shabd

ek ya adhik varnon se bani hui svatantr saarthak dhvani shabd kahalaati hai. jaise- ek varn se nirmit shabd- na (naheen) va (aur) anek varnon se nirmit shabd-kutta, sher, kamal, nayan, praasaad, sarvavyaapi, paramaatma aadi

bhaarateeya sanskruti mein shabd ko brahm kaha gaya hai.

anukram

shabd ke bhed

vyutpatti ke aadhaar par shabd-bhed

vyutpatti (banaavat) ke aadhaar par shabd ke nimnalikhit teen bhed hain- roodh, yaugik tatha yogaroodh.

roodh

jo shabd kinheen anya shabdon ke yog se na bane hon aur kisi vishesh arth ko prakat karte hon tatha jinke tukadon ka koi arth naheen hota, ve roodh kahalaate hain. jaise-kal, par. inmein k, l, p, r ka tukade karne par kuchh arth naheen hain. at: ye nirrthak hain.

yaugik

jo shabd kai saarthak shabdon ke mel se bane hon, ve yaugik kahalaate hain. jaise-devaalaya=Dave+aalaya, raajapurush=raaj+purush, himaalaya=him+aalaya, devadoot=Dave+doot aadi. ye sabhi shabd do saarthak shabdon ke mel se bane hain.

yogaroodh

ve shabd, jo yaugik to hain, kintu saamaanya arth ko na prakat kar kisi vishesh arth ko prakat karte hain, yogaroodh kahalaate hain. jaise-pankaj, dashaanan aadi. pankaj=pank+j (keechad mein utpann hone wala) saamaanya arth mein prachalit na hokar kamal ke arth mein roodh ho gaya hai. at: pankaj shabd yogaroodh hai. isi prakaar dash (das) aanan (mukh) wala raavan ke arth mein prasiddh hai.

utpatti ke aadhaar par shabd-bhed

utpatti ke aadhaar par shabd ke nimnalikhit chaar bhed hain-

tatsam

jo shabd sanskrut bhaasha se hindi mein bina kisi parivartan ke le liye gaye hain ve tatsam kahalaate hain. jaise-agni, kshetr, vaayu, raatri, soorya aadi.

tadbhav

jo shabd roop badalne ke baad sanskrut se hindi mein aae hain ve tadbhav kahalaate hain. jaise-aag (agni), khet (kshetr), raat (raatri), sooraj (soorya) aadi.

deshaj

jo shabd kshetreeya prabhaav ke kaaran paristhiti va aavashyakataanusaar bankar prachalit ho gaye hain ve deshaj kahalaate hain. jaise-pagadi, gaadi, thaila, pet, khatakhataana aadi.

videshi ya videshaj

videshi jaatiyon ke sampark se unki bhaasha ke bahut se shabd hindi mein prayukt hone lage hain. aise shabd videshi athva videshaj kahalaate hain. jaise-school, anaar, aam, kainchi, achaar, police, telephone, riksha aadi. aise kuchh videshi shabdon ki soochi neeche di ja rahi hai.

angreji- college, painsil, radio, television, Doctor, laitarabaks, pain, ticket, machine, cigarette, cycle, botal aadi.

faarasi- anaar, chashma, jameendaar, dukaan, darbaar, namak, namoona, beemaar, baraf, roomaal, aadmi, chugalakhor, gandagi, chaapaloosi aadi.

arabi- aulaad, ameer, katl, kalam, kaanoon, khat, fakeer, rishvat aurat, kaidi, maalik, gareeb aadi.

Turkey- kainchi, chaakoo, top, baarood, laash, daaroga, bahaadur aadi.

purtagaali- achaar, aalapeen, kaaratoos, gamala, chaabi, tijori, tauliya, feeta, saabun, tanbaakoo, kaufi, kameej aadi.

fraanseesi- police, kaartoon, engineer, curfew, bigul aadi.

cheeni- toofaan, leechi, chai, pataakha aadi.

yoonaani- telephone, teleegraaf, aitam, delta aadi.

Japani- riksha aadi.

dach-bam aadi.

prayog ke aadhaar par shabd-bhed

prayog ke aadhaar par shabd ke nimnalikhit aath bhed hai-

1. sanjnyaa

2. sarvanaam

3. visheshan

4. kriya

5. kriya-visheshan

6. sanbandhabodhak

7. samuchchayabodhak

8. vismayaadibodhak

in uparyukt aath prakaar ke shabdon ko bhi vikaar ki drushti se do bhaagon mein baaainta ja sakta hai- 1. vikaari 2. avikaari

1. vikaari shabd : jin shabdon ka roop-parivartan hota rahata hai ve vikaari shabd kahalaate hain. jaise-kutta, kutte, kutton, main mujhe, hamein achha, achhe khaata hai, khaati hai, khaate hain. inmein sanjnyaa, sarvanaam, visheshan aur kriya vikaari shabd hain.

2. avikaari shabd : jin shabdon ke roop mein kabhi koi parivartan naheen hota hai ve avikaari shabd kahalaate hain. jaise-yahaaain, kintu, nitya aur, he are aadi. inmein kriya-visheshan, sanbandhabodhak, samuchchayabodhak aur vismayaadibodhak aadi hain.

arth ki drushti se shabd-bhed

arth ki drushti se shabd ke do bhed hain- 1. saarthak 2. nirrthak

1. saarthak shabd : jin shabdon ka kuchh-na-kuchh arth ho ve shabd saarthak shabd kahalaate hain. jaise-roti, paani, mamata, danda aadi.

2. nirrthak shabd : jin shabdon ka koi arth naheen hota hai ve shabd nirrthak kahalaate hain. jaise-roti-voti, paani-vaani, danda-vanda inmein voti, vaani, vanda aadi nirrthak shabd hain. nirrthak shabdon par vyaakaran mein koi vichaar naheen kiya jaata hai.

shabdaarth grahan

bachcha samaaj mein saamaajik vyavahaar mein aa rahe shabdon ke arth kaise grahan karta hai, iska adhyayan bhaarateeya bhaasha chintan mein gaharaai se hua hai aur arthagrahan ki prakriya ko shakti ke naam se kaha gaya hai.

shaktigrahan vyaakaranopamaanakoshaaptavaakyaad vyavahaaratashch.
vaakyasya sheshaad vivruttervadanti saannidhyat: siddhapadasya vruddhaa:. -- (nyaayasiddhaantamuktaavali-shabdakhand)

is kaarika mein arthagrahan ke aath saadhan maane gaye hain:

1- vyaakaran, 2- upamaan, 3- kosh, 4- aapt vaakya
5- vruddh vyavahaar/lok vyavahaar, 6- vaakya shesh, 7- vivrutti, 8- siddh pad saannidhya

shabd-shakti

abhidha, lakshana, vyanjana dekhein.

pratyek shabd se jo arth niklata hai, vah arth-bodh karaane waali shabd ki shakti hai.

shabd ki teen shaktiyaaain hain - abhidha, lakshana mein aur vyanjana. jinmein ve shaktiyaaain hoti hain ve shabd bhi teen prakaar ke hote hain- vaachak, lakshak aur vyanjak. inke arth bhi teen prakaar ke hote hain- vaachyaarth, lakshyaarth aur vyangyaarth.

vaachak shabd saakshaat sanketit arth ka bodhak hota hai. vaachak shabdon ke chaar bhed hote hain- jaativaachak shabd, gunavaachak shabd (visheshan), kriyaavaachak tatha dravyavaachak shabd.

abhidha shakti- mukhya arth ki bodhika shabd ki prathama shakti ka naam abhidha hai. abhidha shakti se pad-padaarth ka paarasparik sambandh gyaat hota hai. abhidha shakti se jin vaachak shabdon ka arth bodh hota hai, unhein kramash: roodh (ped, paudha), yaugik (paathashaala, mithaarivaala) tatha yogaroodh (chaarapaari) kaha jaata hai.

mukhyaarth se bhinn lakshana shakti dvaara anya arth lakshit hota hai, uske arth ko lakshyaarth kehte hain. shabd mein yeh aaropit hai aur arth mein iska svaabhaavik nivaas hai. jaise- 'vah bada sher hai' mein 'sher' bahaadur ka lakshyaarth hai.

lakshana shakti- mukhyaarth ki baadha hone par roodhi-prayojan ko lekar jis shakti ke dvaara mukhyaarth se sambandh rakhane wala anya arth lakshit ho, use lakshana shakti kehte hain. lakshana ke lakshan mein teen baatein mukhya hain- mukhyaarth ki baadha, mukhyaarth ka yog, roodhi ya prayojan.

vyanjana shakti - vyanjana ke do bhed hain- shaabdi vyanjana aur aarthi vyanjana. shaabdi vyanjana ke do bhed hote hain- ek abhidhaamoola aur doosari lakshanaamoola.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain