shail

kalaraado springs company ka gaarden of gauds mein sthit santulit shail
kosta rika ke orosi ke nikat ki chattaanein

pruthvi ki oopari parat ya bhoo-patal (krast) mein milne vaale padaarth chaahe ve grenaait tatha baaluka patthar ki bhaanti kathor prakruti ke ho ya chaak ya ret ki bhaanti komal; chaak evam laaimaston ki bhaanti praveshya hon ya slet ki bhaanti apraveshya hon, chattaan athva shail (rock) kahe jaate hain. inki rachana vibhinn prakaar ke khanijon ka sammishran hain. chattaan kai baar keval ek hi khanij dvaara nirmit hoti hai, kintu saamaanyat: yeh do ya adhik khanijon ka yog hoti hain. pruthvi ki papadi ya bhoo-prushth ka nirmaan lagbhag 2,000 khanijon se hua hai, parantu mukhya roop se keval 20 khanij hi bhoo-patal nirmaan ki drushti se mahatvapoorn hain. bhoo-patal ki sanrachana mein okseejan 46.6%, silikn 27.7%, elyoominiym 8.1 %, loha 5%, kailsiym 3.6%, sodiym 2.8%, pautaishiym 2.6% tatha maigneshiym 2.1% bhaag ka nirmaan karte hain.

anukram

prakaar

chattaan mukhyat: aagneya avasaadi evam kaayaantarit teen prakaar ke hote hain. aagneya chattaanein pruthvi ke tapt, pighle maigma ke thanda hokar thos ho jaane se nirmit hoti hain. hamaari pruthvi praarambh mein garm evam pighli avastha mein thi. at: pruthvi ke oopari aavaran ke thanda hone se pruthvi par sarvapratham aagneya chattaanein hi bani. isi se aagneya chattaanon ko praarambhik chattaanein bhi kehte hain.[1] sthiti ke aadhaar par ye antarnirmit ya bahinirmit prakaar ki hoti hain. soorya-taap, varsha, paala aadi dvaara choorn kiye gaye padaarthon ko nadi ya himnadi bahaakar athva hava udaakar kisi jheel, samudra ya anya nichle bhaagon mein parat ke oopar parat jama kar deti hain. in jama kiye gaye padaarthon ko 'avasaad' tatha inse nirmit chattaanon ko avasaadi chattaanein kehte hain. chooainki in chattaanon mein parate paayi jaati hain at: inhein paratadaar chattaanein bhi kehte hain. pruthvi ke aantarik taap, dabaav athva donon ke prabhaav se aagneya, avasaadi athva anya parivrtit chattaanon ke mool roop mein parivartan ho jaane se banane waali chattaanon ko parivrtit ya roopaantarit chattaan kehte hain.

basaalt

basaalt ek jvaalaamukhi chattaan hoti hai. yeh chahattan kaale bhoore rang ki hoti hai. yeh chattaan sookshm kanon se bani hoti hai. is prakaar ki chattaan meintal ke pighlane ki vajah se banti hai. iska prayog moortiyaaain banaane me hota hai.

basaalt ek jvaalaamukhi chattaan hai

grenaait

yeh chattaanein gulaabi bhoore rang ki hoti hain. yeh bahut hi kathor hoti hain, aur inka prayog nirmaan kaarya me bahut adhik maatra me hota hai. inhein hindi mein kanaashm bhi kehte hain.

chennai, Bhaarat me grenaait ki chattaanein
Various granites.jpg

saidimaintari

  • argilite
  • aargose
  • kol
  • dolamaait
  • flint
  • gritston
  • lignaait
  • laaimston
  • maarl
  • madsatan
  • saindaston
  • slitstone

shailon ka aarthik mahatva

manushya pruthvi tal par vividh kriyaakalaap lambe samay se kar raha hai. samay aur takaneeki vikaas ke saath vah shailon aur khanijon ka vividh upayog karta raha hai. vaigyaanik aur takaneeki gyaan jaise-jaise badhta gaya vaise-vaise manushya ki sukh-suvidhaaon ke liye shailon aur khanijon ki upayogita badhti gayi.

shail aur khanij aarthik drushti se bahut hi mahatvapoorn hain. ye sabhi prakaar ki dhaatuon, moolyavaan patthar, udyogon ke liye maal aur indhan ke srot hain. shailon ke mahatva ke sambandh mein sankshipt jaankaari neeche di gayi hai:

  • (1) mruda shailon se praapt hoti hai. mruda se maanav ke liye bhojan milta hai, iske saath hi vibhinn krushi utpaadon se udyog-dhandhon ke liye kachcha maal bhi praapt hota hai.
  • (2) bhavan nirmaanakaari saamagri shailon se pratyaksh aur paroksh roop se praapt hoti hai. shailein hi sabhi prakaar ke bhavanon ki saamagri ka ekamaatra srot hai. grenaait, nees, baluaa patthar, sangamaramar aur slet aadi ka makaan banaane mein bhaari maatra mein upayog hota hai. Tajmahal safed sangamaramar se bana hai. Delhi aur Agra ka laal kila laal baluaa patthar se bane hain. Bhaarat aur videshon mein bhi slet ka upayog chhaton ke nirmaan mein kiya jaata hai.
  • (3) khanijon ke srot : khanij aadhunik sabhyata ki aadhaarashila hain. dhaatvik khanijon mein moolyavaan sona, platinum, chaandi, taanba se lekar elyoomeeniym aur loha milta hai. ye dhaatvik khanij vibhinn prakaar ki shailon mein paaye jaate hain.
  • (4) kachchaamaal : kai shailon aur khanijon ka upayog vibhinn prakaar ke udyogon ke liye kachche maal ke roop mein hota hai. cement udyog tatha choona bhattiyon mein kai prakaar ki shailon aur khanijon ka upayog taiyaar maal praapt karne ke liye kiya ja raha hai. grefaait ka upayog surama aur peinsil nirmaan udyog mein kiya jaata hai.
  • (5) moolyavaan patthar : vibhinn prakaar ki roopaantarit athva aagneya shailon se praapt hote hain. heera bahut hi moolyavaan patthar hai. usaka upayog javaaharaat banaane mein hota hai. ye ek roopaantarit shail hai. isi prakaar doosare moolyavaan patthar panna, neelam aadi bhi vibhinn prakaar ke shailon se praapt hote hain.
  • (7) uvarrak bhi shailon se praapt kiye jaate hain. faasfet urvarak faasferaait naamak khanij se milta hai. sansaar ke kuchh bhaagon mein faasferaait khanij adhik maatra mein paaya jaata hai.

sandarbh

  1. tivaari, vijay shankar (July 2005). naveen bhoogol darpan. Kolkata: nirmal prakaashan. pa॰ 30.

teeka tippani

k. ...rocks are the books of earth's history and fossils are the pages: S. W. Woolridge & R. S. Morgan 1959.

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