shaayari

momin Khan momin (1800-1851) ki ek prasiddh gjl - makte (antim sher) mein unka takhllus 'momin' hai
gaalib bura na maan jo vaaij (mulla/pandit) bura kahe,
aisa bhi hai koi ke sab achha kahein jise?

shaayari (شaaاaaعaaرaaی), sher-O-shaayari ya sukhn bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein prachalit ek kavita ka roop hain jismein urdoo-hindi bhaashaaoain mein kavitaaeain likhi jaati hain.[1] shaayari mein sanskrut, faarasi, arabi aur Turkey bhaashaaoain ke mool shabdon ka mishrit prayog kiya jaata hai. shaayari likhne vaale kavi ko shaayar ya sukhnavar kaha jaata hai.

anukram

aam prayog mein

bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki sanskruti mein aisa hota aaya hai ki agar koi sher lokapreeya ho jaae to vah lok-sanskruti mein ek sootravaakya ki tarah shaamil ho jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye:

  • ibteda-A-ishk hai, rota hai kya - iski doosari pankti hai, 'aage-aage dekhiye hota hai kya'. yeh aksar kisi mushkil kaam (jismein prem-prayaas bhi hai) ke karte samay kaha jaata hai. iska arth hai ki 'abhi to mushkil kaam shuroo hua hai, abhi aur kathinaai aaegi, abhi se kya rona?'[2]
  • khudi ko kar buland itna - yeh ikbaal ka sher hai jiske aage ka bhaag hai 'ke har takdeer se pehle, khuda bande se khud poochhe, bata teri raja kya hai'. iska arth hai ki 'itne laayak bano ki jeevan ke har mod par Bhagwan tumhaara bhaagya likhte hue tumhi se tumhaari jo marji ho poochh kar likh de'.
  • khaak ho jaaeainge ham tum ko khabar hone tak - iska pehla jumala hai 'humne maana ke tagaaful na karoge lekin'. ismein premi apni premika se kah raha hai ki vah jaanta hai ki usaki vyaakulata ke baare mein sunakar vo bina vilamb (tagaaful) kiye aa jaaegi; lekin dar yeh hai ki usaka dukh itna bhaari hai ki vah premika ko khabar milne se pehle hi mar jaaega'. yeh bhaarateeya sansad mein ek saansad ne bhootapoorv pradhaan mantri narasinharaav se apne kshetr ke liye madad maangate hue kaha tha. narasinharaav ka uttar tha- " ghabaraaiye naheen! ham aapko khaak naheen hone deinge."
  • aur bhi gm hain jmaane mein - yeh faij Ahmad faij ke ek sher ka hissa hai, poora sher hai: 'mujh se pehli si muhabbat mere mahaboob na maang aur bhi dukh hain jmaane mein muhabbat ke siva'. iska arth hai ki duniya mein itni mushkilein-takaleefein hain ki aadmi har samay aanand dene waali cheejon par dhyaan naheen de sakta.[3]
  • tumhein yaad ho ke na yaad ho - iska poora sher hai 'vo jo ham mein tum mein kraar tha, tumhein yaad ho ke na yaad ho' aur isi gjl ka ek aur ansh hai 'mujhe sab hai yaad jra-jra, tumhein yaad ho ke na yaad ho'. yeh aise doston-premiyon ko sharminda karne ke liye kaha jaata hai jo kisi ke saath apna puraana sambandh bhool gaye hon.[2]

shaayari se sambandhit shabd

sher-O-shaayari ke sambandh mein kuchh shabd bhaarateeya upamahaadveep aur Iran mein prachalit hain[4], masalan (udaaharanaarth):

  • jumala - yeh 'pankti' ka ek anya naam hai, udaaharan ke liye 'baajeecha-A-atafaal hai duniya mere aage' ek jumala hai (arth: 'mere liye duniya ek bachchon ka khel/baaji hai')
  • misra - sher ki panktiyon/jumalon ke liye yeh bhi ek naam hai
  • sher - yeh do jumalon (panktiyon) se bana kavita ka ek ansh hota hai jo ek-saath milkar ko bhaav ya arth deti hain, udaaharan ke liye 'baajeecha-A-atafaal hai duniya mere aage, hota hai shab-O-roj tamaasha mere aage' do jumalon ka ek sher hai (arth: 'duniya mere liye bachchon ka khel hai, raat-din yahi tamaasha dekhta hooain')
  • matala - kisi gjl ke pehle sher ko matala kehte hain
  • makta - kisi gjl ke antim sher ko makta kehte hain aur shaayar koshish karte hain ki yeh sher sab se jyaada bhaavuk aur prabhaavashaali ho, iseeliye koi gjl ant karte hue shaayar aksar kehte hain 'makta arj hai' (yaani, 'dhyaan deejiye, gjl ka antim aur sabse mahatvapoorn sher padhne wala hooain')
  • bet - gjl ke sher ko aksar bet bhi kehte hain aur aksar yeh shabd kisi gjl ke pehle sher ke liye prayog hota hai jismein donon jumalon ki tukabandi hona anivaarya hai, jaise ki 'tum bhi khfa ho log bhi baraham hain doston, ab ho chala yakeen hai bure ham hain doston' ('baraham' yaani 'pareshaan')
  • frd - gjl ke pehle sher ke baad vaale sher, jinmein jumalon mein tukabandi karna aavashyak naheen hai, jaise ki 'apne siva hamaare na hone ka gm kise, apni talaash mein to hameen-ham hain doston'
  • kseeda - kisi ki prashansa ke liye likhi gayi kavita ko kseeda kehte hain; puraane jmaane mein kaviyon ka gujaara kisi raaja-mahaaraaja ke darbaar se jude hone se chala karta tha aur unke liye us raaja ki prashansa mein kseede likhna zaroori hua karta tha
  • takhllus ya takiya klaam - yeh shaayar ka apne liye chuna hua naam hota hai jo aksar gjl ke antim sher (makte) mein shaamil kar liya jaata hai, theek vaise jaise koi chitrakaar apne banaae chitr par apna naam darj kar deta hai; udaaharan ke liye uttar pradesh ke shahar baaraabanki ke muhammad haidar Khan ke apna takhllus 'khumaar baaraabankavi' rakha hua tha aur yeh unki gjlon ke makton mein dekha ja sakta hai, masalan 'khumaar-A-balaanosht, too aur tauba? tujhe jaahidon ki nazar lag gayi hai' (arth: sharaab peene (nosh) karne vaale khumaar, toone sharaab se tauba kar li? zaroor tujhe teri masti se jalne vaale maulaviyon (jaahidon) ki nazar lag gayi hai')

uchchaaran sahaayata

krupaya kuchh dhvaniyon ke uchchaaran par dhyaan deejiye:

  • kh - nuktevaala kh, 'kh' ka uchchaaran 'kh' se bhinn hota hai aur 'khyaal', 'khoon', 'aakhir' aur 'khabar' jaise shabdon mein milta hai
  • g - nuktevaala g, 'g' ka uchchaaran 'g' se bhinn hota hai aur 'gm', 'gair', 'glat' aur 'greeb' jaise shabdon mein milta hai
  • k - nuktevaala k, 'k' ka uchchaaran 'k' se milta-julata lekin jra-sa bhinn hota hai aur 'keemat', 'kurabaani' aur 'ktl' jaise shabdon mein milta hai
  • za - 'za' ka uchchaaran 'j' se bhinn hota hai aur 'jmaana', 'jrurat', 'jn' (arth: aurat) aur 'jindagi' jaise shabdon mein milta hai

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. Culture of Hindi, Malik Mohammad, Kalinga Publications, 2005, ISBN 978-81-87644-73-6
  2. a aa Master couplets of Urdu poetry, K. C. Kanda, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002, ISBN 978-81-207-2356-6, ... Ibteda-e-ishq hai rota hai kya, Aage aage dekheye hota hai kya ... Woh jo hum mein tum mein qaraar tha tumhen yaad ho ke na yaad ho, Wohi waada yaani nibah ka, tumhen yaad ho ke na yaad ho ...
  3. Masterpieces of Urdu nazm, K. C. Kanda, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd, 2009, ISBN 978-81-207-1952-1, ... Aur bhi dukh hain zamane mein mahabbat ke siwa, Raahaten aur bhi hain wasal ki raahat ke siwa ...
  4. Mohammad Quli Qutb Shah: Makers of Indian literature, Masʻaūad Ḥausain K̲ah̲aāan̲, Sahitya Akademi, 1996, ISBN 978-81-260-0233-7, ... The sher or distich has two misra. It is either a bait or fard. The couplet bait has two hemistiches rhyming with ... The first couplet is called the matla and both of its misra rhyme together. The last couplet is called the maqta ...