shaastreeya nrutya

Bhaarat mein nrut‍aaya ki jadein praacheen paranparaaon mein hai. is vishaal upamahaadveep mein nrut‍aayon ki vibhin‍aan vidhaaon ne jan‍aam liya hai. prat‍aayek vidha ne vishish‍aat samay va vaataavaran ke prabhaav se aakaar liya hai. raash‍aatr shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aaya ki kai vidhaaon ko pesh karta hai, jinmein se prat‍aayek ka sambandh desh ke vibhin‍aan bhaagon se hai. prat‍aayek vidha kisi vishish‍aat kshetr athva v‍aayaktiyon ke samooh ke lokaachaar ka pratinidhit‍ava karti hai. Bhaarat ke kuchh prasiddh shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aaya hain -

anukram

bharatanaatyam

bharatanaatyam

is nrut‍aaya shaili ki khaas visheshataaen, naayak-naayika prasang par aadhaarit padam athva kavitaaeain hain.

bharat naatyam, Bhaarat ke prasiddh nrut‍aayon mein se ek hai tatha iska sambandh dakshin Bhaarat ke Tamil Nadu raaj‍aaya se hai. yeh naam "bharat" shab‍aad se liya gaya tatha iska sambandh nrut‍aayashaas‍aatr se hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki brahma, hindu devakul ke mahaan tridevon mein se pratham, naatya shaas‍aatr athva nrut‍aaya vigyaan hain. in‍aadr va s‍aavarg ke an‍aaya devataaon ke anunaya-vinaya se brahma itna prabhaavit hua ki usane nrut‍aaya ved srujit karne ke liye chaaron vedon ka upayog kiya. naatya ved athva pancham ved, bharat va uske anuyaaiyon ko pradaan kiya gaya jin‍aahonne is vidya ka parichay pruth‍aavi ke nash‍aavar manush‍aayon ko diya. at: iska naam bharat naatyam hua.

bharat naatyam mein nrut‍aaya ke teen moolabhoot tat‍aavon ko kushalataapoorvak shaamil kiya gaya hai. ye hain bhaav athva man:sthiti, raag athva sangeet aur s‍aavaramaardhuya aur taal athva kaal samanjan. bharat naatyam ki takaneek mein, haath, pair, mukh, va shareer sanchaalan ke saman‍aavayan ke 64 siddhaant hain, jinka nish‍aapaadan nrut‍aaya paathyakram ke saath kiya jaata hai.

bharat naatyam mein jeevan ke teen mool tat‍aav – darshan shaas‍aatr, dharm va vigyaan hain. yeh ek gatisheel va saansaarik nrut‍aaya shaili hai, tatha iski praacheenata s‍aavayan siddh hai. ise saundarya va suruchi sanpan‍aanata ka pra‍aateek ba‍aataaya jaana poornat: sangat hai. vas‍aatut: ya‍aah ek aisi parampara hai, jismein poorn samarpan, saansaarik bandhanon se virkti tatha nish‍aapaadanakarta ka ismein charamot‍aakarsh par hona aavash‍aayak hai. bharat naatyam tulanaat‍aamak roop se naya naam hai. pehle ise saadir, daasi attam aur tan‍aajaavooranaatyam ke naamon se jaana jaata tha.

kathakali

kathakali

Kerala ke dakshin - pashchimi raaj‍aaya ka ek samruddh aur falane foolane wala nrut‍aaya kathakali yahaan ki param‍aapara hai. kathakali ka arth hai ek katha ka naatak ya ek nrut‍aaya naatika. katha ka arth hai kahaani, yahaan abhineta raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat ke mahaagranthon aur puraanon se liye gaye charitron ko abhinay karte hain. yeh at‍aayant rang biranga nrut‍aaya hai. iske nartak ubhare hue paridhaanon, fooladaar dupatton, aabhooshanon aur mukut se saje hote hain. ve un vibhin‍aan bhoomikaaon ko chitrit karne ke liye saanketik roop se vishish‍aat prakaar ka roop dharate hain, jo vaiyaktik charitra ke bajaae us charitra ke adhik najadeek hote hain.

vibhin‍aan visheshataaen, maanav, devata samaan, dait‍aaya aadi ko shaanadaar veshabhoosha aur paridhaanon ke maadh‍aayam se pradarshit kiya jaata hai. is nrut‍aaya ka sabse adhik prabhaavashaali bhaag yeh hai ki iske charitra kabhi bolte naheen hain, keval unke haathon ke haav bhaav ki uch‍aach viksit bhaasha tatha chehare ki abhiv‍aayakti hoti hai jo is naatika ke paathya ko darshakon ke saamane pradarshit karti hai. unke chehare ke chhote aur bade haav bhaav, bhanvon ki gati, netron ka sanchalan, gaalon, naak aur thodi ki abhiv‍aayakti par baareeki se kaam kiya jaata hai tatha ek kathakali abhineta - nartak dvaara vibhin‍aan bhaavanaaon ko prakat kiya jaata hai. ismein adhikaanshat: purush hi mahilaaon ki bhoomika nibhaate hain, jabki ab kuchh samay se mahilaaon ko kathakali mein shaamil kiya jaata hai.

vartamaan samay ka kathakali ek nrut‍aaya naatika ki param‍aapara hai jo Kerala ke naatya karm ki uch‍aach vishish‍aat shaili ki param‍aapara ke saath shataabdiyon pehle viksit hua tha, vishesh roop se kudiyaattam. paaram‍aaparik reeti rivaaj jaise theyaam, mudiyaattam aur Kerala ki maarshal kalaaen nrut‍aaya ko vartamaan s‍aavaroop mein laane ke liye mahat‍aav‍aapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hain.

kathak

sharmeela sharma aur Rajendra Kumar kathak karte hue

kathak ka nrut‍aaya roop 100 se adhik ghungharu‍aaon ko pairon mein baandh kar taalabaddh padachaap, vihangam chak‍akar dvaara pahachaana jaata hai aur hin‍aadu dhaarmik kathaaon ke alaava parshiyn aur urdoo kavita se li gayi vishyavas‍aatuon ka naatakeeya pras‍aatuteekaran kiya jaata hai. kathak ka jan‍aam uttar mein hua kin‍aatu parshiyn aur muslim prabhaav se yeh mandir ki reeti se darabaari manoranjan tak pahunch gaya.

kathak ki shaili ka jan‍aam braahman pujaariyon dvaara hin‍aaduon ki paaram‍aaparik pun: ganana mein nihit hai, jin‍aahein ka‍aathik kehte the, jo naatakeeya andaaj mein haav bhaavon ka upayog karte the. kramash: ismein katha kehne ki shaili aur adhik viksit hui tatha ek nrut‍aaya roop ban gaya. uttar Bhaarat mein mugalon ke aane par is nrut‍aaya ko shaahi darbaar mein le jaaya gaya aur iska vikaas A parishkrut kalaaroop mein hua, jise mugal shaasakon ka sanrakshan praap‍aat tha aur kathak ne vartamaan s‍aavaroop liya. is nrut‍aaya mein ab dharm ki apeksha saundarya bodh par adhik bal diya gaya.

shab‍aad kathak ka udbhav katha se hua hai, jiska shaabdik arth hai kahaani kehna. puraane samay mein katha vaachak gaanon ke roop mein ise bolte aur apni katha ko ek naya roop dene ke liye nrut‍aaya karte. isse katha kalaakshepam aur dakshin Bhaarat mein hari katha ka roop bana aur yahi uttar Bhaarat mein kathak ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. lagbhag 15veen shataab‍aadi mein is nrut‍aaya param‍aapara mein mugal nrut‍aaya aur sangeet ke kaaran bada parivartan aaya. 16veen shataab‍aadi ke ant tak kase hue choodeedaar paayajaame ko kathak nrut‍aaya ki veshabhoosha maan liya gaya.

is nrut‍aaya param‍aapara ke do pramukh gharaane hain, in donon ko uttar Bhaarat ke shaharon ke naam par naam diya gaya hai aur inmein se donon hi kshetreeya raajaaon ke sanrakshan mein vis‍aataarit hua - Lucknow gharaana aur Jaipur gharaana.

odisi

odisi nrut‍aaya karte hue ek nrutya mandali

odisi ko puraataatvik saaksh‍aayon ke aadhaar par sabse puraane jeevit nrut‍aaya roopon mein se ek maana jaata hai. odisa ke paaram‍aaparik nrut‍aaya, odisi ka jan‍aam mandir mein nrut‍aaya karne waali devadaasiyon ke nrut‍aaya se hua tha. odisi nrut‍aaya ka ul‍aalekh shila lekhon mein milta hai, ise brahmesh‍aavar mandir ke shila lekhon mein darshaaya gaya hai saath hi konaark ke soorya mandir ke ken‍aadreeya kaksh mein iska ul‍aalekh milta hai. varsh 1950 mein is poore nrut‍aaya roop ko ek naya roop diya gaya, jiske liye abhinay chandrika aur mandiron mein paae gaye taraashe hue nrut‍aaya ki mudraaen dhan‍aayavaad ke paatr hain.

kisi an‍aaya bhaarateeya shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aaya roop ke samaan odisi ke do pramukh paksh hain: nrut‍aaya ya gair nirupan nrut‍aaya, jahaan antariksh aur samay mein shareer ki bhangimaaon ka upayog karte hue sajaavati paitarn srujit kiye jaate hain. iska ek an‍aaya roop abhinay hai, jise saanketik haath ke haav bhaav aur chehare ki abhiv‍aayaktiyon ko kahaani ya vishyavastu samajhaane mein upayog kiya jaata hai.

ismein tribhang par dh‍aayaan kendrit kiya jaata hai, jiska arth hai shareer ko teen bhaagon mein baantana, sir, shareer aur pair; mudraaen aur abhiv‍aayaktiyaan bharat naatyam ke samaan hoti hai. odisi nrut‍aaya mein vishnu ke aathavein avataar krush‍aan ke baare mein kathaaeain bataai jaati hain. yeh ek komal, kavitaamaya shaas‍aatri nrut‍aaya hai jismein udeesa ke parivesh tatha iske sarvaadhik lokapriya devata, Bhagwan jagannaath ki mahima ka gaan kiya jaata hai.

manipuri

manipuri nrut‍aaya ke saangeetik roop manipur raaj‍aaya ki sans‍aakruti ko darshaate hain.

poorvottar ke manipur kshetr se aaya shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aaya manipuri nrut‍aaya hai. manipuri nrut‍aaya Bhaarat ke an‍aaya nrut‍aaya roopon se bhin‍aan hai. ismein shareer dheemi gati se chalta hai, saanketik bhav‍aayata aur manamohak gati se bhujaaeain anguliyon tak pravaahit hoti hain. yeh nrut‍aaya roop 18veen shataab‍aadi mein vaish‍aanav sam‍aapradaaya ke saath viksit hua jo iske shurooaati reeti rivaaj aur jaadui nrut‍aaya roopon mein se bana hai. vish‍aanu puraan, Bhagwat puraan tatha geet govindam ki rachanaaon se I vishyavastueain ismein pramukh roop se upayog ki jaati hain.

manipur ki meiti janajaati ki dant kathaaon ke anusaar jab ish‍aavar ne pruth‍aavi ka srujan kiya tab yeh ek pind ke samaan thi. saat lainooraah ne is nav nirmit golaardh par nrut‍aaya kiya, apne pairon se ise majaboot aur chikna banaane ke liye ise komalata se dabaaya. yeh meiti jaagoi ka udbhav hai. aaj ke samay tak jab manipuri log nrut‍aaya karte hain ve kadam teji se naheen rakhate balki apne pairon ko bhoomi par komalata aur mruduta ke saath rakhate hain. mool bhraanti aur kahaaniyaaain abhi bhi meiti ke pujaariyon ya maaibis dvaara maaibi ke roop mein sunaai jaati hain jo manipuri ki jad hain.

mahila "raas" nrut‍aaya raadha krush‍aan ki vishyavas‍aatu par aadhaarit hai jo bele tatha ekal nrut‍aaya ka roop hai. purush "sankeertan" nrut‍aaya manipuri dholak ki taal par poori shakti ke saath kiya jaata hai.

mohineeattam

mohineeattam

mohineeattam Kerala ki mahilaaon dvaara kiya jaane wala ardh shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aaya hai jo kathakali se adhik puraana maana jaata hai. saahityik roop se nrut‍aaya ke beech mukh‍aaya maana jaane wala jaadui mohineeatatm Kerala ke mandiron mein pramukhat: kiya jaata tha. yeh devadaasi nrut‍aaya viraasat ka uttaraadhikaari bhi maana jaata hai jaise ki bharat naatyam, kucheepudi aur odeesi. is shab‍aad mohini ka arth hai ek aisi mahila jo dekhne vaalon ka man moh lein ya unamein ich‍aachha ut‍aapan‍aan karein. yeh Bhagwan vish‍aanu ki ek jaani maani kahaani hai ki jab un‍aahonne dug‍aadh saagar ke manthan ke dauraan logon ko aakarshit karne ke liye mohini ka roop dhaaran kiya tha aur bhaamaasur ke vinaash ki kahaani iske saath judi hui hai. at: yeh socha gaya hai ki vaish‍aanav bhakton ne is nrut‍aaya roop ko mohineeatatm ka naam diya.

mohineeatatm ka pratham sandarbh maajaamangalam Narayan nab‍aaboodiri dvaara sankalpit v‍aayavahaar maala mein paaya jaata hai jo 16veen shataab‍aadi A di mein racha gaya. 19veen shataab‍aadi mein s‍aavaati tirunaal, poorv traavan kor ke raaja the, jin‍aahonne is kala roop ko prot‍aasaahan aur sthireekaran dene ke liye kaafi prayaas kiye. s‍aavaati ke pash‍aachaat ke samay mein yadyapi is kala roop mein giraavat I. kisi prakaar yeh kuchh praanteeya jameendaaron aur uch‍aach vargeeya logon ke bhogavaadi jeevan ki santushti ke liye kaamavaasana tak gir gaya. kavi vaalaathol ne ise ek baar fir naya jeevan diya aur ise Kerala kala mandalam ke maadh‍aayam se ek aadhunik s‍aathaan pradaan kiya, jiski s‍aathaapana un‍aahonne 1903 mein ki thi. kalaamandalam kal‍aayaaneema, kalaamandalam ki pratham nrut‍aaya shikshika theen jo is praacheen kala roop ko ek naya jeevan dene mein safal raheen. unke saath krush‍aana paneekar, maadhavi am‍aama aur chin‍aanam‍aamoo am‍aama ne is lup‍aat hoti param‍aapara ki antim kadiyaan jodi jo kalaamandal ke anushaasan mein poshit an‍aaya aakaankshi theen.

moolabhoot nrut‍aaya taal chaar prakaar ke hote hain: tagaanam, jagaanam, dhagaanam aur saameeshram. ye naam vaittaari naamak vargeekaran se ut‍aapan‍aan hue hain.

kuchipudi

kucheepudi

kucheepudi Andhra pradesh ki ek s‍aavadeshi nrut‍aaya shaili hai jisne isi naam ke gaanv mein jan‍aam liya aur panapi, iska mool naam kuchelaapuri ya kuchelaapuram tha, jo krush‍aana jile ka ek kas‍aaba hai. apne mool se hi yeh teesari shataa‍aab‍aadi beesi mein apne dhundhale avashesh chhod I hai, yeh is kshetr ki ek nirantar aur jeevit nrut‍aaya param‍aapara hai. kucheepudi kala ka jan‍aam adhikaansh bhaarateeya shaas‍aatreeya nrut‍aayon ke samaan dharmon ke saath juda hua hai. ek lam‍aabe samay se yeh kala keval mandiron mein aur vah bhi Andhra pradesh ke kuchh mandiron mein vaarshik ut‍aasav ke avsar par pradarshit ki jaati thi.

param‍aapara ke anusaar kucheepudi nrut‍aaya moolat: keval purushon dvaara kiya jaata tha aur vah bhi keval braahman samudaaya ke purushon dvaara. ye braahman parivaar kucheepudi ke bhaagavatathaaloo kahalaate the. kucheepudi ke bhaagavatathaaloo braahmanon ka pehla samooh 1502 A. di. nirmit kiya gaya tha. unke kaaryakram devataaon ko samarpit kiye jaate the tatha un‍aahonne apne samoohon mein mahilaaon ko pravesh naheen diya.

mahila nrut‍aayaanganaaon ke shoshan ke kaaran nrut‍aaya kala ke hraas ke yug mein ek siddh purush siddheindr yogi ne nrut‍aaya ko pun: paribhaashit kiya. kucheepudi ke pandrah braahman parivaaron ne paanch shataabdiyon se adhik samay tak param‍aapara ko aage badhaaya hai. pratishthit guru jaise vedaantam laksh‍aami Narayan, chinta krush‍aana moorti aur taa‍aadepal‍aali peraaya ne mahilaaon ko ismein shaamil kar nrut‍aaya ko aur samruddh banaaya hai. dau॰ vemaapati chin‍aana sat‍aayam ne ismein kai nrut‍aaya naatikaaon ko joda aur kai ekal pradarshanon ki nrut‍aaya sanrachana taiyaar ki aur is prakaar nrut‍aaya roop ke kshitij ko v‍aayaapak banaaya. yeh param‍aapara tab se mahaan bani hui hai jab purush hi mahilaaon ka abhinay karte the aur ab mahilaaen purushon ka abhinay karne lagi hain.

kutiyaattam

katiyaattam Kerala ke shaas‍aatreeya rang manch ka adviteeya roop hai jo at‍aayant manamohak hai. yeh‍ 2000 varsh pehle ke samay se kiya jaata tha aur yeh sans‍aakrut ke naatakon ka abhinay hai aur yeh Bhaarat ka sabse puraana rang manch hai, jise nirantar pradarshit kiya jaata hai.

raaja kul shekhar varman ne 10veen shataab‍aadi A. di. mein kutiyaattam mein sudhaar kiya aur roop sans‍aakrut mein pradarshan ki param‍aapara ko jaari rakhe hue hai. praakrut bhaasha aur malayalam apne praacheen roopon mein is maadh‍aayam ko jeevit rakhe hain. is bhan‍aadaar mein bhaas, harsh aur mahen‍aadr vikram pal‍aalav dvaara dikhe gaye naatak shaamil hain.

paaram‍aaparik roop se chakayaar jaati ke sadas‍aaya ismein abhinay karte hain aur yeh is samooh ko samarpan hi hai jo shataabdiyon se kutiyaattam ke sanrakshan ka uttaradaayi hai. drumaron ki up jaati naambiyaar ko is rang manch ke saath nijhaavoo ke abhineta ke roop mein joda jaata hai (matake ke aakaar ka ek bada drum kutiyaattam ki visheshata hai). naambiyaar samudaaya ki mahilaaen ismein mahila charitron ka abhinay karti hai aur bail dhaatu ki ghantiyaan bajti hai. jabki an‍aaya samudaayon ke log is naatya kala ka adh‍aayayan karte hain aur manch par pradarshan mein bhaag le sakte hain, kin‍aatu ve mandiron mein pradarshan naheen karte.

jatil haav bhaav ki bhaasha, mantroch‍aachaar, chehare aur aankhon ki atishya abhiv‍aayakti vis‍aatrut mukut aur chehare ki saj‍aaja ke saath milkar kutiyaattam ka abhinay banaate hain. ismein mijhaavoo dramon dvaara, chhoti ghantiyon aur idak‍aka (ek seedhe gilaas ke aakaar ka drum) se tatha kujhaal (foonk kar bajaane wala ek vaadya) aur shankh se sangeet diya jaata hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain