shaivaal

ek shaivaal
laureinshiya

shaivaal (Algae / elgi) saral sajeev hain. adhikaansh shaivaal paudhon ke samaan soorya ke prakaash ki upasthiti mein prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya dvaara apna bhojan svanya banaate hain arthaat svaposhi hote hain. ye ek koshikeeya se lekar bahu-koshikeeya anek roopon mein ho sakte hain, parantu paudhon ke samaan ismein jad, pattiyaan ityaadi rachanaaen naheen pai jaati hain. ye nam bhoomi, alavaneeya evam lavaneeya jal, vrukshon ki chhaal, nam deevaaron par hari, bhoori ya kuchh kaali paraton ke roop mein milte hain.

anukram

parichay

bhoomandal par paae jaanevaale paudhon ka vibhaajan do bade vibhaagon mein kiya gaya hai. jo paudhe fool tatha beej naheen utpann karte unako kriptogaim (Cryptogams) kehte hain aur jo fool, fal evam beej utpann karte hain ve fenerogaim (Phanerogams) kahalaate hain. shaivaalon ka vargeekaran kriptogaim ke thailofaaita (Thallophyta) varg mein kiya gaya hai. ye paudhe nimn shreni ke hote hain, jinmein parnaharit (chlorophyll) paryaapt maatra mein paaya jaata hai. parnaharit vidyamaan hone ke kaaran, ye bahudha hare rang ke hote hain. kuchh shaivaal aise bhi hote hain jinka rang laal, bhoora athva neela hara hota hai. adhikaansh shaivaal paani mein taalaabon, ruke hue jalaashayon tatha samudron mein paae jaate hain. kuchh shaivaal paadapon ke tanon par, athva patthar ki shilaaon ke oopar, hari parat ke roop mein uga karte hain. kuchh neele hare varn ke shaivaal snaanaagaar, nadiyon tatha taalaabon ke sopaanon par bhi ugate hain. ye ek prakaar ka chikna padaarth chhodte hain, jiske kaaran bahudha log fislakar gir jaaya karte hain. paani mein paida honevaale shaivaalon ka vibhaajan do bhaagon mein kiya jaata hai. kuchh meethe paani ke shaivaal hote hain jo taalaabon, jheelon, nadiyon aadi mein ugate hain, tatha kuchh khaare paani ke, jo samudron mein paae jaate hain. meethe paani ke shaivaal ko alavan jalashaivaal (Fresh water algae) kehte hain tatha khaare paaneevaalon ko saamudrik shaivaal (Marine algae) ki sanjnyaa dete hain. paani mein ye ya to svatantr roop mein tairate rahate hain, athva dharaatal par ek vishesh ang dvaara, jise sthaapanaang (Hold fast) kehte hain, sthir rahate hain. paani mein tairanevaale shaivaal ya to ekakosheeya ya bahukosheeya hote hain.

rachana ke vichaar se shaivaalon mein bahut vibhinnata pai jaati hai. kuchh to ati sookshm ekakoshik hote hain, jo keval sookshmadarshi dvaara hi drushya hain tatha kuchh aise hote hain jo kai seinmi. lambe hote hain. klorela (Chlorella), klaimidomaunais (Chlamydomonas) aadi pratham koti mein hi aate hain. bade kotivaale shaivaal sootravat‌ (filamentous) hote hain, jo kai koshikaaon ke bane hote hain. sabse bada shaivaal maikrosistis (Macrocystis) hai, jo laakhon koshikaao se bana tatha kai sau foot lamba hota hai. pratyek koshika ke andar ek keindrak (nucleus) hota hai, jiske chaaron or koshikaaras hota hai. pratyek koshika chaaron or se koshikeeya deevaaron se ghiri hoti hai. parnaharit tatha kloroplaast (chloroplast) koshikaaras mein bikhre rahate hain.

varshi sanrachana (vegetative structure) ke vichaar se shaivaal kai vibhaagon mein baaainte ja sakte hain. kuchh to ekakoshik tatha bhramanasheel hote hain, jinmein kashabhika (flagellum) vidyamaan rahata hai, jaise yooglina (Euglena) mein. kuchh jaatiyon ke anek ekakoshik milkar jhund banaate hain aur kashaabhika ke sahaare ek jagah se doosari jagah bhraman karte hain, jaise plyoodonraaina (Pleudorina), vaulavauks (Volvox) aadi. kuchh gol (Coccoid) roop dhaaran kiye hote hain, jaise klorokaukkam (Chlorococcum), kuchh sootravat‌ (filamentous) hote hain, jaise spaairojaaira (Spirogyra) tatha yooloaks (Ulothrix). kuchh mein dandavat‌ roop tatha seedha roop ek saath hota hai. inhein hetarotraaikas shreni mein rakhate hain jaise fraschiyella (Fritschiella). is shaivaal mein do vibhaag hote hain, ek to jameen mein dharaatal ke samaanaantar sootravat‌ ansh hote hai, jise bhooshaayi (prostrate) bhaag kehte hain. inheen bhaagon mein se seedhe uganevaale sootravat‌ bhaag (filamentous form) paida hote hain, jinhein irekt sistem (Erect system) kehte hain. aise hi shaivaalon se pruthvi par ke bade bade paadapon ke praadurbhaav ka hona samjha jaata hai.

shaivaalon mein poshan ki samasya svat: hal hoti hai. inmein parnaharit vidyamaan rahata hai, isliye prakaashasanshlesh ki vidhi se ye apna bhojan swayam bana lete hain. at: aise paudhe svaposhi (Autotrophs) kahe jaate hain.

janan

shaivaalon mein janan kai prakaar se hota hai. kuchh to swayam vibhaajit hote rahate hain aur badhte chale jaate hain. yeh kriya adhiktar koshika vibhaajan ki reeti se hoti hai. ekakoshik shaivaal isi reeti se janan karte hain. bade koti ke shaivaalon mein alaingik tatha laingik donon prakaar ke janan hote hain. alaingik janan kai dhang se ho sakta hai. kuchh shaivaalon mein chalabeejaanuon (Zoospores) ki utpatti hoti hai. chalabeejaanu nange jeevadravya (Protoplasm) ka pind hota hai, jo kashaabhika ke sahaare ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par ja sakta hai. chalabeejaanu paani ke shaivaalon mein paida hote hain. ye svat: ankurit hokar naya shaivaal banaate hain. jab paani ki maatra kam hone lagti hai, athva vipreet vaataavaran aa padta hai, to achalabeejaanu (aplanospores) bante hain, jo mote aavaran se chaaron or ghire rahate hain. inmein kashaabhika naheen hoti. kuchh shaivaalon mein alaingik janan nishchesht beejaanuon (akinetes) dvaara hota hai. inke banane ki reeti yeh hai ki shaivaal ki koi bhi koshika golaakar hokar moti tah ke aavaran roop mein chaaron or se aachhaadit ho jaati hai. aisi dasha to keval asangat paristhiti mein hi dekhi jaati hai, visheshakar jab shushk aur garm vaataavaran ho jaata hai. jab anukool vaataavaran praapt ho jaata hai tab inka ankuran hone lagta hai aur oopari, moti tah ki deevaar dheere se toot jaati hai aur navajaat shaivaal ka nirmaan hone lagta hai. kuchh shaivaal paani ke kinaare pade rahate hain. jab vipreet vaataavaran hota hai, tab inki koshikaaon mein vibhaajan to hota hi rahata hai, parantu ye vilg naheen ho paateen, apitu koshika ki deevaar moti hoti jaati hai aur uske andar kai koshikaaeain bhari padi rahati hain. jab anukool vaataavaran aata hai, tab ye ankurit hokar naya shaivaal banaati hain. aisi dasha ko pailamela avastha (Palmella stage) kehte hain.

laingik janan (sexual reproduction) do vibhinn prakaar ki koshikaaon ke sanyog se hota hai. in koshikaaon ko yugmak (gametes) kehte hain. ye yugmak yugmakadhaaniyon (gametangia) mein paida hote hain. donon prakaar ke yugmakon ke sanyojan (fusion) se yugmaj (zygote) banta hai. yugmakon ke jode, jismein se ek pitrupaksh ka tatha doosra maatrupaksh ka hota hai, teen prakaar ke hote hain :

(1) samayugmak (isogametes) mein donon prakaar ke yugmakon ki rachana tatha aakaar samaan hota hai. inke dvaara honevaale janan ko samayugmaki (isogamous) janan ki sanjnyaa dete hain.

(2) do sanyojit yugmak (fusing gametes) dekhne mein ek dhang ke hote hain tatha kashaabhika dvaara bhramanasheel hote hain, parantu ek chhota tatha doosra bada hota hai. chhote yugmak ko laghuyugmak (Microgamete) tatha bade ka guruyugmak (Macrogamete) kehte hain. ye yugmak visham hote hain tatha aise janan ko asayayugmaki (anisogamous) janan kehte hain.

(3) donon prakaar ke yugmak bhinn aakaar ke hote hain. ek chhota aur bhramanasheel tatha doosra bada aur sthir hota hai. pratham kotivaale ko punyugmakash (Male gamete) tatha doosare ko stri yugmak (Female gamete) ya anda kehte hain. is prakaar ke janan ko vishmayugmak (oogamoos) janan kehte hain. is prakaar ka janan bahudha bade shaivaalon mein hota hai aur ise vishmayugmakata (Oogamy) kehte hain.

sanyojan (fusion) ki kriya ke falasvaroop yugmaj aur yugmaanu (zygospore) bante hain. ye ankurit hote hain. ankuran ke samay inmein chalabeejaanu bante hain jo baahar aane par ankurit hokar nae shaivaal ko janm dete hain. samayugmaki saadhaaran koti ka tatha vishmayugmaki uchch koti ka janan samjha gaya hai.

shaivaalon ka vibhaajan

chhichhle samudra ki satah par uge hue tarah-tarah ke shaivaal

vibhinn vaigyaaniko ke mat se vibhinn vibhaagon mein kiya gaya hai. ef. E. fratsh (F. E. Fristsch) naamak ek mahaan‌ shaivaalavijnyaaanavetta ne shaivaalon ko gyaarah vibhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya hai, jo nimn prakaar hain :

(1) miksofaaisii - ye shaivaal saadhaaran koti ke hote hain, jinki koshika mein nishchit keindrak naheen hota, parantu keindrajanit vastueain koshika mein vidyamaan rahati hain. parnaharit ke atirikt faaikosaainin (phycocyanin) tatha faaikoerithraan (phycoerythrin) bhi vidyamaan rahate hain. janan vikhandan (fission) dvaara hota hai laingik janan naheen hota. sootravat‌ paudhon (filamentous members) mein hetarosists (heterocysts) vidyamaan hote hain. kisi kisi mein sameruka (hormogonium) banta hai, jo janan mein sahaayak hota hai. is vibhaag ke paudhe jameen, vrukshon ke tanon evam daaliyon tatha inton par aur paani mein paida hote hain. ekakoshik shaivaal kabhi kabhi chipchipa padaarth paida karte hain aur isi mein hajaaron ki sankhya mein pade rahate hain.

(2) yoogleenofaaisii - ye meethe paani ya khaare paani mein paae jaate hain. bahudha ekaaki aur svatantr roop mein bhramanasheel athva sthir rahate hain. inmein paudhon tatha jaanvaron ke gun vidyamaan rahate hain. koshika mein keindrak tatha kashaabhika vidyamaan rahati hai. janan vibhaajan dvaara hota hai.

(3) klorofaaisii - in shaivaalon mein nishchit keindrak tatha parnaharit vidyamaan rahate hain. barfeele sthaanon ke shaivaalon ki banaavat mein vibhinnata pai jaati hai. ekakoshik se lekar sootravat‌ paudhe tak inmein milte hain. laingik janan samayugmak se asamayugmak tak milta hai.

(4) jainthofaaisii - in shaivaalon mein parnapeet (xanthophyll) rang vidyamaan rahata hai. staarch ke atirikt tail padaarth bhojya padaarth ke roop mein rahata hai. kashaabhika do hoti hain, jo lanbaai mein samaan naheen hoteen. laingik janan bahudha naheen hota. yadi hota hai, to samayugmak hi hota hai. koshika ki deevaar mein do sam ya asam vibhaajan hote hain.

(5) kraaisofaaisii - inmein bhoora ya naarangi rang ka varnakeelavak (chromatophore) hota hai. bhramanasheel koshika mein ek, do ya teen kashaabhikaaeain hoti hain. laingik janan samayugmak dhang ka hota hai.

(6) baisileriyofaaisii - inki koshikaaon ki deevaaron par sikta (baaloo) vidyamaan rahati hai. deevaar aabhooshit rahati hai. rang peela, ya svarn rang ka, athva bhoora hota hai. laingik janan samayugmak hota hain. kabhi kabhi asamayugmak bhi hota hai.

(7) kriptofaaisii - inki pratyek koshika mein do bade varnakeelavak hote hain, jinka rang vibhinn hota hai. inmein bhoore rang ka baahulya hota hai. bhramanasheel koshika mein do asamaanakashaabhikaaeain hoti hain. laingik janan keval ek prajaati mein asamayugmak hota hai.

(8) kairofaaisii - ye paudhon ke tane tatha shaakhaaon sadrush roop ke bane hote hain. parnaharit rahata hai. laingik janan asamayugmak hota hai. shukraanu mein do kashaabhikaaeain hoti hain. staarch pratyek koshika mein vidyamaan rahata hai. kabhi kabhi laingik janan vishmayugmak prakaar ka bhi hota hai.

(9) daainofaaisii - is kul ke shaivaal adhiktar ek koshikeeya hote hain, parantu sootravat‌ hone ki kshamata dheere dheere badhti jaati hai, koshikeeya deevaarein aabhooshit rahati hain. staarch tatha vasa prakaash sanshleshan ke falasvaroop bante hain.

(10) feeyofaaisii - ye adhiktar samudra mein paae jaate hain. inka rang bhoora hota hai, kyonki inmein fyookojaithin (fucoxanthin) vidyamaan rahata hai. prakaashasanshleshan ke falasvaroop vasa, paulisaikairaaid (Polysaccharides) tatha cheeni banti hai. paudhe sootravat‌ hote hain. janan angon mein do kashaabhikaaeain hoti hain. laingik janan vishmayugmak sa hota hai. kabhi kabhi samayugmak janan bhi hota hai.

(11) rodofaaisii - is kutunb ke shaivaal bhi samudra mein paae jaate hain. is kutunb mein bahut kam aise shaivaal hote hain jo meethe paani mein ugate hain. vah gulaabi rang ka hota hai, kyonki faaikoerian (Phycoerythrin) naamak varnak vidyamaan rahata hai. janan ang bina kashaabhika ke hote hain. paudhe sootravat‌ tatha adhiktar asaadhaaran dhang ke hote hain. laigik janan vishmayugmak (oogamous) hota hai. sistokaarp (cystocarp) mein falabeejaanu (corpospores) kehte hain.

shaivaal ka aarthik mahatva

shaivaal ka upayog teen kshetronkrushi, udyog aur chikitsa mein bada hi mahatvapoorn hai. pichhle 20 varshon se krushi mein shaivaal ke upayog par anek mahatvapoorn baatein sthir ki gayi hai. prayogashaalaaon mein anusandhaan karne se pata chala hai ki shaivaal vaayu se naaitrojan lekar, mitti mein naaitrojan ke yaugikon mein parint kar, use sthir karte hain. paudhon ke liye naaitrojan atyadhik upayogi poshak tatv hai. is kaaran shaivaal ki mahatta badh gayi hai. yeh naaitrojan ko sthir karke mitti ki urvara shakti ko badhaata hai aur fasal mein vruddhi karta hai. Bhaarat mein anek vaigyaaniko ke anusandhaan se yeh gyaat hua hai ki shaivaal dvaara praaya: 20 se lekar 30 pound prati ekad tak naaitrojan ki vruddhi mitti mein sthir naheen karte. keval miksofaaisii (Myxophyceae) jaati ke shaivaal hi is kaarya mein praveen hain. inmein naustak (Nostuc), taulipoaks (Tolypothrix), aulisora faratilisima (Aulisora Fertilissima) tatha enaabeena (Anabaena) ityaadi hi sabse adhik mahatva ke sthaapak siddh hue hain. Cuttack ke dhaanaanusandhaan kendra ke anusandhaan se yeh gyaat hua hai ki taulipoakas sabse adhik naaitrojan sthaapit karta hai. dhaan ke paudhon ke vishleshan se yeh bhi pata laga hai ki shaivaal ki khaadavaale kheton ke paudhe mitti se adhik maatra mein naaitrojan ka avashoshan karte hain.

Cuttack anusandhaan kendra ne pareeksha karke dekha hai ki kheton mein shaivaal ko krutrim roop se upajaane par dhaan ki fasal mein 800 pound tak ki vruddhi hui. naaitrojan sthir karanevaale shaivaal ki bahut nyoon maatra baaloo mein milaakar, kheton mein daali gayi tatha sinchaai ki gayi. isse shaivaal ki vruddhi hui, naaitrojan adhik maatra mein mitti mein praapt hua tatha dhaan ki fasal mein bhi vruddhi hui. lekhak ke anusandhaan se yeh bhi jaankaari praapt hui hai ki shaivaal se mitti ki oopari satah par lagbhag 24 pound fausfet ki vruddhi hoti hai. saath saath 1,000 pound jaiv kaarban bhi badh jaata hai, jisse mitti ki sanrachana aur urvara shakti mein unnati hoti hai.

shaivaal ke audyogik prayog vibhinn dishaaon mein kiye gaye hain. shaivaal se aigaar-aigaar (Agar-agar) naak jatil kaarbanik padaarth, jo sharkara varg ke antargat hai, nikaala jaata hai. isse vaigyaanik prayogashaalaaon mein jeevaanuposh padaarth (media) banaaya jaata hai. yeh fal parirkshan mein bhi kaam aata hai. yeh jeleediym (Geledium) aur graasilaariya (Gracillaria) naamak shaivaal mein adhik paaya jaata hai.

shaivaal se aayodeen\aayodin (Iodine) naamak tatv nikaala jaata hai, jo oshadhi mein tatha anya kshetron mein kaam aata hai. rodimeeniya (Rhodymenia) aur filofora (Phyllophora) naamak shaivaalon mein aayodin adhik rahata hai.

samudra mein paae jaanevaale shaivaal maveshiyon ke liye chaare ke roop mein vyavahrut hote hain. inka aisa upayog safalataapoorvak ijraayal mein ho chuka hai.

shaivaal manushya ka bhi khaadya padaarth hai. kaha jaata hai, annasankat mein shaivaal upayogi khaadyapadaarth siddh ho sakta hai. shaivaal mein sabhi vitaamin, proteen, vasa, sharkara tatha lavan, jo khaadyapadaarth ki mukhya saamagri hai, vartamaan hai. nichiya (Nitzscaia) daaiaitaum mein vitaamin A (A) adhik hai. alva (Ulva) tatha paurafira (Porphyra) mein vitaamin ki maatra adhik hoti hai. aleriya vaalida (Alaria Valida) mein vitaamin si (C) adhik paaya jaata hai. neeche diye hue aaainkadon se kuchh shaivaalon ke poshak tatvon ka pata chalta hai :

naustak kamyoon flaijeli roop (Nostuc commune Flagelli form)
jal % --- proteen% --- vasa% --- sharkara % --- resha % --- lavan %
10.6 20.9 1.2 55.7 4.1 7.5
alva laiktooka (Ulva Lactuca) aur alva faasiyeta (Ulva Faciata)
jal % --- proteen% --- vasa% --- sharkara % --- resha % --- lavan %
18.7 14.9 0.04 50.6 0.2 15.6

Japan, cheen, Indonesia, Australia, malaaya ityaadi poorvi deshon mein shaivaal mukhya khaadya padaarth hai.

shaivaal machhaliyon ka aahaar hai. jal mein rahanevaale anya jeev jantuon ke liye bhi shaivaal poshak padaarth hai. pashuon ke chaare ke roop mein bhi iska upayog ho sakta hai. badhti hui aabaadi ke aatank se chhutakaara paane tatha khaadya samasya ko hal karne ke liye, shaivaal par tvreea gati se prayog jaari hain. yeh kaha jaata hai ki annasankat ko door karne mein klorela (Chlorella) naamak shaivaal bahut hi upayogi siddh ho sakta hai. yeh shaivaal paushtik padaarthon se paripoorn hai. yeh failane ke liye adhik sthaan bhi naheen leta. jitni jameen aaj hamein praapt hai, uske 1/5 hisse mein hi klorela ke upajaane se 2050 E. mein anumaanit 70 arab janasankhya ke liye bhojan, vidyut‌ aur jalaavan praapt ho sakta hai. kaaneingi instityoot, (sanyukt raajya, amareeka,) ke vaigyaaniko ne ek praayogik kaarkhaana bahut bade paimaane par klorela utpaadan ke hetu khola hai. ab tak ke utpaadan se yeh anumaan kiya gaya hai ki prati ekad jameen se 40 tan klorela sugamataapoorvak ugaaya ja sakta hai. in vaigyaaniko ka vishvaas hai ki yeh maatra 150 tan tak pahuainch sakti hai.

venijuela mein kushtharog ki chikitsa mein shaivaal laabhaprad siddh hua hai. shaivaal se "lemenarin' naamak ek padaarth banaaya gaya hai, jiska upayog oshadhiyon mein tatha shalyachikitsa mein ho sakta hai. kuchh shaivaalon mein maleriya ke machharon ke dinbon ka naash karne ki kshamata bhi pai gayi hai. at: inka upayog maleriya unmoolan mein bhi ho sakta hai.

klorela se ham paryaapt parimaan mein okseejan praapt kar sakte hain. vaigyaanik yeh khoj kar rahe hain ki okseejan ko kaise krutrim upaayon dvaara shaivaal se nikaalkar audyogik kaaryon mein prayukt kiya jaae.

vibhinn kshetron mein shaivaal ke upayogon ko dekhte hue yeh baat hota hai ki kuchh hi dinon mein iske mahatvapoorn tatha chamatkaari gunon dvaara ham maanav jaati ki anek samasyaaon ko aasaani se hal kar sakeinge.

jahaaain shaivaalon ke anek laabhaprad upayog hain, vahaaain inmein kuchh dosh bhi paae gaye hain. kuchh shaivaal jal ko dooshit kar dete hain. kuchh se aisi gaisein niklati hain jo svaasthya ke liye haanikaarak hain. kuchh shaivaal doosare paudhon par rog bhi failaate hain. chai ki patti ka laal rog, sefelyooras (Cephaleuros), shaivaal ke kaaran hi hota hai.

shaivaal ke raasaayanik avayav

iski jaankaari 1883 E. se shuru hui jab stainafard (Stanfurd) ne shaivaal hui jab stainafard (Stanfurd) ne shaivaal mein ailjinik (Alginic) aml ki upasthiti ka pata lagaaya. vilsataatar aur staul (Wilistatter and Stoll) ne shaivaalon mein parnaharit aur anya rangeen padaarthon ki upasthiti batailaai. 1896 E. mein molish (Molisch) ne siddh kiya ki shaivaalon ki vruddhi ke liye khanij lavan aavashyak hain. fir anek vyaktiyon ne jeevaanuon se poornataya alag karke sanbardh vilyan mein shaivaal ko ugaane ka prayatn kiya. inmein sabse adhik safalta pringashaaim (Pringsheim) ko mili. shaivaal ke upaapachaya (metabolism) par kaarya karne ka shreya piyrasaal (Pearsall) aur looj (Loose) ko hai, jinhonne siddh kiya ki shaivaal aur paudhon mein pramukh raasaayanik kriyaaeain praaya: ek si hi hoti hain. inmein vishesh antar naheen hai. shaivaalon mein prakaashasanshleshan par enjelamaan (Engelman) tatha vaaravurg (Warburg) ka kaarya vishesh roop se ullekhaneeya hai. shaivaalon ki raasaayanik kriyaaon ki savistar sameeksha meeyers aur blink (Mayers and Blink) ne 1951 E. mein ki. isse shaivaal ke sambandh ki vaigyaanik aur vyaavahaarik jaankaari paryaapt roop se praapt hui hai. shaivaal ke shvasan ke sambandh mein vaataanaabe (Watanabe, 1932-37 E.) kailvin (Calvin, 1951 E.), eni (Eny, 1950 E.), Anderson (Anderson, 1945 E.) aur vevstar (Webster, 1951 E.) ke anusandhaan vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. in vaigyaaniko ke mataanusaar shvasan okseekaran kriya hai, jismein sharkara ke okseekaran se oorja utpann hoti hai aur shaivaal ke nirmaan aur vruddhi mein kaam aati hai.

sabhi shaivaalon mein varnak yaugik, visheshat: parnaharit aur kairoteen, hote hai. kisi kisi mein faaikosaayaanin (Phycocyanin) bhi paaya jaata hai. yeh varnak yaugik prakaash ke avashoshan dvaara oorja utpann kar parnaharit banaata hai. parnaharit prakaash oorja dvaara ilektraun nikaalata hai, jiske dvaara yaugikon ke apachayan mein oorja praapt hoti hai. apachayit padaarth ka pun: okseekaran hokar, prakaash dvaara oorja ka aadaan pradaan hota rahata hai. aisi hi kriyaaon se kaarban daaioksaaid ka apachayan hokar sharkara, staarch, selulos aadi aur fir unase proteen, vasa, tel aadi sanshleshit hote hain.

shaivaal ke upaachaya ke utpaad

shaivaal mein sharkaraaeain pai jaati hai. kuchh mein glookos, kuchh mein trehalos, kuchh mein peintos paae jaate hain. inki maatraaeain vibhinn shaivaalon mein vibhinn rahati hain. anek shaivaalon mein staarch paae jaate hain. aise sab staarch ek se naheen hote hain, kuchh mein glaaikojen bhi paaya gaya hai. kuchh mein laiminairin naamak sharkara pai gayi hai. shaivaal ki koshikaaon ki bhitti hoti hai.

samudri shaivaal mein aigaar-aigaar naamak paulisaikaraaid milta hai. anya kai paulisaikaraaid vibhinn shaivaalon mein milte hain. shaivaalon mein vasa bhi milti hai. aisi vasa mein pradhaanataya paamitik aml rahata hai. steraul bhi kuchh shaivaal mein milte hain. kuchh shaivaalon mein nitol bhi, jo sambhavat: fraktog ke apachayan se banta hai, paaya gaya hai. shaivaalon mein jo proteen paae gaye hai unke vightan utpaad, aimino amlon ka vistaar se adhyayan hua hai. lagbhag 16 aimino aml ab tak pruthak‌ kiye ja chuke hain. inmein sabse adhik maatra mein aarjinin paaya gaya.

ye bhi deinkhe

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