shak

vishvaas aur avishvaas ke beech sthiti ke liye sandeh dekhein.
pehli shataabdi isaapoorv mein skithiya aur saramatiya
madhya Asia ka bhautik maanachitr, pashchimottar mein kaukas se lekar poorvottar mein mangoliya tak
skithiyon ke sone ke avashesh, baiktriya ki tiliya tepe puraatan-sthal se
300 isaapoorv mein madhya Asia ke pajiyrik kshetr se shak (skithi) ghudsavaar

shak praacheen madhya Asia mein rahane waali skithi logon ki ek janajaati ya janajaatiyon ka samooh tha. inki sahi nasl ki pehchaan karna kathin raha hai kyonki praacheen bhaarateeya, Irani, yoonaani aur cheeni srot inka alag-alag vivran dete hain. fir bhi adhiktar itihaasakaar maanate hain ki 'sabhi shak skithi the, lekin sabhi skithi shak naheen the', yaani 'shak' skithi samudaaya ke andar ke kuchh hisson ka jaati naam tha. skithi vishv ke bhaag hone ke naate shak ek praacheen Irani bhaasha-parivaar ki boli bolte the aur inka anya skithi-saramati logon se sambandh tha. shakon ka Bhaarat ke itihaas par gahra asar raha hai kyonki yeh yuejhi logon ke dabaav se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein ghus aaye aur unhonne yahaaain ek bada saamraajya banaaya. aadhunik bhaarateeya raashtreeya kailandar 'shak samvat' kahalaata hai. bahut se itihaasakaar inke dakshin Asiaee saamraajya ko 'shakaastaan' kehne lage hain, jismein Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, sindh, khaibar-pakhtoonakhva aur afgaanistaan shaamil the.[1][2]

anukram

vivran

shak praacheen aaryon ke vaidik kaaleen sambandhi rahe hain jo shaakal dweep par basane ke kaaran shaak athva shak kahalaaye. bhaarateeya puraan itihaas ke anusaar shaktishaali raaja sagar (Sargon-I) dvaara desh nikaale gaye the va lambe samay tak niraashraya rahane ke kaaran apna sahi itihaas surakshit naheen rakh paae. hoonon dvaara shakon ko shaakal dweep kshetr se bhi khaded diya gaya tha. jiske parinaam svarup shakon ka kai kshetron mein bikhraav huaashak 1, ki paribhaasha shak 1, ka arth shak 1 - shak 1sanjnyaa pun0 [san0] 1 . ek praacheen jaati. vishesh—apuraanon mein is jaati ki utpatti sooryavanshi raaja narishyant se kahi gayi hai. raaja sagar ne raaja narishyant ko raajyachyut tatha desh se nirvaasit kiya tha. varnaashram aadi ke niyamon ka paalan na karne ke kaaran tatha braahmanon se alag rahane ke kaaran ve mlechh ho gaye the. unheen ke vanshaj shak kahalaae.

aadhunik vidvanon ka mat hai ki madhya Asia pehle shakadveep ke naam se prasiddh tha. yoonaani is desh ko 'Syria' kehte the. usi madhya Asia ke rahanevaala shak kahe jaate hai. ek samay yeh jaati badi prataapashaalini ho gayi thi. isa se do sau varsh pehle isne Mathura aur Maharashtra par apna adhikaar kar liya tha. ye log apne ko devaputr kehte the. inhonne 190 varsh tak Bhaarat par raajya kiya tha. inmein kanishk aur havishk aadi bade bade prataapashaali raaja hue hain.

2 . vah raaja ya shaasak jiske naam se koi sanvat chale.

3 . raaja shaalivaahan ka chalaaya hua sanvat jo isa ke 78 varsh pashchaat aarambh hua tha.

4 . shaalivaahan ke anuyaayi athva uske vanshaj.

5 . sanvat. yau0—aashakakarta, shakakrut = de0 'shakakaarak'. shakakaal = de0 'shak sanvat'. shak sanvat = raaja shaalivaahan ka chalaaya hua sanvat. de0 'shak'—a3.

6 . taataar desh. 7 . jal. 8 . mal. gomaya. 9 . ek prakaar ka pashu. 10 . sandeh. aashanka. bhaya. traas. dar.

Bhaarat ke pashchimottar bhaag kaapeesa aur gaandhaar mein yavanon ke kaaran thahar na sake aur bolan ghaati paar kar Bhaarat mein pravisht hue. tatpashchaat unhonne pushkalaavati evam takshashila par adhikaar kar liya aur vahaaain se yavan hat gaye. 72 E. poo. shakon ka prataapi neta moas uttar pashchimaant ke pradeshon ka shaasak tha. usane mahaaraajaadhiraaj mahaaraaj ki upaadhi dhaaran ki jo usaki mudraaon par ankit hai. usi ne apne adheen kshatrapon ki niyukti ki jo takshashila, Mathura, Maharashtra aur ujjain mein shaasan karte the. kaalaantar mein ye svatantr ho gaye. shak videshi samajhe jaate the yadyapi unhonne shaiv mat ko sveekaar kar kiya tha. maalav jan ne vikramaaditya ke netrutv mein maalava se shakon ka raajya samaapt kar diya aur is vijay ke smaarak roop mein vikram sanvat ka prachalan kiya jo aaj bhi hinduon ke dhaarmik kaaryon mein vyavahrut hai. shakon ke anya raajyon ka shakaari vikramaaditya guptavansh ke chandragupt dviteeya ne samaapt karke ekachhatr raajya sthaapit kiya. shakon ko bhi anya videshi jaatiyon ki bhaaainti bhaarateeya samaaj ne aatmasaat kar liya. shakon ki praarambhik vijyon ka smaarak shak sanvat aaj tak prachalit hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. The age of the Parthians, Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis, Sarah Stewart, I.B.Tauris, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84511-406-0, ... whose names are not clearly transmitted, succeeded in expelling the Saca horde from Drangiana, and drove them eastwards into Arachosia and the Punjab. There the invaders established a powerful kingdom, known as Sakastan ...
  2. Varia: Numismatic Chronicle, Sir Alexander Cunningham, Bernard Quaritch, London, 1890 ... The words are sarva Sakastana puyae, "for the merit of all the people of Sakastan," that is of the country occupied by the Sakas. The name of the city of Taxila is also found on the capital. At this time, therefore, the Indian territory of the Sakas must have extended from the Indus to Mathura, and from Kashmir to Sindh ...