shabdakoshon ka itihaas

shabdakoshon ke aaranbhik astitv ki charcha mein anek deshon aur jaatiyon ke naam jude hue hain. Bhaarat mein puraatanatam upalabdh shabdakosh vaidik 'nighntu' hai. usaka rachanaakaal kam se kam 700 ya 800 i0 poo0 hai. uske poorv bhi 'nighantu' ki parampara thi. at: kam se kam i0 poo0 1000 se hi nighantu koshon ka sanpaadan hone laga tha. kaha jaata hai ki cheen mein isavi san ke hajaaron varsh pehle se hi kosh banane lage the. par is shrutipranpara ka pramaan bahut baad— aage chalakar us pratham cheeni kosh mein milta hai, jiska rachana 'shuo ven' (S-H-you-O-dablyoo-E-N) ne pehli doosari shadi i0 ke aaspaas ki thi (121 i0 bhi iska nirmaan kaal kaha gaya hai). cheen ke 'haan' raajaaon ke raajya- kaal mein bhaashaashaastri 'shuo ben' ke kosh ko upalabdh kaha gaya hai. yooreshiya bhookhand mein ek praacheenatam 'akkaadi-sumeri' shabdakosh ka naam liya jaata hai jiske pratham roop ka nirmaan— anumaan aur kalpana ke anusaara—ai0 poo0 7veen shati mein bataaya jaata hai. kaha jaata hai ki helenistik yug ke yoonaaniyon nein bhi yorap mein sarvapratham kosharachana usi prakaar aarambh ki thi jis prakaar saahitya, darshan, vyaakaran, raajaneeti aadi ke vaaङamaya ki. yoonaaniyon ka mahatva samaapt hone ke baad aur roman saamraajya ke vaibhavakaal mein tatha madhyakaal mein bhi bahut se 'laatin' kosh bane. 'latin' ka utkarsh aur vistaar hone par latin tatha laatin + anyabhaasha-kosh, shanai: shanai: bante chale gaye. saataveen-aathaveen shati i0 mein nirmit ek vishaal 'arabi shabdakosh' ka ullekh bhi upalabdh hai.

anukram

nighantu : aaryabhaasha ka pratham shabdakosh

vaidik shabdon (virl ya klisht) ke sangrah ko 'nighantu' kehte the. 'yaask' ka nirukt vaidik nighantu ka bhaashya hai. yaask se poorvavarti nighantuon mein ekamaatr yahi nighantu upalabdh hai. par 'nirukt' se jaan padta hai ke 'yaask' ke poorv anek nighantu ban chuke the.

vistrut jaankaari ke liye dekhein - nighntu

sanskrut ke praacheen evam madhyakaaleen shabdakosh

vaidik nighantukoshon aur 'nirukt granthon' ke anantar sanskrut ke praacheen aur madhyakaaleen kosh hamein upalabdh hote hain. is sambandh mein 'mekdaanald' ne maana hai ki sanskrut koshon ki parampara ka udbhav (nightu granthon ke anantar) dhaatupaathon aur ganapaathon se hua hai. paanineeya ashtaadhyaayi ke poorak paarishisht roop mein dhaatuon aur ganashabdon ka vyaakaranopayogi sangrah in uparyukt paathon mein hua. par unamein arthanirdesh na hone ke kaaran unhe keval dhaatusoochi aur ganasoochi kehna adhik sameecheen hoga.

aage chalakar sanskrut ke adhikaansh koshon mein jis prakaar rachanaavidhaan aur arthanirdesh shaili ka vikaas hua hai vah dhaatupaath ya ganaapaath ki shaili se poornat: pruthak hai. nighantu granthon se inka svaroop bhi kuchh bhinn hai. nighantuon mein vaidik shabdon ka sangrah hota tha. unamein kriyaapadon, naamapadon aur avyayon ka bhi sankalan kiya jaat tha. parantu sanskrut koshon mein mukhyat: keval naamapadon aur avyayon ka hi sangrah hua.

'nirukt' ke samaan athva paali ke 'mahaavyutpatti' kosh ki tarah ismein vyutpattinirdesh naheen hai. vaidik nighantuon mein sangruheet shabdon ka sambandh praay: vishisht granthon se (rigvedasanhita ya atharvasanhita ka atharvanighantu) hota ta. inki rachana gadya mein hoti thi. parantu sanskrut kosh mukhyat: padyaatmak hai aur pramukh roop se unamein anushtup chhand ka yog (abhidhaanarantamaala aadi ko chhodkar) hua hai. sanskrut koshon dvaara shabdo aur arth ka parichay karaaya gaya hai: dhanandaya, dharani' aur 'maheshvar' aadi koshon ke nirmaan ka uddeshya tha sanbhavat: mahatvapoorn virlaprayukt aur kavijnopayogi shabdon ka sangrah banaana.

sanskrut koshon ka aitihaasik sinhaavalokan karne se hamein is vishay ko saamaanya jaankaari praapt ho sakti hai. is sambandh mein vidvaanon ne 'amarasinh' dvaara rachit aur sarvaadhik lokapriya 'naamalingaanushaasan' (amarakosh) ko kendra mein rakhakar usi aadhaar par sanskrut koshon ko teen kaalakhandon mein vibhaajit kiya hai-

  • (1) amarakosh-poorvavarti sanskrut kosh,
  • (2) amarakoshakaal tatha
  • (3) amarakoshaparavarti sanskrut kosh.

vistrut vivran ke liye sanskrut ke praacheen evam madhyakaaleen shabdakosh dekhein.

paali, praakrut aur apabhransh ka kosh vaaङamaya

madhyakaaleen bhaarateeya aaryabhaashaaon ka vaaङamaya bhi koshon se rahit naheen tha. paali bhaasha mein anek kosh milte hain. inhein bauddhakosh bhi kaha gaya hai. unki mukhya upayogita paali bhaasha ke baudb-saahitya ke samajhaane mein thi. unki rachana padyabaddh sanskrutakoshon ki apeksha gadyamaya nighantuon ke adhik sameep hai. bahudha inka sambandh vishesh granthon se raha hai.

vistrut vivran ke liye paali, praakrut aur apabhransh ka kosh vaaङamaya dekhein.

hindi ke madhyakaaleen shabdakosh

vistrut vivran ke liye hindi ke madhyakaaleen shabdakosh dekhein.

sanskrut ke aadhunik mahaakosh

Bhaarat mein aadhunik paddhati par bane sanskrut koshon ki do vargon mein rakha ja sakta hai

  • (1) inmein ek vidha vah thi jismein angreji athva jarman aadi bhaashaaoain ke maadhyam se sanskrut ke kosh bane. is paddhati ke pravartak athva aadi nirmaata paashchaatya vidbaan the. koshavidya ki nootan drushti se sampann navakosh ki rachanaashaili ke anusaar se kosh bane.
  • doosari aur naveen paddhati ke anusaar nootan preranaaon ko lekar sanskrut mein aise kosh bane jiska maadhyam bhi saskrut hi tha. is prakaar ke koshon mein vishesh roop se do ullekhaneeya hai:
*(1) shabdakalpadrum
*(2) vaachaspatyam

vistrut vivran ke liye sanskrut ke aadhunik kosh dekhein.

pashchim mein aadhunik koshavidya

pashchim vidvaanon ke sampark se Bhaarat mein jis kosh-rachana-paddhati ka 18veen shati mein vikaas hua, pashchim mein pehle se hi vah prachalit ho chuki thi. at: yorap ki kosh-rachana-paddhati ke vikaas ka aitihaasik sinhaavalokan karna aavashyak hai.

vistrut vivran ke liye pashchim mein aadhunik koshavidya tatha angreji shabdakoshon ka itihaas dekhein.

Bhaarat mein jo aadhunik kosh bane ve inheen paashchaatya koshon ki paddhati par chale. unke nirmaan mein poori safalta chaahe na bhi mil saki ho par unki paddhati bhi vahi thi jise ham aadhunik koshavijnyaaan ki rachanaashaili kehte hain.

hindustaani, hindi, urdoo ke kosh

vistrut vivran ke liye hindustaani, hindi evam urdoo ke aadhunik shabdakosh dekhein.

hindeetar bhaashaaon mein kosh

inhein bhi dekhein