shabdakosh

shabdakosh (anya vartani:shabdakosh[1]) ek badi soochi ya aisa granth jismein shabdon ki vartani, unki vyutpatti, vyaakarananirdesh, arth, paribhaasha, prayog aur padaarth aadi ka sannivesh ho. shabdakosh ekabhaasheeya ho sakte hain, dvibhaashik ho sakte hain ya bahubhaashik ho sakte hain. adhiktar shabdakoshon mein shabdon ke uchchaaran ke liye bhi vyavastha hoti hai, jaise - antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak lipi mein, devanaagari mein ya aadiyo sanchika ke roop mein. kuchh shabdakoshon mein chitron ka sahaara bhi liya jaata hai. alag-alag kaarya-kshetron ke liye alag-alag shabdakosh ho sakte hain; jaise - vigyaan shabdakosh, chikitsa shabdakosh, vidhik (kaanooni) shabdakosh, ganit ka shabdakosh aadi.

sabhyata aur sanskruti ke udaya se hi maanav jaan gaya tha ki bhaav ke sahi sanpreshan ke liye sahi abhivyakti aavashyak hai. sahi abhivyakti ke liye sahi shabd ka chayan aavashyak hai. sahi shabd ke chayan ke liye shabdon ke sankalan aavashyak hain. shabdon aur bhaasha ke maanakeekaran ki aavashyakta samajh kar aaranbhik lipiyon ke udaya se bahut pehle hi aadmi ne shabdon ka lekhaajokha rakhana shuroo kar diya tha. is ke liye us ne kosh banaana shuroo kiya. kosh mein shabdon ko ikattha kiya jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

sab se pehle shabd sankalan Bhaarat mein bane. Bhaarat ki yeh shaanadaar parampara vedon jitnee—aakam se kam paaainch hajaar varsha—aapuraani hai. prajaapati kashyap ka nighantu sansaar ka praacheenatam shabd sankalan hai. is mein 18 sau vaidik shabdon ko ikattha kiya gaya hai. nighantu par maharshi yaask ki vyaakhya nirukt sansaar ka pehla shabdaarth kosh (dikshanari) evam vishvakosh (ainasaaiklopeediya) hai. is mahaan shrunkhala ki sashakt kadi hai chhathi ya saataveen sadi mein likha amar Singh krut naamalingaanushaasan ya trikaand jise saara sansaar 'amarakosh' ke naam se jaanta hai. amarakosh ko vishv ka sarvapratham samaantar kosh (theseras) kaha ja sakta hai.

Bhaarat ke baahar sansaar mein shabd sankalan ka ek praacheen prayaas akkaadiyaai sanskruti ki shabd soochi hai. yeh shaayad isa poorv saataveen sadi ki rachana hai. isa se teesari sadi pehle ki cheeni bhaasha ka kosh hai 'irya'.

aadhunik koshon ki neenv daali England mein 1755 mein saimuel jaanasan ne. un ki dikshanari saimuel jaunsans dikshanari of english laingvej ne koshakaarita ko nae aayaam diye. is mein paribhaashaaeain bhi di gayi theen. asli aadhunik kosh aaya ikyaavan saal baad 1806 mein amareeka mein noha vaibstars ki noha vaibstars A kanpaindiys dikshanari aaf english laingvej prakaashit hui. is ne jo star sthaapit kiya vah pehle kabhi naheen hua tha. saahityik shabdaavali ke saath saath kala aur vigyaan kshetron ko sthaan diya gaya tha. kosh ko safal hona hi tha, hua. vaibstar ke baad aaingareji koshon ke sanshodhan aur nae koshon ke prakaashan ka vyavasaaya teji se badhne laga.

aadhunik kosh ki vidhaaeain

vartamaan yug ne koshavidya ko atyant vyaapak parivesh mein viksit kiya. saamaanya roop se usaki do moti-moti vidhaaeain kahi ja sakti hain - (1) shabdakosh aur (2) jnyaaanakosh. shabdakosh ke svaroop ka bahumukhi pravaah nirantar praudhta ki or badhta lakshit hota raha hai. aaj ki koshavidya ka viksit svaroop bhaasha vigyaan, vyaakaranashaastr, saahitya, arthavijnyaaan, shabdaprayogeeya, aitihaasik vikaas, sandarbhasaapeksh arthavikaas aur naana shaastron tatha vijnyaaanon mein prayukt vishisht arthon ke bauddhik aur jaagruk shabdaarth sankalan ka punjeekrut parinaam hai.

shabdakosh

hamaare parichit bhaashaaon ke koshon mein Oxford-english-dikshanari ke parisheelan mein uparyukt samast pravruttiyon ka utkrusht nidrshan dekha ja sakta hai. usamein shabdon ke sahi uchchaaran ka sanket-chihnon se vishuddh aur parinishthit bodh bhi karaaya hai. yorap ke unnat aur samruddh deshon ki praay: sabhi bhaashaaon mein vikaasit star ki koshavidya ke aadhaar par utkrusht, vishaal, pramaanik aur sampann koshon ka nirmaan ho chuka hai aur un doshon mein koshanirmaan ke liye aise sthaayi sansthaan pratishthaapit kiye ja chuke hain jinmein abaadh gati se sarvada kaarya chalta rahata hai. labdhapratishtha aur bade-bade vidvaanon ka sahayog to un sansthaanon ko milta hi hai, jaagruk janta bhi sahayog deti hai. angreji dikshanari tatha anya bhaashaaon mein nirmit koshakaaron ke rachana-vidhaan-moolak vaishishtayon ka adhyayan karne se adyatan koshon mein nimnanirdisht baaton ka anuyog aavashyak lagta hai—

  • k) uchchaanamasoochak sanketachihnon ke maadhyam se shabdon ke svaron vyanjanon ka poornat: shuddh aur parinishthit uchchaaran svaroop bataana aur svaraaghaat balagaat ka nirdesh karte hue yataasanbhav uchchaarya ansh ke aksharon ki baddhata aur abaddhata ka parichay dena;
  • kh) vyaakaran sanbanddh upayogi aur aavashyak nirdesh dena;
  • g) shabdon ki itihaas- sanbanddh vaijnyaaanik—aavyutpatti pradarshit karna;
  • gh) parivaara—aasanbanddh athva parivaaramukt nikat ya door ke shabdon ke saath shabdaroop aur artharoop ka tulanaatmak paksh upasthit karna;
  • ङ) shabdon ke vibhinn aur pruthakkrut naana arthon ko adhik—aanyoon prayog kramaanusaar soochit karna;
  • ch) aprayukt-shabdo athva shabdaprayogon ki vilopasoochana dena;
  • chh) shabdon ke paryaaya bataana; aur
  • j) sangat arthon ke samarthanaarth udaaharan dena;
  • jh) chitron, rekhaachitron, maanachitron aadi ke dvaara arth ko adhik spasht karna.

'aaksaford english dikshanari' ka navyatam aur bruhattam sanskaran aadhunik koshavidya ki praay: sabhi visheshataaon se sampann hai. naagareeprachaarini sabha ke hindi shabdasaagar ke atirikt hindi saahitya sammelan dvaara prakaashyamaan maanak shabdakosh ek vistrut aayaas hai. hindi koshakala ke labdhapratishth sampaadak raamachandr varma ke is prashansaneeya kaarya ka upajeevya bhi mukhyaat: shabdasaagar hi hai. usaka mool kalevar taatvik roop mein shabdasaagar se hi adhikaanshat: pariklit hai. hindi ke anya koshon mein bhi adhikaansh saamagri isi kosh se li gayi hai. thode-bahut mukhyat: sanskrut koshon se aur yada-kada anyatr se shabdon aur arthon ko aavashyak anaavashyak roop mein thooains diya gaya hai. jnyaaanamandal ke bruhad hindi shabdakosh mein petevaali pranaali shuroo ki gayi hai. parantu vah paddhati sanskrut ke koshon mein jinka nirmaan pashchimi vidvaanon ke prayaas se aarambh hua tha, saikado varsh poorv se prachalit ho gayi thi. par aaj bhi, navya ya aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke kosh us star tak naheen pahuainch paae hain jahaaain tak aaksaford english dikshanari athva roosi, American, jarman, itaali, fraanseesi aadi bhaashaaon ke utkrusht aur atyant viksit kosh pahuainch chuke hain.

kosharachana ki oopar varnit vidha ko ham saadhaaranat: saamaanya bhaasha shabdakosh kah sakte hain. is prakaar shabdakosh ekabhaashi, dvibhaashi, tribhaashi aur bahubhaashi bhi hote hain. bahubhaashi shabdakoshon mein tulanaatmak shabdakosh bhi Europeeya bhaashaaon mein aitihaasik aur tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ki praudh upalabdhiyon se pramaaneekrut roop mein nirmit ho chuke hain. inmein mukhya roop se bhaashaavaijnyaaanik anusheelan aur shodh ke parinaamasvaroop upalabdh saamagri ka niyojan kiya gaya hai. aise tulanaatmak kosh bhi aaj ban chuke hain jinmein praacheen bhaashaaon ki tulana milti hai. aise bhi kosh prakaashit hain jinmein ek se adhik mul parivaar ki anek bhaashaaon ke shabdon ka tulanaatmak parisheelan kiya gaya hai.

shabdakoshon ke naana roop

shabdakoshon ke aur bhi naana roop aaj viksit ho chuke hain aur ho rahe hain. vaigyaanik aur shaastreeya vishyon ke saamoohik aur us-us vishay ke anusaar shabdakosh bhi aaj sabhi samruddh bhaashaaon mein bante ja rahe hain. shaastron aur vijnyaaanashaakhaaon ke paribhaashik shabdakosh bhi nirmit ho chuke hain aur ho rahe hain. in shabdakoshon ki rachana ek bhaasha mein bhi hoti hai aur do ya anek bhaashaaon mein bhi. kuchh mein keval paryaaya shabd rahate hain aur kuchh mein vyaakhyaaeain athva paribhaashaaeain bhi di jaati hai. vigyaan aur takaneeki ya pravidhik vishyon se sambaddh naana paaribhaashik shabdakoshon mein vyaakhyaatmak paribhaashaaon tatha kabhi kabhi anya saadhanon ki sahaayata se bhi bilkul sahi arth ka bodh karaaya jaata hai. darshan, bhaashaavijnyaaan, manovijnyaaan, samaajavijnyaaan aur samaajashaastr, raajaneetishaastr, arthashaastr aadi samast aadhunik vidyaaon ke kosh vishv ki vividh sampann bhaashaaon mein visheshagyon ki sahaayata se banaae ja rahe hain aur is prakruti ke saikadon-hajaaron kosh bhi ban chuke hain. shabdaarthakosh sambandhi prakruti ke atirikt inmein jnyaaanakoshaatmak tatvon ki vistrut ya laghu vyaakhyaaeain bhi sanmishrit rahati hai. praacheen shaastron aur darshanon aadi ke vishisht evam paaribhaashik shabdon ke kosh bhi bane hain aur banaae ja rahe hain. anake atirikt ek-ek grathan ke shabdaarth kosh (yatha maanas shabdaavali) aur ek-ek lekhak ke saahitya ki shabdaavali bhi yorap, America aur Bhaarat aadi mein sankalit ho rahi hai. inmein uttam koti ke koshakaaron ne granthasandarbhon ke sanskaranaatmak sanket bhi diye hain. akaaraadi varnaanusaari anukramanikaatmak un shabdasoochiyon kaa—aajinke arth naheen diye jaate hain par sandarbhasanket rahata hain—ayahaaain ullekh aavashyak naheen hai. yorap aur ingalaid mein aisi shabdasoochiyaaain anek bani. sheksapiyr dvaara prayukt shabdon ki aisi anukramanika param prasiddh hai. vaidik shabdon ki aur riksanhita mein prayukt padon ki aisi shabdasoochiyon ke anek sankalan pehle hi ban chuke hain. vyaakaran mahaabhaashya ki bhi ek ek aisi shabdaanukramanika prakaashit hai. parantu inmein arth na hone ke kaaran yahaaain unka vivechan naheen kiya ja raha hai.

jnyaaanakosh

kosh ki ek doosari vidha jnyaaanakosh bhi viksit hui hai. iske vruhattam aur utkasht roop ko insaaiklopidiya kaha gaya hai. hindi mein iske liye vishvakosh shabd prayukt aur gruheet ho gaya hai. yeh shabd baingaal vishvakoshakaar ne kadaachit sarvapratham baingaal ke jnyaaanakosh ke liye prayukt kiya. usaka ek hindi sanskaran hindi vishvakosh ke naam se nae sire se prakaashit hua. hindi mein yeh shabd prayukt hone laga hai. yadyapi hindi ke pratham kishoropayogi jnyaaanakosh (apoorn) ko shri shreenaaraayan chaturvedi tatha pan0 Krishna vallabh dvivedi dvaara vishvabhaarati abhidhaan diya gaya to bhi gyaan kosh, jnyaaanadeepika, vishvadarshan, vishvavidyaalayabhandaar aadi sanjnyaaaon ka prayog bhi jnyaaanakosh ke liye hua hai. swayam sarkaar bhi baalashikshopayogi jnyaaanakoshaatmak granth ka prakaashan 'jnyaaanasarovar' naam se kar rahi hai. parantu insaaiklopeediya ke anuvaad roop mein vivkosh shabd hi prachalit ho gaya. udeeya ke ek vishvakosh ka naam shabdaarthaanuvaad ke anusaar gyaan mandal rakha bhi gaya. aisa lagta hai ki bruhad parivesh ke vyaapak gyaan ka paribhaashik aur vishisht shabdon ke maadhyam se gyaan denevaale grathan ka insaaiklopeediya ya vishvakosh abhidhaan nirdhaarit hua aur apekshaakrut laghutarakoshon ko jnyaaanakosh aadi vibhinn naam diye gaye. angreji aadi bhaashaaon mein book of naalej, dikshanari aav general naalej aadi sheershakon ke antaregat naana prakaar ke chhote bade vishvakosh athva jnyaaanakosh bane hain aur aaj bhi nirantar prakaashit evam viksit hote ja rahe hain. itna hi naheen insaaiklopeediya of rileejan aind ethiks aadi vishyavishesh se sanbanddh vishvakoshon ki sankhya bhi bahut hi badi hai. angreji bhaasha ke maadhyam se nirmit anek saamaanya vishvakosh aur vishsh vishvakosh bhi aaj upalabdh hain.

insaaiklopeediya britaanika, insaaiklopeediya amerikaana angreji ke aise vishvakosh hain. angreji ke saamaanya vishvakoshon dvaara inki pramaanikta aur sanmaanyata sarvasveekrut hai. nirantar inke sanshodhit, sanvardhit tatha parishkrut sanskaran nikalte rahate hain. insaaiklopeediya britaanika ke do parishisht granth bhi hain jo prakaashit hote rahate hain aur jo nootan sanskaran ki saamagri ke roop mein saatatya bhaav se sankalit hote rahate hain. ingalaind mein insaaiklopeediya ke pehle se hi jnyaaanakoshaatmak koshon ke naana roop banane lage the.

jnyaaanakoshon ke naana prakaar

jnyaaanakoshon ke bhi itne adhik prakaar aur paddhatiyaaain hain jinki charcha ka yahaaain avsar naheen hai. charitkosh, kathaakosh itihaasakosh, aitihaasik kaalakosh, jeevanacharitkosh puraakhyaanakosh, pauraanik- khyaatapurushakosh aadi aadi prakaar ke vividh naamaroopaatmak jnyaaanakoshon ki bahut si vidhaaeain viksit aur prachalit ho chuki hain. yahaaain prasangat: jnyaaanakoshon ka sanketaatmak naamanirdesh maatr kar diya ja raha hai. ham is prasang ko yaheen samaapt karte hain aur shabdarthakosh se sanbanddh prakrut vishay ki charcha par laut aate hain.

aadhunik koshavidya : tulanaatmak drushti

Bhaarat mein koshavidya ke aadhunik svarup ka udbhav aur vikaas madhyakaaleen hindi koshon ki maanyata aur rachanaaprakriya se bhinn uddeshyon ko lekar hua. paashchaatya koshon ke aadarsh, maanyataaeain, uddeshya, rachanaaprakriya aur seema ke nootan aur parivrtit aayaamon ka pravesh Bhaarat ki kosh rachanaapaddhati mein aarambh hua. sanskrut aur itar bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein paashchaatya tatha bhaarateeya vidvaanon ke prayaas se chhote-bade bahut se kosh nirmit hue. in koshon ka Bhaarat aur Bhaarat ke baahar bhi nirmaan hua. aarambh mein bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke, mukhyat: sanskrut ke kosh angreji, jarman, French aadi bhaashaaon ke maadhyam se banaae gaye. inmein sanskrut aadi ke shabd bhi roman lipi mein rakhe gaye. shabdaarth ki vyaakhya aur arth aadi ke nirdesh kosh ki bhaasha ke anusaar jarman, angreji, faarasi, purtagaali aadi bhaashaaon mein diye gaye. baingala, tamil aadi bhaashaaon ke aise anake kaashon ki rachana isaai dharmaprachaarakon dvaara Bhaarat aur aaspaas ke laghu dveepon mein hui. hindi ke bhi aise anek kosh bane. sabse pehla shabdakosh sanbhavat: faragyuman ka 'hindustaani angreji' (angreji hindustaani) kosh tha jo 1773 i0 mein London mein prakaashit hua. in aaranbhik koshon ko 'hindustaani kosh' kaha gaya. ye kosh mukhyat: hindi ke hi the. paashchaatya vidvaanon ke in koshon mein hindi ko hindustaani kehne ka kadaachit yeh kaaran hai ki Hindustan Bhaarat ka naam maana gaya aur vahaaain ki bhaasha hindustaani kahi gayi. koshavidya ke in paashchaatya panditon ki drushti mein hindi ka hi paryaaya hindustaani tha aur vahi saamaanya rup mein Hindustan ki raashtrabhaasha thi.

aaranbhik kram mein koshanirmaan ki preranaatmak chetna ka bahut kuchh saamaanya rup Bhaarat aur pashchim mein milta julata tha. Bhaarat ka vaidik nighantu virl aur klisht shabdon ke arth aur paryaayon ka sankshipt sangrah tha. yorap mein bhi glaaseriya se jis koshavidya ka aaranbhik beejavapan hua tha, uske mool mein bhai virl aur klisht shabdon ka paryaaya dvaara arthabodh karaana hi uddeshya tha. laatin ki ukt shabdaarthasoochi se shanai: shanai: pashchim ki aadhunik koshavidya ke vaikaasik sopaan aavirbhoot hue. Bhaarat aur pashchim donon hi sthaanon mein shabdon ke sakalan mein vargapaddhati ka koi na koi rup mil jaata hai. par aage chalakar navya koshon ka poorvonkt praacheen aur madhyakaaleen koshon se jo sarvapratham aur pramukhatam bhedak vaishishtaya prakat hua vah tha - 'varnamaalaakramaanusaari shabdayojana' ki paddhati.

aadhunik kosh: seema aur svaroop

yorap mein aadhunik koshon ka jo svaroop viksit hua, usaki rooparekha ka sanket oopar kiya ja chuka hai. yorap, Asia aur afrika ke us tatabhaag mein jo arab deshon ke prabhaav mein aaya tha, ukt paddhati ke anukaran par koshon ka nirmaan hone laga tha. Bhaarat mein vyaapak paimaane par jis roop mein kosh nirmat hote chale, unki sankshipt charcha ki ja chuki hai. in sabke aadhaar par uttam koti ke aadhunik koshon ki vishishittaaon ka aakalan karte hue kaha ja sakta hai ki:

  • (k) aadhunik koshon mein shabdaprayog ke aitihaasasik kram ki sarani dikhaane ke prayaas ko bahut mahatva diya gaya hai. aise korsho ko aitihaasik vivranaatmak kaha ja sakta hai. upalabdh pratham prayog aur prayogasandarbh ka aadhaar lekar arth aur unke ekamukhi ya bahumukhi vikaas ke sapramaan upasthaapan ki cheshta ki jaati hai. doosare shabdon mein ise ham shabdaprayog aur tadbodhyaarth ke roop ki aanukramik ya itihaasaanusaari vivechana kah sakte hai. ismein udvaranon ka upayog donon hi baaton (shabdaprayog aur arthavikaas) ki pramaanikta siddh karte hain.
  • (kh) aadhunik koshakaar ke dwaar sangruheet shabdon aur arthon ke aadhaar ka praamaanya bhi apekshit hota hai. praacheen koshakaar iske liye baadhya naheen tha. vah svat: pramaan samjha jaata tha. poorv tantron ya granthon ka samaahaar karte hue yadaakada itna bhi kah dena uske liye bahudha paryaapt ho jaata tha. par aadhunik koshon mein aise shabdon ke sambandh mein jinka saahitya vyavahaar mein prayog naheen milta, yeh bataana bhi aavashyak ho jaata hai ki amuk shabd ya arth kosheeya maatr hain.
  • (g) aadhunik koshon ki ek dusari nai dhaara jnyaaanakoshaatmak hai jinki utkrusht roop 'vishvakosh' ke naam se saamane aata hai. anya roop paaribhaashik shabdakosh, vishyakosh, charitkosh, jnyaaanakosh, abdakosh aadi naana roopon mein apne aabhog ka vistaar karte chal rahai hain.
  • (gh) aadhunik shabdakoshon me arth ki spashtata ke liye chitr, rekha-chitr, maanachitr aadi ka upayog bhi kiya jaata hai.
  • (ङ) vishuddh shastreeya vaaङaamaya (shastr) ke praacheen star se hatkar aaj ke kosh vaigyaanik athva vijnyaaanakalp rachanaaprakriya ke star par pahuainch gaye. ye kosh roopavikaas aur arthavikaas ki aitihaasik pramaanikta ke saath saath bhaashavaijnyaaanik siddhaant ki sangati dhooaindhane ka poorn prayatn karte hain. aadhunik bhaashaaon ke tadbhav, deshi aur videshi shabdon ke mool aur strot dhooaindhane ki cheshta ki jaati hai. kabhi kabhi praacheen bhaasha ya bhaashaao ke moolasroton ki gaveshan ke vyutpatti-darshan ke sadarbh mein mahatvapoorn prayaas hota hai. bahubhaashi paryaayakoshon mein etihaasik aur tulanaatmak bhaashaavijnyaaan ke sahayog sahaayata dvaara srotabhaasha ke kalpanaanidipt roop angeekrut hote hain. udaaharanaarth pracheen Bhaarat yoropee— aaryabhaasha ke bahubhaashi tulanaatmak koshon mein mool aaryabhaasha (ya aaryon ke 'father laingvej') ke kalpit mrulakhvapo ka anumaan kiya jaata hai. doosare shabado mein iska taatparya yeh hai ki aadhunik utkrusht koshon mein jahaan ek or praacheen aur poorvavarti vaaङamaya ka shabdaprayog ke kramik gyaan ke liye aitihaasik adhyayan hota hai vahaan bhaashaavijnyaaan ke aitihaasik, tulanaatmak aur varnanaatmak dushtipkshon ka praudh sahayog aur viniyog apekshit rahata hai. koshavijnyaaan ki nootan rachaanaaprakriya aaj ke yug mein bhaashaavijnyaaan ke naana angon se bahut hi prabhaavit ho gayi hai.

koshaarachana ko prakriya aur bhaashaavijnyaaan

koshanirmaan ka shabdasankalan sarvapramukh aadhaar hai. parantu shabdon ke sangrah ka kaarya atyat kathin hai. mukhya roop mein shabdon ka chayan do stroton se hota hai -

  • (1) likhit saahitya se aur
  • (2) lokavyavahaar aur lokasaahitya se.

likhit saahitya se sagrahya shabdon ke liye hastalikhit aur mudrit grantho ka sahaara liya jaata hai. parantu iske antargat praacheen hastalekhon aur mudrit gratho ke aadhaar par jab shabdasankalan hota hai tab ubhayavidh aadhaaragranthon ki praamaanikta aur paathashuddhi aavashyak hoti hai. inke bima gruheet shabdon ka mahatva kam ho jaata hai aur unase bhramasrushti ki sambhaavana badhti hai.

vividh prakaar ke shabdakosh

aajkal aise computer program upalabdh hain jo shabdakosh ke saare kaam karte hain. ve kaagaj par mudrit naheen hain balki kisi vishisht file-faurmat mein hain aur kisi 'dikshanari software' ke dvaara prayokta ko shabdaarth dhoodhane mein madad karte hain. inmein kuchh aisi suvidhaaeain bhi upalabdh hain jo paramparaagat shabdakoshon mein sambhav hi naheen hai; jaise shabd ka uchchaaran dhvani ke maadhyam se dena aadi.

shabdakoshon ke kuchh prakaar ye hain-

  • saamaanya shabdakosh
  • vishisht shabdakosh - ganit, vigyaan, vidhi, praudyogiki, chikitsa aadi ke shabdakosh
  • paaribhaashik shabdakosh - inmein kisi kshetr (vishay) ke pramukh shabdon ke sankshipt aur mukhya arth diye gaye hote hain.
  • praakrutik bhaasha sansaadhan ke liye shabdakosh - ye maanav ke bajaay kisi kampyootar program dvaara prayog ko dhyaan mein rakhakar banaai jaateen hain.
  • anya :
  • dvibhaashi shabdakosh
  • elektraanik shabdakosh
  • jnyaaanakosheeya shabdakosh (Encyclopedic dictionary)
  • baal shabdakosh tatha vruhat shabdakosh aadi
  • tukaant shabdakosh (Rhyming dictionary)
  • vyutkram shandakosh (Reverse dictionary)
  • sachitr shabdakosh (Visual dictionary)

sandarbh

inhein bhi deinkhein

baahari kadiyaaain