmak chitr tatha uske pramukh chandrama ( deeon, tethis, maaimas, enaseledas, riya aur taaitan, aaaipits pradarshit naheen). yeh prasiddh chhavi vauyajar 1 antariksh yaan dvaara November 1980 mein li gayi tasveeron se banaai gayi thi.

shani ke kam se kam 62 chandrama hain, unamein se 53 ke aupachaarik naam hai.[77] sabse bada chandrama, taaitan, chhalle sahit, shani ke irdagird ki kaksha mein dravyamaan ka 90% se adhik samaavisht karta hai.[78] ek kamjor vaayumandal ke saath-saath,[79][80][81][82] shani ke doosare sabse bade chandrama, riya, ki apni ek swayam ki kamjor valaya pranaali ho sakti hai.[83] kai anya chandrama bahut chhote hain: vyaas mein 10 kimi se kam ke 34 hai tatha 14 anya 50 kimi se kam kintu 10 kimi se bade hai.[84] paramparaagat roop se, shani ke adhikaansh chandrama greek pauraanik kathaaon ke diggajon par naamit kiye gaye hai. taaitan ek bade vaayumandal wala sauramandal ka ekamaatr upagrah hai,[85][86] jismein ek jatil kaarbanik rasaayan shaastr paaya jaata hai. yeh hydrocarbon jheelon wala ekamaatr upagrah hai.[87][88]

shani ka chandrama enaseledas aksar sookshmajaivik jeevan ke liye ek sambhaavit aadhaar ke roop mein maana gaya hai.[89][90][91][92] is jeevan ke saakshya upagrah ke lavan-bahul kanon ko shaamil karte hai jismein ek "mahaasaagar ki tarah" sanghatan milte hai jo ingit karta hai enaseledas ki adhikaansh nishkaasit barf taral lavan jal ke vaashpeekaran se aati hai.[93][94][95]

anveshan ka itihaas

shani ke prekshan evam anveshan mein teen mukhya charan rahe hai. pehle yug mein aadhunik doorabeen ke aavishkaar se pehle ke praacheen prekshan the (jaise ki nagn aankhon ke saath). 17 veen sadi mein shuroo hua, pruthvi se uttarottar aur adhik unnat doorabeen prekshan karna sambhav bana. anya prakaar ke, ya to parikrama dvaara ya flaaibaai dvaara, antariksh yaan dvaara yaatra se hue hai. 21 veen sadi ke prekshan pruthvi se (ya pruthvi parikramaarat vedhashaalaaon) tatha shani ke kaisini parikrama yaan se jaari hai.

praacheen prekshan

inhein bhi dekhein: shani (pauraanik)

shani ko praagaitihaasik kaal se jaan liya gaya hai.[96] praacheen kaal mein, sauramandal mein soodoor ke paaainch gyaat grah (pruthvi ko chhodkar) the aur isliye vibhinn pauraanik kathaaon ke mukhya paatr the. bebeeloniyaai khagolavidon ne shani ki gatividhiyon ko vyavasthit rup se prekshit aur darj kiya.[97] praacheen roman pauraanik kathaaon mein, shani (letin : setarnas) devata, jisse is grah ne apna naam liya, krushi ke devata the.[98] romanon ne setarnas ko yoonaani devata kronas ke samakaksh maana.[98] yoonaaniyon ne sabse baahari grah kronas ko pavitra banaaya,[99] aur romanon ne bhi yahi kiya tha. (aadhunik yoonaani mein, grah apna praacheen naam kronas barkaraar rakhata hai (Κaaρaaόaaνaaοaaς: Kronos).)[100]

alekjaindriya mein rahane vaale ek yoonaani, taulemi, ne shani ki ek vimukhata ka prekshan kiya, jo iski kaksha ke tatvon ke unke nirdhaaran ke liye ek aadhaar tha.[101] hindu jyotishshaastr mein, nau jyotisheeya vastuen hai, jise navagrah ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, shani unamein se ek hai, jo shani Dave ke rup mein jaane gaye, jeevan mein achhe aur bure karmon ke pradarshan ke aadhaar par vah harek ka nyaaya karte hai.[98] praacheen cheeni aur Japani sanskruti ne shani grah ko bhoo-taara ke roop mein naamit kiya. yeh paanch tatvon par aadhaarit tha jo paaramparik roop se praakrutik tatvon vargeekrut karne ke liye prayukt hue the.[102]

praacheen hibroo mein, shani ko 'shabbaathaai' kaha hua hai.[103] iski doot kaisiyel hai. iski buddhi ya laabhadaayak bhaavaarth egiyl (laayaga) hai tatha iski bhaavana (andh bhaav) jaajel (ijaaj) hai. otoman Turkey, urdoo evam malaya mein, iska 'juhaal' naam, arabi زaaحaaل se vyutpann hua hai.

Europeeya prekshan (17veen-19veen sadi)

Robert huk ne 1666 mein shani ke apne is chitr mein globe aur chhalle ke beech chhaaya (A aur bi) ka ullekh kiya.

shani ke chhallon ko spasht dekhne ke liye kam se kam ek 15 mimi vyaas ke doorabeen ki jarurat hoti hai. [104] isliye 1610 mein gaileeliyo dvaara sarvapratham dekhne tak yeh gyaat naheen tha. [105][106] unhone unako shani ki taraf ke do chandramaaon jaisa samjha.[107][108] yeh tab tak naheen hua jab tak krishchiyn huygeins ne badi doorabeen aavardhan prayukt kiya jisse yeh dhaarana khandit hui thi. huygeins ne shani ke chandrama taaitan ki khoj ki, giyovanni domeniko kaisini ne baad mein chaar anya chandramaaon ko khoja : aaaipits, riya, tethis aur deeon. 1675 mein, kaisini ne ek antaraal khoja jo ab kaisini vibhaajan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.[109]

aage mahatva ki aur koi khojein 1789 tak naheen bani jab William harshel ne do chandramaaon maaimas aur enaseledas ko khoja. aniyamit aakaar ka upagrah hiperaayan, jiska taaitan ke saath ek anunaad hai, ek british dal dvaara 1848 mein khoja gaya tha.[110]

1899 mein William henari pikring ne fobe ki khoj ki, ek atyadhik aniyamit upagrah jo shani ke saath tulyakaalik rup mein naheen ghoomta jaise ki bade grah karte hai.[110] fobe paaya gaya aisa pehla upagrah tha, jo ek pratigaami kaksha mein shani ki parikrama ke liye adhik se adhik ek saal leta hai. 20 veen shataabdi ke dauraan, taaitan ke anusandhaan ne 1944 mein is pushtikran ki aguaai ki ki iska ek mota vaayumandal tha- sauramandal ke chandramaaon ke beech ek adviteeya visheshata.[111]

aadhunik naasa aur isa prob

pioneer 11 flaaibaai

September 1979 mein pioneer 11 shani ke liye dhoya gaya pehla flaaibaai bana, jab yeh grah ke baadalon ke sheersh se 20,000 kimi ke bheetar se gujara. grah aur uske chandramaaon ki kuchh tasveerein kheenchi gayi, haalaanki usaki spashtata satah ki vistaarapoorvak mantrana ke lihaaj se behad halki thi. antariksh yaan ne shani ke chhallon ka bhi adhyayan kiya, patale ef-chhalle ka khulaasa hua aur sachchaai yeh hai ki chhalle ka shyaah antaraal chamakata hai jab ise uchch charan kon En par dekha gaya, jiska arth hai ki ve baarik prakaash bikhrane waali saamagri shaamil karte hai. iske atirikt, pioneer 11 ne taaitan ka taapamaan maapa.[112]

vauyajar flaaibaai

November 1980 mein, vauyajar 1 yaan ne shani pranaali ke liye flaaibaai ka aayojan kiya. isne grah aur uske chhallo va upagrahon ki pehli uchch-spashtata ki tasveere preshit ki. satahi aakrutiyaan aur anek chandrama pehli baar dekhe gaye the. vauyajar 1, taaitan ke kareeb se gujara aur chandrama ke vaayumandal ki jaankaari badhaai. isne saabit kar diya ki taaitan ka vaayumandal drushya tarangadairdhya ke prati abhedya hai; isliye, koi satahi vivran dekhna naheen ho paaya tha. flaaibaai ne antariksh yaan ke prakshepavakr ko sauramandal ke tal se baahar ki or badla.[113]

kareeb-kareeb ek saal baad, August 1981 mein, vauyajar 2 ne shani pranaali ka adhyayan jaari rakha. shani ke chandramaaon ki najadeeki tasvirein adhigraheet hui, saath hi vaataavaran aur chhalle mein parivartan ke saboot bhi praapt hue. durbhaagya se, flaaibaai ke dauraan, yaan ka firne wala camera manch kuchh dinon ke liye atak gaya, jisse pratichitran ki kuchh yojanaaon ki kshati hui thi. shani ka gurutvaakarshan antariksh yaan ke prakshepavakr ko yoorenas ki or modne ke liye prayukt hua tha.[113]

yaan ne grah ke chhalle ke nikat ya bheetar parikramaarat kai nae upagrahon, saath hi saath chhote Maxwell antaraal (chhalla-si ke bheetar ka ek antaraal) aur keelar antaraal (chhalla-A mein 42 kimi chauda antaraal) ki khoj aur pushti ki.

kaisini-huygeins antariksh yaan

vishuv ke dauraan shani, kaisini orbitr dvaara li gayi tasveer.
shani ka soorya grahan, jaisa ki kaisini dvaara dekha gaya.

1 July 2004 ko kaisini-huygeins antariksh yaan ne 'shani kaksha pravishti' ke kaushal ka pradarshan kiya aur shani ke aaspaas ki kaksha mein pravesh kiya. pravishti ke pehle, kaisini pehle se hi bade paimaane par pranaali ka adhyayan kar chuka tha. June 2004 mein, isne fobe ka ek najadeeki flaaibaai ka aayojan kiya tha jisne uchch spashtata ki chhaviyon aur deta ko preshit kiya.

shani ke sabse bade chandrama taaitan ke kaisini flaaibaai ne badi jheelon tatha dveepon aur pahaadon ke saath unke taton ki radaar chhaviyon ko kaid kiya. is orbitr ne huygeins yaan ki 25 December 2004 mein ravaanagi se pehle do taaitan flaaibaai poora kiya. huygeins, 14 January 2005 ko taaitan ki satah par utara aur vaayumandaleeya avataran ke dauraan evam lainding ke baad deta ki baadh bheji.[114] kaisini ne uske baad se taaitan aur anya barfeele upagrahon ke bahu-flaaibaai aayojit kiye hai.

shuruaati 2005 ke baad, vaigyaaniko ne shani grah par bijli khoj nikaali hai. is bijli ki shakti pruthvi par ki bijli ki kareeb 1,000 guna hai.[115]

varsh 2006 mein naasa ne khabar di ki kaisini ne shani ke chandrama enaseledas ke sote mein prasfutit ho rahe taral jal jalaashayon ke pramaan paae the. tasveeron ne chandrama ke dakshin dhruveeya kshetr mein jharokhon se shani ke aaspaas ki kaksha mein utsarjit ho rahe barfeele kanon ki fuhaaron ko dikhaaya tha. Andrew ingarasol, California praudyogiki sansthaan, ke anusaar, "sauramandal ke anya chandramaaon ke paas kai kilometer ki barfeeli parat se aachhaadit taral-jal mahaasaagar hai. yahaaain aisa kya juda hai ki satah ke dasiyon meter se jyaada neeche taral jal ke kshetr naheen ho sakte."[116] May 2011 mein, ek enaseledas focus samooh sammelan mein naasa ke vaigyaaniko ne suchit kiya ki enaseledas "jeevan, jaisa ki ham jaante hain, ke liye saur mandal mein pruthvi se pare sarvaadhik rahane yogya sthaan ke roop mein ubhar raha hai.[117][118]

kaisini chhaviyon ne anya mahatvapoorn khojon ke liye prerit kiya hai. usane shani ke chamakadaar mukhya chhalle ke baahar aur ji aur E chhalle ke bheetar ek poorv ka agyaat graheeya chhalla ujaagar kiya hai. is chhalle ka srot shani ke do chandramaaon ka ek ulkaapind mein choorachoor ho jaana maana gaya hai.[119] July 2006 mein, kaisini chhaviyon ne taaitan ke uttari dhruv ke sameep hydrocarbon jheelon ke saboot pradaan kiye, jiski maujudagi ki pushti January 2007 mein hui thi. March 2007 mein, taaitan ke uttari dhruv ke sameep ki atirikt chhaviyon ne hydrocarbon "samudra" ka khulaasa kiya, unamein se sabse bada kareeb-kareeb kaispiyn saagar ke aakaar ka hai.[120] October 2006 mein, yaan ne shani ke dakshini dhruv ke ek aaivol mein ek 8,000 kimi vyaas ke chakravaat jaise toofaan ka pata lagaaya.[121]

2004 se lekar 2 November 2009 tak, yaan ne 8 nae upagrahon ki khoj aur pushti ki. 2008 mein iska praathamik mission samaapt hua, tab tak antariksh yaan grah ke chaaron or 74 parikramaaen poori kar chuka tha. yaan ka mission, shani ke poorn avadhi ke mausamon ke adhyayan ke liye, September 2010 tak ke liye vistaarit hua tha aur fir 2017 tak ke liye fir se vistaarit kiya gaya.[122]

April 2013 mein kaisini ne grah ke uttari dhruv ke ek toofaan ki chhaviyaan preshit ki, 530 kimi/ghanta se bhi tej havaaon wala yeh tufaan pruthvi par paae jaane vaale tufaanon se 20 guna bada hai.[123]

prekshan

shaukiya doorabeen drushya

shani nagn aankhon se aasaani se dikhaai dene vaale paaainch grahon mein sabse door ka hai, anya chaar, budh, shukr, mangal aur bruhaspati hai (yoorenas aur kabhi-kabhi 4 vesta shyaah andhere aasmaan mein nagn aankhon ko dikhe hain). shani raatri aakaash mein nagn aankhon ko ek chamakadaar peele prakaash punj ke maafik dikhaai deta hai jiska saapeksh kaantimaan aamtaur par 1 aur 0 ke madhya hai. yeh raashi chakr ke prushthabhoomi taaraamandal ke khilaaf kraantivrutt ka ek poore paripth ko banaane ke liye lagbhag 29½ saal leta hain. adhikaansh logon ko shani ke chhalle ko spasht roop se samajhne ke liye kam se kam 20× prakaashik sahit (badi doorabeen ya ek dooradarshi) aavardhak ki jarurat hogi.[28][104]

jab bhi yeh aasmaan mein dikhaai deta hai adhikaansh samay tak prekshan hetoo ek laabhadaayak lakshya hai. shani jab vimukhata par ya iske najadeek hai, grah aur unke chhallon ko sabse achha dekha gaya hai (jab yeh 180° ke prasarakon par hai, grah vinyaas, aakaash mein soorya ke vipreet dikhaai deta hai.). bhale hi shani 2003 ke ant mein pruthvi va soorya ke kareeb tha,[124] 17 December 2002 ke vimukhata ke dauraan, pruthvi ke saapeksh uske chhallon ke anukool abhivinyaas ke kaaran, shani apni sarvaadhik chamak par dikha.[124]

sanskruti mein

adhik jaankaari: galpakatha mein shani

bhaarateeya sanskruti mein

shani devata

bhaarateeya sanskruti mein shani ko soorya putr maana gaya hai. unke sambandh me anek bhraantiyaan hai isaliye unhe maarak, ashubh aur dukh kaarak aadi anek rupon wala maana gaya hai. shani moksh dene wala ek maatr grah hai. shani prakruti mein santulan banaae rakhate hai. vah har ek praani ke saath nyaaya karte hai. shani keval anuchit vishmata aur asvaabhaavik samata ko aashray dene vaale logo ko hi prataadit karte hai.

flit jyotish shaastro mein shani anek naamon se sambodhit hai, jaise mandagaami, soorya-putr, shanishchar ityaadi. pushya,anuraadha aur uttaraabhaadrapad shani ke nakshatr hai tatha do raashiyon makar aur kumbh ke vah svaami hai. vein soorya,chandr va mangal ko shatru evam budh va shukr ko apna mitr maanate hai tatha guru ke prati sam bhaav rakhate hai. shaareerik rogon mein shani ko vaayu vikaar,kanp, haddi va dant rogon ka kaarak maana gaya hai. shani ke saat vaahak: haathi, ghoda, hiran, gadha, kutta, bhainsa aur giddh hai. unki patni neelaadevi hai.

Bhaarat ke praay: har shahar mein shani ke mandir sthaapit hai. inmein Maharashtra praant ke seegnaapur ka shani mandir suprasiddh hai. shani ki puja ke liye shanivaar shubh din hai.

vaishvik sanskruti mein

jyotish mein shani(Saturn symbol.svg), paaramparik roop se ekvaariys tatha kaiprikaun ke sattaaroodh grah hai.

diwas saitar de, shani grah par naamit hai, jo krushi ke roman devata saitarn se praapt hua hai (yoonaani devata kronas se juda hua hai).[125][126]

pruthvi ki kaksha aur usase aage ke liye bhaari pelod pramochan ke liye saitarn samudaaya ke rocket jyaadaatar varnaher vaun brown ke netrutv mein jarman rocket vaigyaaniko ke ek dal dvaara viksit hue the.[127] mool roop se ek sainya upagrah prakshepak ke roop mein prastaavit in rauketo ko Apollo kaaryakram ke liye prakshepan vaahan ke roop mein apnaaya gaya.

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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sandarbh truti: "lower-alpha" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="lower-alpha"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.