shakti sancharan

shakti (Power) shabd ka prayog maanavaniyantrit oorja ko jo yaantrik kaarya karne ke liye praapya ho, soochit karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. shakti ke mukhya srot (source) hain : manushyon evam jaanvaron ki pesheeya oorja (muscular energy), nadi evam vaayu ki gatij oorja, uchch satahon par sthit jalaashaya ki sthitij (potential) oorja, laharon evam jvaarabhaata ki oorja, pruthvi evam soorya ki ooshma oorja, indhan ko jalaane se praapt ooshma oorja aadi. paalatoo jaanvaron ki shakti ka upayog maanaveeya sabhyata ka pratham kadam tha. baad mein kramash: vibhinn prakaar ki shaktiyon ko upayog mein laane ke liye prayaas kiye jaate rahe. abhi bhi adhik se adhik shaktiyon ko niyantrit karne mein vaigyaanik vyast hain evam prayatn jaari hai.

anukram

parichay

oopar likhe gaye shaktisroton mein vaayu, lahar, evam soorya dvaara praapt shaktiyaaain aantaraayik (intermittent) hoti hain aur yahi in sab ka sabse bada avagun hai, kyonki shakti ki maaaing yadi santat (continuous) ho, to is prakaar ki shaktiyon ko upayog mein laane ke liye inke sangrah ki vyavastha karni hogi. shakti sanyantr (plant) ke aakaar evam keemat ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue, bade paimaane (large scale) par shaktijnan ki avastha mein vaayu, lahar tatha soorya dvaara praapt shakti ka upayog laabhaprad naheen hota hai. kuchh sthaanon mein bade paimaane par shaktijnan ke liye jvaarabhaata ki shakti ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai, kintu is prakaar ke sanyantr ke nirmaan mein vyaya atyadhik hota hai.

vaigyaaniko dvaara "shakti" shabd ka prayog oorjaasancharan ki dar ke liye kiya jaata hai. saamaanya vyavahaar mein shakti ki ikaai vaat hoti hai.

oorja ke praakrutik sroton ko upayog mein laane ke liye adhishthaapan (installation) dvaara sambandhit upakaran teen vargon mein vibhaajit kiye ja sakte hain :

(1) mool chaalak (Prime mover), jiski sahaayata se praakrutik oorja yaantrik oorja mein parivrtit hoti hai. is prakaar ke varg mein bhaap engine, bhaap tarabaain, jal tarabaain, gas tarabaain, gas engine, tel engine aadi aate hain,
(2) kisi bhi prakaar ka yantr, jo mool chaalak dvaara praapt oorja se chalaaya jaata ho. vastut: is varg mein ve sabhi prakaar ke yantr, jaise sabhi machine aujaar (machine tools), panp (pump) yantr, lift (lift), kren (crane) aadi aate hain, jinhein chalaane ke liye atyadhik maatra mein oorja ki aavashyakta hoti hai. tatha
(3) ve upakaran, jinki sahaayata se mool chaalak dvaara praapt oorja yantron ko preshit (transmit) ki jaati hai.

praaya: mool chaalak un sthaanon mein, jahaaain oorja ke praakrutik srot prachur maatra mein praapya hon, sthaapit kiya jaata hai, jaise jalaprapaat ke nikat ya koyale ki khaanon ke kshetr mein. jalaprapaat ya praakrutik jal ke srot, jaise nadi, jheel aadi ke nikat dravachaalit (hydraulic) shakti sanyantr ki, jisein jal ki oorja jal tarabaain dvaara yaantrik oorja mein parivrtit ki jaati hai, sthaapana ki jaati hai. Damodar ghaati yojana ke antargat is prakaar ke sanyantr ki sthaapana, Bihar raajya ke dhanavaad jile mein maaithaan evam panchet aur hajaareebaag jila mein tilaiya naamak sthaanon par ki gayi hai. is prakaar ke sanyantr Bhaarat mein vibhinn sthaanon par sthaapit kiye gaye hain, jaise bhaakhara nangal, heeraakund, tungabhadra, rihand aadi. koyale ki khaanavaale kshetron mein koyale dvaara praapt ooshma oorja ko, ooshmeeya shaktisanyantr mein bhaap tarabaain, ya bhaap engine dvaara yaantrik oorja mein parivrtit kiya jaata hai. iske liye koyale ko jalaakar vaashpitr (boiler) mein bhaap taiyaar ki jaati hai aur is bhaap ka upayog mool chaalak, jaise bhaap tarabaain ya bhaap engine ko chalaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. is tarah ke ooshmeeya shaktisanyantr bokaaro (Bihar raajya) evam durgaapur (pashchim Bengal) mein hain. uparyukt prakaar ke dravachaalit evam ooshmeeya shaktisanyantr dvaara praapt oorja vipul parimaan mein bahut doori par sthit kal kaarkhaanon aadi mein sanchaarit ki jaati hai. is tarah ke shaktisancharan ki avastha mein shaktivitran ke tareeke evam upakaran adhik mahatvapoorn hain, kyonki mool chaalak se un sthaanon ki doori, jahaaain yantron dvaara oorja ka upayog hota hai, vitran ki dakshata par nirbhar karti hai.

kuchh kaarkhaanon mein mool chaalak dvaara praapt oorja niktavarti yantron mein hi sanchaarit ki jaati hai. is avastha mein tel dvaara chaalit mool chaalak, jaise tel engine, ka prayog adhik hota hai. ismein sancharanayantr ka adhik mahatva rahata hai, kyonki sancharan ki dakshata poore sanyantr ki dakshata ko prabhaavit karti hai. kabhi-kabhi mool chaalak ko yantr se is tarah jod diya jaata hai ki sancharan upakaran sugamataapoorvak mool chaalak, ya yantr se alag naheen kiya ja sakta. is varg mein rel engine aadi aate hain.

shaktisancharan ki vibhinn vidhiyaaain

shaktisancharan ke vibhinn vidhiyaaain hain :

  • (1) vaidyut vidhiyaaain
  • (2) yaantrik vidhiyaaain

sancharan ki vaidyut vidhiyaaain

vidyut shakti ka sanpreshan shiropari (overhead) taaron ke dvaara kiya jaata hai

shaktipreshan ki vaidyut yukti par nirantar anusandhaan ho rahe hain. satat parivrti vaidyut danti ka aavishkaar bahut pehle ho chuka hai. avarodh ko antaraasthaapit karke bal ke hraas ki praapti ki yuktiyaaain vastut: parivrti preshan naheen kahi ja sakti hain. shaktipreshan ki vaidyut yuktiyon ka upayog vaidyut railgaadiyon mein adhik hota hai. antardahan engine ke daayanemo (dynamo) ke liye moolachaalak ke roop mein vyavahrut kar vidyut utpann ki jaati hai aur chakron ko ghumaane ke liye khaas design kiye hue danti ko vaidyut motor ki sahaayata se chalaaya jaata hai.

yaantrik tareeke

yaantrik shakti ke sancharan ke liye geeyar ka upayog bahutaayat mein hota hai.

shakti ka yaantrik sancharan patte (belt) ya rajju (rope) ki sahaayata se shaift (shaft) dvaara, athva yantrichkr (wheel gearing) aur janjeer (chain) ki sahaayata se hota hai. paristhiti ke anusaar shakti ko sanchaarit karne ke liye ye tareeke alag alag, ya ek doosare ke saath, vyavahrut kiye jaate hain. mool chaalak ke anusaar shaktisancharan ke yaantrik upakaranon ka abhiklp evam nirmaan kiya jaata hai.

mool chaalak ke gatipaalak chakr (flywheel) par lage hue patte dvaara, shakti ko rekha shaift (line shaft) mein sanchaarit kiya jaata hai. rekha shaift par abhiklp ke anusaar ghirniyaaain (pulleys) lagi rahati hain. un ghirniyon par lage hue patte dvaara shakti ko rekhaashaift se vibhinn yantron mein sanchaarit kiya jaata hai. is prakaar ki pranaali mein sabse bada avagun yeh hai ki kisi bhi kaaranavash rekhaashaift ka chalana band hote hi sabhi yantr, jinhein rekhaashaift se shakti sancharit ki jaati hai, bekaar ho jaate hain.

is prakaar ke shaktisancharan ka maatraatmak vishleshan karne ke liye engine ke kraink sheft ko sancharan ka aarambh bindu evam yantr ke pratham gatimaan shaift ko sancharan ka antim bindu maan liya jaata hai. yeh anumaan vishisht yatr ke liye upayukt hai. maan liya ki engine ki gati N parikraman (revolutions) prati minute hai. is gati par chalte hue engine krainkashaift par lagaataar bal aadhoorn (torque) daalata rahata hai. maan liya ki bal aadhoorn ki maatra T kilogram prati meter hai. is avastha mein engine ki koneeya (angular) gati w, ka moolya hoga 2 x pai x N / 60. yahaaain w ki ikaai rediyn prati second hai. at: engine kraink shaift dvaara kiye gaye kaarya ki dar wT kilogram prati meter prati second hai. suvidha ke liye maan liya, kraink shaift se praapt sampoorn shakti ek hi yantr ko sancharit hoti hai. maan liya, us yantr par daala jaanevaala bal aaghoorn T1 kilogram prati meter hai aur w1 rediyn prati second yantr ki koneeya gati hai, tab us yantr dvaara praapt oorja ki dar hogi w1T1 kilogram meter prati second. gharshan evam anya avarodhon ko abhibhoot (overcome) karne ke liye oorja ka kuchh ansh sancharanayantr dvaara avashoshit (absorbed) hota hai. yadi aisa naheen ho, to yantr dvaara oorja avashoshan ki dar mool chaalak dvaara utpann oorja ki dar ke samatulya hogi. kintu vyavahaar mein aisa naheen hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein