shaakaahaar

shaakaahaari khaadya padaarthon ki kismon ke liye, shaakaahaari bhojan dekhein. jaanvaron mein vanaspati aadhaarit aahaar ke liye shaakaahaari dekhein.
shaakaahaar
Soy-whey-protein-diet.jpg
chitran: vyaapak roop se, maans, murgi, machhali aur jaanavar ke utpaadon ko khaaya naheen jaata hai.
aarambh: praacheen Bhaarat, praacheen yoonaan; chhathi shataabdi isa poorv aur pehle
bhinnata: dugdh-shaakaahaar, anda-shaakaahaar, anda-dugdh-shaakaahaar, shuddh shaakaahaar, veeganijm, rau veeganijm, falaahaar, bauddh shaakaahaar, jain shaakaahaar

dugdh utpaad, fal, sabji, anaaj, baadaam aadi, beej sahit vanaspati-aadhaarit bhojan ke abhyaas ko shaakaahaar kehte hain. ek shaakaahaari maans naheen khaata hai, ismein red meet arthaat pashuon ke maans, shikaar maans, murge-murgiyaan, machhali, krasteshiya ya kathini arthaat keinkada-jheenga aadi aur ghongha aadi seepadaar praani shaamil hain; aur shaakaahaari cheej (paashchaatya paneer), paneer aur jiletin mein paae jaane vaale praani-vyutpann jaaman jaise maare gaye pashuon ke upotpaad se bane khaadya se bhi door rah sakte hain.[1][2] haalaanki, inhein ya anya aparichit pashu saamagriyon ka upabhog anajaane mein kar sakte hain.[3]

naitik, svaasthya, paryaavaran, dhaarmik, raajaneetik, saanskrutik, saundarya, aarthik, ya anya kaaranon se shaakaahaar ko apnaaya ja sakta hai; aur anek shaakaahaari aahaar hain. ek laikto-shaakaahaari aahaar mein dugdh utpaad shaamil hain lekin ande naheen, ek ovo-shaakaahaari ke aahaar mein ande shaamil hote hain lekin goshaala utpaad naheen aur ek ovo-laikto shaakaahaari ke aahaar mein ande aur dugdh utpaad donon shaamil hain. ek vegan arthaat atishuddh shaakaahaari aahaar mein koi bhi praani utpaad shaamil naheen hain, jaise ki dugdh utpaad, ande aur saamaanyat: shahad. anek vegan praani-vyutpann kisi anya utpaadon se bhi door rahane ki cheshta karte hain, jaise ki kapde aur saundarya prasaadhan.

arddh-shaakaahaari bhojan mein bade paimaane par shaakaahaari khaadya padaarth hua karte hain, lekin unamein machhali ya ande shaamil ho sakte hain, ya yada-kada koi anya maans bhi ho sakta hai. ek peseteriyn aahaar mein machhali hoti hai, magar maans naheen.[4] jinke bhojan mein machhali aur ande-murge hote hain ve "maans" ko stanapaayi ke gosht ke roop mein paribhaashit kar sakte hain aur khud ki pehchaan shaakaahaar ke roop mein kar sakte hain.[5][6][7] haalaanki, shaakaahaari society jaise shaakaahaari samooh ka kehna hai ki jis bhojan mein machhali aur poltri utpaad shaamil hon, vo shaakaahaari naheen hai, kyonki machhali aur pakshi bhi praani hain.[8]

anukram

shabd vyutpatti

1847 mein sthaapit shaakaahaari society ne likha ki isne laitin "vejits" arthaat "laaivali" (sajeev) se "vejiteriyn" (shaakaahaari) shabd banaaya.[9] Oxford english dikshanari (OED) aur anya maanak shabdakosh kehte hain ki "vejitebal" shabd se yeh shabd banaaya gaya hai aur pratyaya ke roop mein "-eriyn" joda gaya.[10] OED likhta hain 1847 mein shaakaahaari society ke gathan ke baad yeh shabd saamaanya upayog mein aaya, haalaanki yeh 1839 aur 1842 se upayog ke do udaaharan prastut karta hai.[11]

itihaas

(laikto) shaakaahaar ke praarambhik record isa poorv 6thi shataabdi mein praacheen Bhaarat aur praacheen grees mein paae jaate hain.[12] donon hi udaaharanon mein aahaar ghanishth roop se praaniyon ke prati naan-vaayaleins ke vichaar (Bhaarat mein ahinsa kaha jaata hai) se juda hua hai aur dhaarmik samooh tatha daarshanik ise badhaava dete hain.[nb 1] praacheenakaal mein roman saamraajya ke isaaikaran ke baad shaakaahaar vyaavahaarik roop se Europe se gaayab ho gaya.[14] madhyakaaleen Europe mein bhikshuon ke kai niyamon ke jariye sannyaas ke kaaranon se maans ka upabhog pratibandhit ya varjit tha, lekin unamein se kiseene bhi machhali ko naheen tyaaga.[15] punarjaagaran kaal ke dauraan yeh fir se ubhara,[16] 19veen aur 20veen shataabdi mein yeh aur adhik vyaapak ban gaya. 1847 mein, England mein pehli shaakaahaari society sthaapit ki gayi,[17] Germany, Netherland aur anya deshon ne iska anusaran kiya. raashtreeya sosaaitiyon ka ek sangh, antarraashtreeya shaakaahaari sangh, 1908 mein sthaapit kiya gaya. pashchimi duniya mein, 20veen sadi ke dauraan poshan, naitik aur abhi haal hi mein, paryaavaran aur aarthik chintaaon ke parinaamasvarup shaakaahaar ki lokapriyta badhi.

shaakaahaar ki kismein

kulloo, Bhaarat ke paas sadak ke kinaare kaife.

shaakaahaar ke anek prakaar hain, jinmein vibhinn khaadya padaarth shaamil hain ya hata diye gaye hain.

  • ovo-laikto-shaakaahaar mein ande, doodh aur shahad jaise praani utpaad shaamil hain.
  • laikto shaakaahaar mein doodh shaamil hain, lekin ande naheen.
  • ovo shaakaahaar mein ande shaamil hain lekin doodh naheen.
  • vegaanijm doodh, shahad, ande sahit sabhi prakaar ke praani maans tatha praani utpaadon ka varjan karta hai.[18]
  • rau vegaanijm mein sirf taaja tatha bina pakaae fal, baadaam aadi, beej aur sabjiyaan shaamil hain.[19]
  • frooteriynijm ped-paudhon ko bina nuksaan pahunchaae sirf fal, baadaam aadi, beej aur anya ikattha kiye ja sakane vaale vanaspati padaarth ke sevan ki anumati deta hai.[20]
  • su shaakaahaar (jaise ki bauddh dharm) sabhi praani utpaadon sahit eliam parivaar ki sabjiyon (jinmein pyaaj aur lahasun ki gandh ki visheshata ho): pyaaj, lahasun, hara pyaaj, leek, ya chhote pyaaj ko aahaar se baahar rakhate hain.
  • maikrobaayotik aahaar mein adhikaanshat: saabut anaaj aur faliyaan hua karti hain.

kattar shaakaahaari aise utpaadon ka tyaag karte hain, jinhein banaane mein praani saamagri ka istemaal hota hai, ya jinke utpaadan mein praani utpaadon ka upayog hota ho, bhale hi unke lebal mein unka ullekh na ho; udaaharan ke liye cheej mein praani renet (pashu ke pet ki parat se bani enjaaim), jiletin (pashu charm, asthi aur sanyojak tantu se) ka upayog hota hai. kuchh cheeni ko haddiyon ke koyale se safed banaaya jaata hai (jaise ki ganne ki cheeni, lekin beet cheeni naheen) aur alkohal ko jiletin ya ghonghe ke choore aur starjion se saaf kiya jaata hai.

kuchh log arddh-shaakaahaari aahaar ka sevan karte hue khud ko "shaakaahaari" ke roop mein bataaya karte hain.[21][22] anya maamalon mein, ve khud ka varnan bas "flekseeteriyn" ke roop mein kiya karte hain.[21] aise bhojan ve log kiya karte hain jo shaakaahaari aahaar mein sankraman ke daur mein ya svaasthya, paryaavaran ya anya kaaranon se pashu maans ka upabhog ghataate ja rahe hain. "arddh-shaakaahaari" shabd par adhikaansh shaakaahaar samoohon ko aapatti hai, jinka kehna hai ki shaakaahaari ko sabhi pashu maans tyaag dena jaruri hai. arddh-shaakaahaari bhojan mein peseteriynijm (pescetarianism) shaamil hai, jisme machhali aur kabhi-kabhi samudri khaadya shaamil hote hain; poloteriynijm mein poltri utpaad shaamil hain; aur maikrobaayotik aahaar mein adhikaanshat: gote anaaj aur faliyaan shaamil hoti hain, lekin kabhi-kabhaar machhali bhi shaamil ho sakti hai.

svaasthya sambandhi laabh aur mahatva

American daaetik association aur Canada ke aahaaravidon ka kehna hai ki jeevan ke sabhi charanon mein achhi tarah se yojanaabaddh shaakaahaari aahaar "svaasthyaprad, paryaapt poshak hai aur kuchh beemaariyon ki rokathaam aur ilaaj ke liye svaasthya ke faayde pradaan karta hai". bade paimaane par hue adhyayanon ke anusaar maansaahaariyon ki tulana mein iskeemik (sthaanik-araktata sambandhi) hradaya rog shaakaahaari purushon mein 30% kam aur shaakaahaari mahilaaon mein 20% kam hua karte hain.[23][24][25] sabjiyon, anaaj, baadaam aadi, soya doodh, ande aur dairy utpaadon mein shareer ke bharan-poshan ke liye aavashyak poshak tatv, proteen aur ameeno esid hua karte hain.[26] shaakaahaari aahaar mein santrupt vasa, kolestraul aur praani proteen ka star kam hota hai aur kaarbohaaidret, faaibar, maigneeshiym, poteshiym, folet aur vitaamin si va E jaise enteeokseedeint tatha faaitokemikls ka star uchchatar hota hai.[27]

shaakaahaari nimn shaareerik maas index, kolestraul ka nimn star, nimn raktachaap pravrutt hote hain; aur inmein hradaya rog, uchch raktachaap, madhumeh type 2, gurde ki beemaari, asthi-sushirta (ostiyoporosis), aljaaimar jaise manobhransh aur anya beemaariyaan kam hua karti hain.[28] khaaskar charbeedaar bhaari maans (Non-lean red meat) ko bhojan-nalika, jigr, malaashaya aur fefadon ke Cancer ke badhte khatre ke saath seedhe taur par juda paaya gaya hai.[29] anya adhyayanon ke anusaar pramastish‍aakavaahikeeya (cerebrovascular) beemaari, pet ke Cancer, malaashaya Cancer, stan Cancer, ya prostet Cancer se hone waali mrutyu ke maamale mein shaakaahaari aur maansaahaariyon ke beech mein koi ullekhaneeya antar naheen hai; haalaanki shaakaahaariyon ke namoone kam the aur unamein poorv-dhoomrapaan karne vaale aise log shaamil rahe jinhonne pichhle paanch saal mein apna bhojan badla hai.[24] 2010 ke ek adhyayan mein seveinth de edaveintists ke shaakaahaariyon aur maansaahaariyon ke ek group ke beech tulana karne par shaakaahaariyon mein avasaad kam paaya gaya aur unhein behtar mood ka paaya gaya.[30]

poshak tatv

ek fal aur Barcelona mein sabji ki dukaan

pashchimi shaakaahaari aahaar kairotenoyads mein aam taur par unnat hote hain, lekin apekshaakrut lambi-shrrunkhala N-3 faiti esid aur vitaamin bi12 mein nimn hote hain. vegaans vishesh roop se vitaamin bi aur kailshiym ka sevan kam kar sakte hain, agar unhonne paryaapt maatra mein kolaard hare patte, pattedaar saag, tempeh aur tofoo (soya) naheen khaate hain. faaibar aahaar, folik esid, vitaamin si aur E aur maigneshiym ke oonche star tatha santrupt vasa arthaat charbi ke kam upabhog ko shaakaahaari bhojan ka laabhakaari pahaloo maana jaata hai.[31][32]

proteen

shaakaahaari bhojan mein proteen ka sevan maansaahaari aahaar se keval jara-sa hi kam hota hai aur vyakti ki dainik jarooraton ko poora kar sakta hai. khilaadiyon aur shareer ko gatheela banaane vaalon ki aavashyakataaon ko bhi poora kar sakta hai.[33] Harvard vishvavidyaalaya aur America, Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand tatha vibhinn Europeeya deshon mein kiye gaye adhyayanon se iski pushti hoti hai ki vibhinn prakaar ke paudhon ke sroton se aahaar upalabdh hote rahein aur unka upabhog hota rahe to shaakaahaari bhojan paryaapt proteen muhaiya karta hai.[34] proteen ameeno esid ke prakrutisth hain aur vanaspati sroton se praapt proteen ko lekar ek aam chinta aavashyak ameeno esid ke sevan ki hai, jo maanav shareer dvaara sanshleshit naheen kiya ja sakta hai. jabki dairy utpaad aur ande laikto-ovo shaakaahaariyon ko sampoorn srot upalabdh karaate hain; ye ekamaatr vanaspati srot hain jinmein sabhi aath prakaar ke aavashyak ameeno esid mahatvapoorn maatra mein hua karte hain. ye hain lupin, soya, hempaseed, chiya seed, amaranth, bak vheet aur kuinoaa. haalaanki, aavashyak ameeno esid vividh prakaar ke poorak vanaspati sroton ko khaane se praapt kiye ja sakte hain, sabhi aath aavashyak ameeno esid pradaan karne vaale vanaspatiyon ke sanyojan se aisa ho sakta hai (jaise ki bhoore chaaval aur beens, ya hyoomas aur gote gehoon ka pita, haalaanki us bhojan mein proteen ka sanyojan hona jaruri naheen hai. 1994 ke ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki aise vividh sroton ka sevan paryaapt ho sakta hai.[35]

lauh

shaakaahaari aahaar mein lauh tatv aam taur par maansaahaari bhojan ke samaan star ke hote hain, lekin maans sroton se praapt lauh ki tulana mein iski baayo-upalabdhata nimn hoti hai aur iske avashoshan mein kabhi-kabhi aahaar ke anya ghatakon dvaara rukaavat paida ki ja sakti hai. shaakaahaari khaadya padaarth lauh se bharpoor hote hai, inmein kaali sem, kaajoo, hempaseed, raajama, masoor daal, jau ka aata, kishmish va munakka, lobiya, soyaabeen, anek naashte mein khaaye jaanevaala anaaj, sooryamukhi ke beej, chhole, tamaatar ka joos, temapeh, sheera, ajavaayan aur gehoon ke aate ka bred shaamil hain.[36] shaakaahaari bhojan ki tulana mein sambandhit vegan ya shuddh shaakaahaari bhojan mein aksar lauh ki maatra adhik ho sakti hai, kyonki dairy utpaadon mein lauh kam hua karta hai.[32] maansaahaariyon ki tulana mein shaakaahaariyon mein lauh bhandaar ka pravrutt aksar kam hota hai aur kuchh chhote adhyayanon mein shaakaahaariyon mein lohe ki kami ki uchch dar paayi gayi hai. haalaanki, American daaetik association ka kehna hai ki maansaahaariyon ki tulana mein shaakaahaariyon mein lauh kami adhik aam naheen hai (vayask purushon mein kabhi-kabhaar hi lauh kami paayi jaati hai); lauh kami raktaalpata kadaachit hoti hai, aahaar se koi sambandh naheen.[37][38][39]

vitaamin bi12

paudhe aam taur par vitaamin bi12 ke mahatvapoorn srot naheen hote hain.[40] haalaanki, laikto-ovo shaakaahaari dairy utpaadon aur andon se bi12 praapt kar sakte hain aur vegaans drudheekrut khaadya tatha poorak aahaar se praapt kar sakte hain.[41][42] choonki maanav shareer bi12 ko surakshit rakhata hai aur iske saar ko nasht kiye bina iska fir se upayog karta hai, iseeliye bi12 kami ke udaaharan asaamaanya hain.[43][44] bina pun: aapoorti ke shareer vitaamin ko 30 varshon tak surakshit rakhe rah sakta hai.[40]

bi12 ke ekamaatr vishvasaneeya vegaan srot hain bi12 ke saath drudheekrut khaadya (kuchh soya utpaadon aur kuchh naashta ke anaaj sahit) aur bi12 ke poorak.[45][46] haal ke varshon mein vitaamin bi12 ke sroton par shodhon mein vruddhi hui hai.[47]

faiti esid

omega 3 faiti esid ke paudhe-aadhaarit ya shaakaahaari sroton mein soya, akharot, kumhade ke beej, kainola tel (repaseed), kivi fal aur visheshakar hempaseed, chiya seed, alasi, ichiym beej aur loniya ya kulafa shaamil hain. kisi bhi anya gyaat saagon ki apeksha kulafa mein adhik omega 3 hua karta hai. vanaspati ya ped-paudhon se praapt khaadya padaarth alfa-linolenik esid pradaan kar sakte hain, lekin lambi-shrrunkhala N-3 faiti esid ipeee (EPA) aur deeechae (DHA) pradaan naheen karte, jinka star andon aur dairy utpaadon mein kam hua karta hai. maansaahaariyon ki tulana mein shaakaahaariyon aur vishesh roop se vegaans mein ipeee (EPA) aur deeechae (DHA) ka nimn star hota hai. haalaanki ipeee (EPA) aur deeechae (DHA) ke nimn star ka svaasthya par padne wala prabhaav agyaat hai, lekin iski sambhaavana naheen hai ki alfa-linolenik esid ke anupooran se iske star mein mahatvapoorn vruddhi hogi.[48] haal hi mein, kuchh companiyon ne samudri shaivaal ke satt se bharpoor shaakaahaari deeechae anupooran ki bikri shuroo kar di hai. ipeee (EPA) aur deeechae (DHA) donon upalabdh karaane vaale isi tarah ke anya anupooran bhi aane shuroo ho chuke hain.[49] poora samudri shaivaal anupooran ke liye upayukt naheen hai, kyonki unke uchch aayodeen tatv surakshit upabhog ki maatra ko seemit karte hain. haalaanki, spaairulina jaise kuchh shaivaal gaama-linolenik esid (jeeelae (GLA)), alfa-linolenik esid (eelae (ALA)), linolenik esid (elae (LA)), steeyaridonik esid (esadeee (SDA)), aaikosaipeintenoik esid (ipeee (EPA)), dokosaheksenoik esid (deeechae (DHA)) aur arachidonik esid (ee (AA)) ke achhe srot hote hain.[50][51]

kailshiym

shaakaahaariyon mein kailshiym ka sevan maansaahaariyon ke hi samaan hai. vegaans mein asthiyon ki kuchh durbalata paayi gayi hai jo hare-pattedaar saag naheen khaaya karte, jinme prachoor kailshiym hua karta hai.[52] haalaanki, laikto-ovo shaakaahaariyon mein yeh naheen paaya jaata.[53] kailshiym ke kuchh sroton mein kolaard saag, bok choya, kaale (gobhi), shalagam ke saag shaamil hain.[54] paalak rasapaalak aur chukndar saag kailshiym se bharpoor hain, lekin kailshiym ok‍aajelet hone ke liye baadhya hai aur isliye achhi tarah se avashoshit naheen ho paata hai.[55]

vitaamin di

shaakaahaariyon mein vitaamin di ka star kam naheen hona chaahiye (haalaanki adhyayanon ke anusaar aam aabaadi ke adhikaansh mein iski kami hai[56]). paryaapt aur samvedi yoovi (UV) soorya dhoop sevan se vitaamin di ki aavashyakataaen maanav shareer ke khud ke utpaadan ke jariye poori ho sakti hain. doodh sahit soya doodh aur anaaj ke daane jaise utpaad vitaamin di pradaan karne ke achhe drudheekrut srot ho sakte hai;[57] aur khumi (masharoom) 2700 aaiyoo se adhik (lagbhag 3 aauns ya aadha cup) vitaamin di2 pradaan karta hai, agar ekatr karne ke baad 5 minute yoovi prakaash mein khula chhod diya jaaya;[58] jo paryaapt dhoop ka sevan naheen karte hain aur/ya jinhein khaadya padaarthon se praapt naheen hota hai, unhein vitaamin di ke anupooran ki jaroorat pad sakti hai.

deerghaayu

pashchimi deshon ke paanch adhyayanon ke ek 1999 ke metaaadhyayan[59] ke sanyukt deta. metaaadhyayan ne mrutyu dar anupaat ke baare mein bataaya ki nimn sankhya kam mauton ki soochak hai; machhali khaane vaalon ke liye .82, shaakaahaariyon ke liye .84, kabhi-kabhaar maans khaane vaalon ke liye .84 ki sankhya bataayi gayi. niyamit roop se maans khaane vaale aur vegaans sarvaadhik 1.00 mrutyu dar anupaat ki saajhedaari karte hain. adhyayan ne pratyek shreni mein hone waali mauton ki sankhya ke baare mein bataaya aur pratyek anupaat ke liye apekshit truti anukram ko dekhte hue, deta mein samaayojan kiya. haalaanki, "is (shaakaahaari) aabaadi varg mein mukhya roop se dhoomrapaan ki aadat apekshaakrut kam hone kaaran mrutyu dar kam rahi". mrutyu ke pramukh kaaranon ka adhyayan karne par aahaar mein antar ki vajah se mrutyu dar mein fark ka keval ek hi kaaran jimmedaar paaya gaya, nishkarsh mein kaha gaya: "sthaanik raktaalpata sambandhi hradaya rog se mrutyu dar mein maansaahaariyon ki tulana mein shaakaahaariyon ki sankhya 24% kam hai; lekin mrutyu ke anya pramukh kaaranon mein shaakaahaari aahaar ka koi judaav sthaapit naheen kiya gaya."[59]

"morteliti in british vejitereeyans" mein,[60] ek samaan nishkarsh nikaala gaya hai: "british shaakaahaariyon mein aam aabaadi ki tulana mein mrutyu dar kam hai. unki mrutyu dar un logon ke samaan hain jo maansaahaariyon ke saath tulaneeya hain, kaha gaya ki dhoomrapaan ke kam prachalan aur aam taur par uchch saamajik-aarthik sthiti jaise gair-aahaareeya jeevanashaili ke kaarakon ya maans aur machhali ke parahej se bhinn aahaar ke anya pahaluon ke kaaran yeh laabh milta ho sakta hai."[61]

seveinth-de edaveintists mein edveintist svaasthya adhyayan deerghaayu jeevan ka ek satat adhyayan hai. doosaron ke beech mein yeh ekamaatr adhyayan hai jismein vahi kaarya paddhati apanaayi gayi hai jisse shaakaahaar ke liye anukool lakshan praapt hue. shodhakartaaon ne paaya ki alag-alag jeevan shaili vikalpon ka sanyojan deerghaayu jeevan par adhik se adhik das saal ka prabhaav daal sakta hai. jeevan shaili vikalpon ki jaanch mein paaya gaya ki shaakaahaari bhojan jeevan ko atirikt 1-1/2 se 2 saal tak badha sakta hai. shodhakartaaon ne nishkarsh nikaala ki "California edveintist purushon aur mahilaaon ke jeevan ki pratyaasha kisi bhi anya bhali-bhaanti varnit praakrutik aabaadi ki tulana mein adhik hai"; purushon ke liye 78.5 saal aur mahilaaon ke liye 82.3 saal. 30 varsh ke California edveintistas ke jeevan ki pratyaasha purushon ke liye 83.3 saal aur mahilaaon ke liye 85.7 saal aanki gayi.[62]

edveintist svaasthya adhyayan ko fir se ek metaaadhyayan mein shaamil kiya gaya hai, jiska sheershak hai "kya maans ka kam sevan maanav jeevan ko deerghaayu banaata hai?" yeh American journal of klinikl nyootreeshan mein prakaashit hua, jiska nishkarsh hai ki adhik maatra mein maans khaane vaale samooh ki tulana mein, kam maans bhakshan (saptaah mein ek baar se kam) aur anya jeevanashaili vikalpon se ullekhaneeya roop se aayu badh jaati hai.[63] adhyayan ne nishkarsh nikaala ki "svasth vayaskon ke ek aabaadi varg mein paae gaye nishkarshon ne yeh sambhaavana badha di ki ek lambi avadhi (≥ 2 dashak) tak shaakaahaari bhojan ke avalamban se aayu mein ek ullekhaneeya 3.6-vaai (3.6-y) ki vruddhi ho sakti hai." haalaanki, adhyayan ne yeh bhi nishkarsh nikaala ki "kanafaaundars ke adhyayanon ke beech sanyojan mein chihnit antar, shaakaahaari ki paribhaasha, maap truti, aayu vitran, svasth swayamsevi prabhaav aur shaakaahaariyon dvaara koi khaas prakaar ki vanaspati khaadya ka sevan karne ke kaaran shaakaahaariyon mein uttarajeevita laabh mein kuchh bhinnata ho sakti hai." yeh aage kehta hai ki "isse yeh sambhaavana badhati hai ki kam maans va adhik shaakaahaari bhojan paitarn sahi maayane mein preranaarthak surakshaatmak kaarak ho sakta hai, bajaay iske ki bhojan se maans ko bas nikaal diya jaaya." sabhi kaaran se mrutyu dar ke liye kam-maans aahaar se sabandhit haal ke ek adhyayan mein Singh ne paaya ki "5 adhyayanon mein se 5 mein hi yeh jaahir hota hai ki jin vayaskon ne kam maans aur adhik shaakaahaari aahaar ke paitarn ka anusaran kiya, unhonne sevan ke anya paitarn ki tulana mein, mahatvapoorn ya jara kam mahatvapoorn roop se mrutyu ke jokhim mein kami ko mahasoos kiya."

Europe mein kshetreeya tatha sthaaneeya aahaar ke saath deerghaayu hone ki tulana jaise saankhyiki adhyayanon mein bhi paaya gaya ki adhik maansaahaari uttari fraans ki tulana mein dakshini France mein logon ki aayu bahut adhik hai, jahaan kam maans aur adhik shaakaahaari bhoomadhyasaagareeya bhojan aam hai.[64]

insteetayoot of priveintiv end klinikl medisin, tatha insteetayoot of saayaklojikl kemistri dvaara kiye gaye adhyayan mein 19 shaakaahaariyon (laikto-ovo) ke ek samooh ki tulana usi kshetr ke 19 sarvabhakshi samooh se ki gayi. adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki shaakaahaariyon (laikto-ovo) ke is samooh mein is maansaahaari samooh ki tulana mein plaajma kaarbokseemitheleesaain aur unnat glikeshan endoprodakts (AGEs) ki maatra bahut adhik hai.[65] kaarbokseemitheleesaain ek glikeshan utpaad hai jo "okseedetiv tanaav praudhaavastha, dhamaneekalaakaathinya (atherosclerosis) aur madhumeh mein proteen ki kshati ke ek aam chihnak' ka pratinidhitv karta hai." "unnat glikeshan end utpaad (AGEs) dhamaneekalaakaathinya, madhumeh, praudhaavastha aur jeern gurde ki kharaabi ki prakriya ke maamale mein ek mahatvapoorn pratikool bhoomika nibha sakta hai."

aahaar banaam deerghaayu tatha pashchimi rogon ke poshak par sabse bada adhyayan cheeni pariyojana thi; yeh ek "2,400 se adhik County ke unke 880 million (96%) naagrikon par vibhinn prakaar ke Cancer se mrutyu dar ka sarvekshan" tha, iska sanyojan vibhinn mrutyu daron aur anek prakaar ke aahaar, jeevan shaili aur paryaavaraneeya visheshataaon ke saath sambandh ke adhyayan ke saath kiya gaya, yeh adhyayan cheen ke 65 adhikaanshat: graameen kaauntiyon mein sanyukt roop se kornel vishvavidyaalaya, Oxford vishvavidyaalaya aur priveintiv medisin ki cheeni academy dvaara 20 varshon tak kiya gaya. cheen adhyayan mein bhojan mein maansaahaar ki maatra tatha pashchim mein maut ke pramukh kaaranon ke beech ek majaboot khuraak-anukriya sambandh paaya gaya hai; pashchim mein mrutyu ke kaaran hrudaya rog, madhumeh aur Cancer hain.

khaadya suraksha

yooesae tude (USA Today) ke blog mein libbi saande ne kaha hai ki shaakaahaar E. koli (E. coli) sankraman ko kam karta hai,[66] aur the new yaurk times ke ek aalekh mein khaadya mein E. koli dooshan ko audyogik paimaane ke maans aur dairy faarm ke saath joda.[67] 2006 ke dauraan America mein E. koli sankraman ke liye paalak aur pyaaj ko jimmevaar paaya gaya.[68][mrut kadiyaaain][69]

rogajanak E. koli ka prasaar malaashaya-mukh sancharan ke jariye hua karta hai.[70][71][72] sancharan ke aam maargon mein asvaasthyakar tareeke se bhojan banaana[71] aur firm sandooshan shaamil hain.[73][74][75] dairy aur beef maans pashu mukhya roop se E. koli prajaati O157:H7 ke khajaana hain,[76] aur ve ise sparshonmukh roop se vahaan kar sakte hain aur unke mal mein ise baha dete hain.[76] E. koli prakop ke saath jude khaadya utpaadon mein jameen par pada kachcha beef,[77] kachche ankurit beej ya paalak,[73] kachcha doodh, bina paishachyuraijd joos aur malaashaya-mukh ke jariye sankramit khaadya karmiyon dvaara dooshit khaadya shaamil hain.[71] 2005 mein, kuchh log jinhonne tihre-dhoye paik hone se pehle letas ka sevan kiya tha, ve E. koli se sankramit ho gaye the.[78] 2007 mein, paik letas salaad ko vaapas le liya gaya tha, jab unhein E. koli se sandooshit paaya gaya.[79] E. koli prakop paishachyuraijd naheen kiye gaye seb,[80] santare ke ras, doodh, rijka ya alfaalfa ke ankuron,[81] aur paani mein paaya gaya.[82]

saalmonela ka prakop moongafali ke makkhan, jame hue paut pai aur kuramure sabji alpaahaar mein paaya gaya.[83] BSE, jise gaaya rog ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, ko vishv svaasthya sangathan ne maanav mein krutjfelt-jaikob rog se joda hai.[84]

bhedon mein paanv-aur-munh ki beemaari, faarm ki saalaman machhali mein PCB, machhali mein paara, pashu utpaadon mein daayoksin ki maatra, krutrim haaramon vruddhi, enteebaayotik, seesa aur paara,[85] sabji aur fal mein keetanaashakon ki maatra, falon ko pakaane ke liye pratibandhit rasaayanon ke istemaal ki report aa rahi hain.[86][87][88]

chikitsakeeya prayog

pashchimi dava mein, kabhi-kabhi mareejon ko shaakaahaari bhojan ka paalan karne ki salaah di jaati hai.[89] rumeti gathiya ke liye ek ilaaj ke roop mein shaakaahaari aahaar ka upayog kiya jaata hai, lekin yeh kaaragar hai ya naheen, iske pramaan anirnaayak hain.[90] dau॰aadeen ornish, emadi, ne yooseeesaef (UCSF) mein anek achhi tarah se niyantrit adhyayan kiye, jisne kam vasa vaale shaakaahaari bhojan sahit jeevan shaili mein hastakshep ke jariye koronari dhamani rog ko vaastav mein theek kar diya. aayurved aur siddh jaisi kuchh vaikalpik chikitsa pranaali ek saamaanya prakriya ke roop mein shaakaahaari bhojan ki salaah deti hain.[nb 2]

shareer vigyaan

insaan sarvabhakshi hote hain, maans aur shaakaahaari khaadya pachaane ki maanav kshamata par yeh aadhaarit hai.[92][93] tark diya jaata hai ki shareer rachana ki drushti se manushya shaakaahaariyon ke adhik samaan hain, kyonki inki lambi aant hoti hai, jo anya sarvabhakshiyon aur maansaahaariyon mein naheen hoti hain.[94] poshan sambandhi visheshagyon ka maanana hai ki praarambhik hominids ne teen se chaar million varsh pehle bhaari jalavaayu parivartan ke parinaamasvaroop maans khaane ki pravrutti viksit ki, jab jungle sookh gaye aur unki jagah khule ghaas ke maidaanon ne le liya, tab shikaar tatha safaai ke avsar khul gaye.[95][96]

jaanavar-se-maanav rog sankraman

maans ka upabhog pashuon se manushyon mein anek rogon ke sankraman ka kaaran ho sakta hai.[97] saalmonela ke maamale mein sankramit jaanavar aur maanav beemaari ke beech sambandh ki jaankaari achhi tarah sthaapit ho chuki hai; ek anumaan ke anusaar ek sanyukt raajya America mein bik rahe murge ki ek tihaai se aadha tak saalmonela se sandooshit hai.[97] haal hi mein, vaigyaaniko ne sandeh karna shuroo kiya hai ki pashu maans aur maanav Cancer, janm dosh, utparivrtan tatha maanavon ki anek bimaariyon ke beech isi tarah ka sambandh hai.[97][98][99][100][101][102][103] 1975 mein, ek adhyayan mein super market ke gaaya ke doodh ke namoonon mein 75 feesadi aur andon ke namoonon mein 75 feesadi lyookemiya (Cancer) ke virus paae gaye.[98] 1985 tak, jaanch kiye gaye andon ka lagbhag 100 feesadi, ya jin murgiyon se ve nikle hain, mein Cancer ke virus mile.[97][98] murge-murgiyon mein beemaari ki dar itni adhik hai ki shram vibhaag ne poltri udyog ko sabse adhik khatarnaak vyavasaayon mein ek ghoshit kar diya.[97] sabhi gaayon ka 20 feesadi gojaateeya lyookemiya virus (BLV) naam se gyaat vibhinn prakaar ke Cancer se peedit hai.[97] adhyayan teji se HTLV-1 ke saath BLV ko jod rahe hain, yeh khoja gaya pehla maanav retrovaayaras hai jisse Cancer hota hai.[97] vaigyaaniko ne paaya hai ki ek gojaateeya rogaksham-aparyaaptata virus (BIV), jo gaayon mein eds ke virus ke samaan hai, bhi maanav koshikaaon ko sankramit kar sakte hain.[97] yeh maana jaata hai ki maanav mein anek ghaatak aur dheemi gati ke virus ke vikaas mein BIV ki bhoomika ho sakti hai.[97]

audyogik paimaane ke pashu faarming mein pashuon ki niktata se rog sankraman ki dar mein vruddhi hui hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] maanav mein inflooenja ke virus ke sankraman ke pramaan darj ho chuke hain, lekin aise maamalon mein hui beemaariyon ki tulana ab maanav dvaara anukoolit ho chuke aam puraane inflooenja virus ke saath kabhi-kabhaar hi hoti hai,[104] jo bimaari bahut pehle bhootakaal mein pashuon se manushyon mein sankramit hui.[nb 3][106][107][108] pehla maamala 1959 mein darj kiya gaya tha aur 1998 mein, H5N1 inflooenja ke 18 nae maamalon ka nidaan kiya gaya, jinmein se chh: logon ki mrutyu ho gayi. 1997 mein Hongkong mein H5N1 eviyn inflooenja ke aur adhik maamale murgiyon mein paae gaye.[104]

tapedik ki shuruaat pashuon mein hui aur fir usaka sankraman unase manushyon mein hua, ya ek samaan poorvaj se nikli alag-alag prajaatiyaan sankramit huin, yeh ab tak aspasht hai.[109] khasara aur kaali khaansi ke mool mein paalatoo pashuon ke jimmevaar hone ke majaboot saakshya maujood hain, haalaanki deta ne gair-paalatoo mool ko is daayare se baahar naheen kiya hai.[110]

'hantar theory' ke anusaar, "pajaatiyon ke beech sankraman ki sabse aasan aur vishvasaneeya vyaakhya" chimpaanji se maanav mein eds virus ka sankraman hai, aisa tab hua hoga jab kisi jungle ke shikaari ko kisi pashu ne shikaar karte samay ya ktl karte samay maara ya kaata hoga.[111]

itihaasakaar norman kaintar ki rai mein pashuon ke murain (ek pleg jaise rog), enthreks ke ek roop sahit mahaamaari ka ek sanyojan ho sakti hai kaali maut. unhonne is silsile mein pramaan ke kai roopon ka ullekh kiya, jinmein yeh tathya bhi shaamil hai ki pleg ke prakop se pehle angreji kshetron mein sankramit pashuon ke maans beche jaate rahe the.[112]

Khan-paan sambandhi gadbadi

American daaetik association bataaya ki khaane ke vikaar ke saath kishoron mein shaakaahaari aahaar adhik aam ho sakte hain, lekin pramaanon ke anusaar shaakaahaari bhojan apnaane se khaane ke vikaar naheen hote, balki yeh ki "maujooda khaane ke vikaar ko chhipaane ke liye shaakaahaari bhojan ko chuna ja sakta hai."[113] anya adhyayanon aur daaetishiynon va salaahakaaron ke bayaanon ne is nishkarsh ka samarthan kiya.[nb 4][116]

shaakaahaari bhojan ke atirikt kaaran

aachaaraneeti

vibhinn naitik kaaranon se shaakaahaar ko chunane ke sujhaav diye gaye hain.

dharm

bhaarateeya khaana shaakaahaari vyanjanon ki ek vistrut shrrunkhala ki vajah se hindu dharm, Bhaarat ki aabaadi ka bahumat dvaara abhyaas pradaan karta hai, shaakaahaari bhojan protsaahit karti hai. yahaan shaakaahaari thaali diya jaata hai.

jain dharm naitik aacharan ke roop mein shaakaahaar hone ki shiksha deta hai, usi tarah jaisa ki hindu dharm ke kuchh pramukh[krupaya uddharan jodein] sanpradaaya karte hain. saamaanya taur par bauddh dharm, maans khaane ka nishedh naheen karta hai, jabki mahaayaan bauddh dharm daya ki bhaavana ke laabhaprad vikaas ke liye shaakaahaari hone ko protsaahit karta hai. anya panth jo poori tarah shaakaahaari bhojan ki vakaalat karte hain unamein seveinth-de edaveintists, rastaafari aandolan aur hare Krishna shaamil hain. sikh dharm[117][118][119] aadhyaatmikta ke saath aahaar ko naheen jodta aur shaakaahaari ya maansaahaari aahaar nirdisht naheen karta hai.[120]

hindu dharm

hindu dharm ke adhikaansh bade panth shaakaahaar ko ek aadarsh ke roop mein sambhaale rakha hai. iske mukhyat: teen kaaran hain: pashu-praani ke saath ahinsa ka siddhaant;[121] aaraadhya Dave ko keval "shuddh" (shaakaahaari) khaadya prastut karne ki neeyat aur fir prasaad ke roop mein use vaapas praapt karna;[122] aur yeh vishvaas ki maansaahaari bhojan mastishk tatha aadhyaatmik vikaas ke liye haanikaarak hai. hindu shaakaahaari aamtaur par ande se parahej karte hain lekin doodh aur dairy utpaadon ka upabhog karte hain, isliye ve laikto-shaakaahaari hain.

haalaanki, apne sanpradaaya aur kshetreeya paranparaaon ke anusaar hinduon ke khaanapaan ki aadaton mein bhinnata hoti hai. aitihaasik roop se aur vartamaan mein, jo hindu maans khaate hain ve jhatka maans pasand karte hain.[123]

jain dharm

jain dharm ke anuyaayi maanate hain ki praaniyon se lekar nirjeev padaarthon mein sab cheej mein alag avastha ka jeevan hua karta hai aur iseeliye ve iske nuksaan ko nyoonatam karne ke liye adhiktam prayaas karte hain. adhikaansh jaini laikto-shaakaahaari hote hain, lekin adhik dharmanishth jaini kand-mool sabjiyaan naheen khaate kyonki isse paudhon ki hatya hoti hai. iske bajaay ve faliyaan aur fal khaane par dhyaan keindrit karte hain, jinki kheti mein paudhon ki hatya shaamil naheen hai. mrut pashuon se praapt utpaadon ke upabhog ya upayog ki anumati naheen hai. bhookhe rahakar aatm samaapti ko jaini ek aadarsh avastha maanate hain aur kuchh samarpit bhikshu aatm samaapti kiya karte hain. aadhyaatmik pragati ke liye yeh unke liye ek aparihaarya sthiti hai.[124][125] kuchh vishesh roop se samarpit vyakti fruteriyn hain.[126] shahad se parahej kiya jaata hai, kyonki iske sangrah ko madhumakkhiyon ke khilaaf hinsa ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. kuchh jaini bhoomi ke andar paida hone vaale paudhon ke bhaagon ko naheen khaate, jaise ki mool aur kand; kyonki paudha ukhaadte samay sookshm praani maare ja sakte hain.[127]

bauddh dharm

ek Japani bauddh mandir mein ek shaakaahaari bhojan

thairavaadi ya sthavirvaadi aam taur par maans khaaya karte hain. agar bauddh bhikshu ne vishesh roop se unke khaane ke liye kisi pashu ko maarate "dekh, sun ya jaan liya" to ve isse inkaar kar deinge ya fir aparaadh apne oopar le leinge. haalaanki, ismein bhiksha mein praapt ya vaanijyik roop se khareedkar khaaya jaane wala maans shaamil naheen hai. thairavaad mein buddh ne maans bhakshan se unhein hatotsaahit karne ke liye koi tippani naheen ki hai (sirf vishesh prakaar ko chhodkar, jaise ki manushya, haathi, ghoda, kutta, saanp, Singh, baagh, teinduaa, bhaaloo aur lakadbaggha[128]), lekin jab ek salaah di gayi tab unhonne math ke niyamon mein shaakaahaar ko sthaapit karne se inkaar kar diya.

mahaayaan bauddh dharm mein, aise anek sanskrut granth hain jinme buddh apne anuyaayiyon ko maans se parahej karne ka nirdesh dete hain. haalaanki, mahaayaan bauddh dharm ki pratyek shaakha chayan karti hai ki kis sootr ka paalan karna hai. Tibet aur Japani bauddhon ke bahumat sahit mahaayaan ki kuchh shaakhaaen maans khaaya karti hain jabki cheeni bauddh maans naheen khaate.

sikh dharm

sikh dharm ke siddhaant shaakaahaar ya maansaahaar par alag se koi vakaalat naheen karte,[129][130][131][132][133] balki bhojan ka nirnaya vyakti par chhod diya gaya hai. tathaapi, dasvein guru guru gobind Singh ne "amrutadhaari" sikhon, ya jo sikh rehat maryaada (aadhikaarik sikh niyam sanhita[134]) ka paalan karte hain, unhein kuttha maans ya vo maans jo karmakaand ke tahat pashuon ko maarkar praapt kiya gaya ho, use khaane se mana kiya hai. tatkaaleen nae muslim aadhiptya se svatantrata ke liye ise raajaneetik kaaran se prerit maana jaata hai, kyonki muslim bade paimaane par karmakaandi halaal aahaar ka paalan karte hain.[129][133]

kuchh sikh sanpradaaya se sambandhit "amrutadhaari" (masalan, akhand keertani jattha, damadami takasaal, naamadhaari[135], raariynavaale[136], aadi) maans aur ande ke upabhog ka jordaar virodh karte hain (haalaanki ve doodh, makkhan aur cheej ke upabhog ko badhaava dete hain).[137] yeh shaakaahaari ravaiya british raaj ke samay se chala aa raha hai, anek nae dharmaantarit vaishnavon ke aane ke baad se.[133] sikh aabaadi ke bhojan mein bhinnata ki pratikriya mein, sikh guruon ne aahaar par sikh vichaar ko spasht kiya, unhonne sirf bhojan ki saadagi ki unki praathamikta par jor diya. guru naanak ne kaha ki bhojan ke ati-upabhog (lobh, laalasa) se pruthvi ke sansaadhan samaapt ho jaayeinge aur is tarah jeevan bhi samaapt ho jaayega.[138][139] guru granth saahib (sikhon ki pavitra pustak, jise aadi granth bhi kehte hain) mein kaha gaya hai ki praani jagat ki shreshthata ke liye bahas karna "moorkhata" hai, kyonki sabhi jeevan ek-doosare se jude hue hain, sirf maanav jeevan adhik mahatva rakhata hai.

"keval moorkh hi yeh bahas karte hain ki maans khaaya jaaya ya naheen. kaun paribhaashit kar kar sakta hai ki kaun-si cheej maans aur kaun-si cheej maans naheen hai? kaun jaanta hai, jahaan paap kismein hai, shaakaahaari hone mein ya ek maansaahaari hone mein?"[133]

sikh langar, ya mandir ka muft bhojan, mukhyat: laikto-shaakaahaari hota hai, haalaanki samjha gaya hai kisi siddhaant ke bajaay vahaan khaane vaale sabhi vyaktiyon ke liye aadaraneeya aahaar ko dhyaan mein rakh kar hi aisa kiya jaata hai.[132][133]

yahoodi dharm

yahoodi dharm ke anek madhyayugeen vidvaanon (masalan, Joseph albo) ne shaakaahaar ko ek naitik aadarsh ke roop mein maana, sirf pashuon ke kalyaan ke liye hi naheen, balki isliye bhi ki pashuon ki htya karne se yeh krutya karne vaale mein nakaaraatmak chaaritrik lakshan viksit hone lagte hain. isliye, unki chinta pashu kalyaan ke bajaay maanaveeya charitra par padne vaale sambhaavit haanikaarak prabhaav the. daraasal, rabbi Joseph albo ka kaha ki maans ke upabhog ka tyaag karna isliye bhi jaruri hai ki yeh na sirf naitik roop se galat hai balki aruchikr bhi hai.[140]

ek aadhunik vidvaan, jinka ullekh aksar hi shaakaahaar ke paksh kiya jaata hai, maindet pailestaain ke pramukh rabbi sv. rabbi Abraham issaak kook the. apne lekhan mein, rabbi kook ne shaakaahaar ko ek aadarsh ke roop mein bataaya hai aur is tathya ki or ishaara kiya hai ki aadam pashu maans naheen khaaya karta tha. is sandarbh mein, haalaanki, rabbi kook ne paralok-siddhaant-vishyak (muktidaata sambandhi) yug ke baare mein apne chitran mein ye tippaniyaan ki hain.

kuchh kabbalaavaadiyon ke anusaar, keval ek rahasyavaadi hi jo punarjanm lene waali aatma aur "ishvareeya kiran" ko samajhne tatha use unnat kar paane mein saksham hai, use hi maans khaane ki anumati hai, haalaanki pashu maans khaane se tab bhi aatma ko aadhyaatmik kshati pahuainch sakti hai. anek yahoodi shaakaahaar samooh aur kaaryakarta aise vichaaron ke prachaar mein lage hue hain aur vishvaas karte hain ki jo filhaal shaakaahaar ko sveekaar karne ke liye taiyaar naheen, sirf unke prati hi asthaayi roop se dhilaai baratne ki halaakhik anumati pradaan hai.[141]

yahoodi dharm aur isaai dharm donon ke saath sambandh rakhane vaale praacheen eseins dhaarmik samooh ne sakhti se shaakaahaar ko chalya, theek usi tarah jis tarah hindu/jaini ahinsa ya "nishpaap" vichaaron par yakeen karte hain.[142]

tora ke ten kamaandeintas ke anuvaad mein kaha gaya hai "too hatya naheen karega."[143][144] kuchh logon ka tark hai ki iska matlab yeh bhi nikaala ja sakta hai ki kisi hatya na karo, na pashuon ki aur na manushyon ki, ya kam se kam "ki koi vyakti bejaroorat hatya naheen kare," yeh kuchh vaisi hi baat hui jaise ki aadhunik dharmashaastri gulaami ke abhyaas par pratibandh lagaane ke liye baaibal ke gulaami par durvah pratibandhon ki vyaakhya karte hain.[145] tora logon ko yeh bhi aadesh deta hai ki pashuon ki jab hatya ki jaaya to vidhivt unka ktl kiya jaaya aur pashu bali ke rivaaj ko vistaar se bataaya gaya hai.

haalaanki yahoodiyon ke liye maans khaana na aavashyak hai aur na hi nishiddh hai, fir bhi yahoodi dharm ki naitikta aur aadarshon ko dekhte hue chayan kiya jaana chaahiye."The Vegetarian Mitzvah". http://www.brook.com/jveg.

paramparaagat greek aur roman soch

praacheen greek darshan mein shaakaahaar ki ek lambi parampara hai. kehte hain paaithaagoras shaakaahaari the (aur usaki shiksha-deeksha mount kaarmel mein hui thi, kuchh itihaasakaaron ka maanana hai ki jahaan ek shaakaahaari samudaaya tha), isliye ummeed ki jaati hai ki unke anuyaayi bhi shaakaahaari honge. bataaya jaata hai ki sukaraat shaakaahaari the aur ek aadarsh ganatantr mein logon ko, kam se kam daarshanik-shaasakon ko kya khaana chaahiye, is par unhonne apne samvaad mein iska varnan kiya tha ki sirf shaakaahaari bhojan karna chaahiye. unhonne khaastaur par kaha ki agar maans khaane ki anumati di gayi to samaaj ko aur bhi adhik doctoron ki aavashyakta hogi.[146]

roman lekhak ovid ne apni mahaan kruti metaamorafosej ke ek hisse mein aavegaviheen tark dete hue kaha hai ki aur adhik behatari ke liye maanavata mein badlaav ya kaayaakalp aur adhik suvyavasthit prajaati hone ke liye hame jyaada se jyaada maanaveeya pravruttiyon ki disha mein prayaasarat hona chaahiye. is kaayaakalp mein shaakaahaar ko mahatvapoorn nirnaya ke roop mein uddhrut karte hue unhonne apne vichaar jaahir karte hue kaha hai ki maanav jeevan aur pashu jeevan paraspar itne ghanishth roop se jude hue hain ki ek pashu ki hatya ek insaan ki hatya ke samaan hai.

sab kuchh badalta hai, kuchh bhi naheen marata; aatma idhar-udhar ghoomti hai, abhi yahaan hai to abhi vahaan aur insaan se lekar pashu tak jo bhi dhaancha hoga useeko odh leti hail yahi hamaara apna pashutv ke roop mein dhal jaata hai jo kabhi naheen marata hai...isliye aisa na ho ki bhookh aur laalach pyaar aur kartavya ke bandhan ko nasht kar de, mere sandesh par dhyaan do! bacho! vadh ke jariye aatma ko kabhi nasht mat karna, yeh rakt se rakt ke rishte ko jodta hai aur iski paravarish karta hai![147]

isaai dharm

maujooda isaai sanskruti saamaanya roop se shaakaahaar naheen hai. haalaanki, seveinth de edaveintist aur paaramparik monaistik shaakaahaar par jor daalte hain. iske alaava orthodauks church ke sadasya 'upavaas' ke dauraan shaakaahaari aahaar ka paalan kar sakte hain,[148] shaakaahaar ki avadhaarana aur chalan ko aadhyaatmik aur aitihaasik samarthan praapt hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

isaai dharm mein ek kvekar parampara jo ki kam se kam 18 veen sadi se chali aa rahi hai, ke saath bhi shaakaahaar ka ek majaboot sambandh raha hai. sharaab ka sevan, jeev hatya aur saamaajik pavitrata ke sambandh mein kvekar ki chintaaen badhne ke saath 19 veen shataabdi ke dauraan yeh sambandh ullekhaneeya roop se falaafoola hai. baharahaal, 1902 mein freinds vejeeteriyn society ki sthaapana mitron ke saamaj mein aur adhik sahrudayi jeevanashaili apnaane ke prachaar ke maksad ke saath shaakaahaar aur kvekar parampara ke beech sahayog aur bhi adhik mahatvapoorn ho gaya.[149]

islaam

inhein bhi dekhein: islaam aur pashuon

musalmaanon ya islaam ke anuyaayiyon ko chikitsakeeya kaaran ya fir vyaktigat taur par maans ka svaad pasand na karne vaalon ko shaakaahaar chunane ki aajaadi pradaan karta hai. haalaanki, gair chikitsakeeya kaaran se shaakaahaar banane ka vikalp kabhi-kabhi vivaadaaspad ho sakta hai. ho sakta hai aur bhi kuchh paramparaagat musalmaan hain jo apne shaakaahaari hone ke baare mein chuppi banaaye rakhate hon, tabhi shaakaahaar musalmaanon ki taadaad badh rahi hai.[150]

Iraqi dharmashaastriyon, mahila rahasyavaadi aur basara ke kavi raabiya al-adaaviyaah, 801 mein jinka intakaal hua; aur Sri Lanka ke sufi sangeetakaar baava muhaiyaaddeen jinhonne filaadelafiya mein the baava muhaiyaaddeen feloship of North America ki sthaapana ki; sahit kuchh prabhaavashaali musalmaanon mein shaakaahaar ka chalan raha hai. [151]

January 1996 mein, the international vejeeteriyn union ne muslim vejeeteriyn/vegan society ki sthaapana ki ghoshana ki.[152]

kai maansaahaari musalmaanon jab gair-halaali restraan mein khaana khaane jaate hain tab ve shaakaahaar (ya samudri khaadya) ka chayan kareinge. haalaanki, sahi tarah ka maans na khaane ke bajaae poori tarah se maans khaane ko praathamikta dene ka maamala hai.[150]

rastaafari

afreeki caribbean samudaaya mein, ek alpasankhyak samudaaya hai rastaafari aahaar niyamon ka paalan bahut hi kadaai se karte hain. jyaadaatar orthodauks keval ital ya praakrutik khaadya padaarth khaate hain, jismein saag-sabjiyon ke saath harb ya masaale bhi hote hain, rastaafariyon ki is puraani aur kushal parampara hai jiska uts afreeki vansh parampara aur saanskrutik viraasat ke tahat chali aa rahi hai.[153] jyaadaatar rastaafari shaakaahaari hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] praakrutik saamagri masalan; patthar ya mitti se nirmit bartan hi pasand karte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

paryaavaran sambandhi

paryaavaran shaakaahaar is vichaaradhaara par aadhaarit hai ki jan upabhog ke liye maans utpaad aur pashu utpaad vishesh roop se kaarkhaane mein taiyaar khaadya paryaavaran ki drushti se arakshaneeya hote hain. 2006 mein sanyukt raashtra sangh ki or se kiye gaye pahal ke anusaar, duniya mein paryaavaran sambandhi ki durdasha mein sabse bade yogadaanakartaaon mein se ek maveshi udyog hai, khaadya padaarthon mein anshadaan ke liye aadhunik tareekon se pashuon ki taadad badhaane se 'bahut hi bade paimaane par' vaayu aur jal pradooshan, bhoomi ksharan, jalavaayu parivartan jaiv vividhta ke nuksaan ho raha hai. prastaav ne nishkarsh nikaala ki "sthaaneeya se lekar vaishvik har star par paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon mein sabse mahatvapoorn yogadaanakartaaon mein maveshi kshetr ka sthaan ekdam se sheersh par doosra ya teesara hai."[154]

greenapees report mein amaajon pashu firm ke kaaran ho rahe vinaash ka najaara dikhaae jaane ke ek hafte ke baad, July 2009 mein naaike aur tinbaralaind ne van kataai vaale amaajon varshaavan se chamade ki khareedadaari band kar di. arnold nyumain ke anusaar har hainmabargar ki bikri 6.25m2 varshaavan ke vinaash parinaam hai.[155]

iske alaava, pashu firm greenahaaus gaison ke bade srot hain aur duniya bhar mein 18 pratishat greenahaaus gas utsarjan, jise CO2 ke samakaksh maapa gaya hai, ke liye jimmevaar hai, tulanaatmak roop se, duniya bhar ke sabhi parivhanon (jahaajon, sabhi ki gaadiyon, truckon, bason, trainon, jahaajon aur havaai jahaajon samet) se utsarjit CO2 ka pratishat 13.5 hai. pashu firm maanav sambandhit naaitras oksaaid ka utpaadan 65 pratishat karta hai aur sabhi maanav prerit methane ka pratishat 37 hai. lagbhag 21 guna adhik methane gas ke global vaarming poteinshiyl (GWP) ki tulana mein kaarban daai oksaaid aur naaitras oksaaid ka GWP 296 guna hai.[156]

pashuon ko anaaj khilaaya jaata hai aur jo charate hain unhein anaaj ki fasal khaanevaalon ki tulana mein kaheen adhik paani ki jaroorat padti hai.[157] yooesadeee (USDA) ke anusaar, firm pashuon ko khilaane ke liye fasalon ki paidaavaar ke liye poore sanyukt raajya America ke lagbhag aadhi jal aapoorti aur 80 pratishat krushi bhoomi ke paani ki jaroorat hoti hai. iske atirikt, America mein bhojan ke liye pashuon ko bada karne mein 90 pratishat soya ki fasal, 80 pratishat makke ki fasal aur 70 pratishat kul anaaj ki khapat ho jaaya karti hai.[158]

jab khaadya padaarthon ke liye pashu utpaadan ko chaara khilaakar taiyaar kiya jaata hai tab maans, doodh aur ande ke utpaadan ki akshamata se urja nivesh se proteen utpaad ka anupaat 4:1 se lekar 54:1 ho jaata hai. sabse pehle, aisa isliye hota hai kyonki maveshi dvaara khaaye jaane se pehle chaare ka badhna jaroori hai aur doosra garm khoonavaale reedh vaale jeevon (pedon aur keede-makaudon ke vipreet) ko garmi banaaye rakhane ke liye bahut saari kailori ki jaroorat hoti hai.[159] ek soochakaank hai, jiska upayog apach khaadya padaarthon ka shaareerik tatv ke roop mein roopaantaran ki kshamata maapane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, jo hamein yeh bataata hai, udaaharan ke liye gaaya ke maans se shareer tatv ka roopaantaran keval 10%, ki tulana mein resham keet se 19-31% aur jarman tilchatte se 44% hota hai.[298] paaristhitiki ke professor David pimeintal ne daava kiya hai, "agar maujooda samay mein sanyukt raajya America mein maveshiyon ko khilaaye jaanevaale sabhi anaaj seedhe logon dvaara kha liya jaae to jitne logon ko khilaaya ja sakta hai, unki taadaad lagbhag 800 million ho sakti hai."[160] in adhyayanon ke anusaar, pashu aadhaarit khaadya ka utpaadan anaaj, sabjiyon, dalahan, beej aur falon ki fasal ki tulana mein aamtaur par par bahut kam hota hai. baharahaal, yeh un jaanvaron par laagoo naheen hota jo charane ke bajaae khilaaye jaate hain, khaastaur par un par jo aisi bhoomi mein charate hain jiska doosra koi upayog naheen kiya ja sakta hai. aur na khaane ke liye keedon ki kheti par, jo khaadya padaarth khaanevaale maveshiyon ki kheti ki tulana mein paryaavaran ki drushti se kaheen adhik deerghakaalik hote hain, par laagoo hoti hai.[159] prayogashaala mein utpaadit maans (jo in vitro maans kahalaata hai) bhi paryaavaran ki drushti se niyamit roop se utpaadit maans ki tulana mein kaheen adhik tikaaoo hota hai.[161]

poshan sambandhi gatisheelata ke siddhaant ke anusaar, maans ke utpaadan ke liye pashuon ko paalne mein 10 guna fasal ki jaroorat chaare ke roop mein upayog ke liye hoti hai, itne hi khaadya padaarthon ki jaroorat shaakaahaari bhojan karanevaale logon ko hogi. vartamaan samay mein utpaadit makai, gehoon aur doosare sabhi anaaj ka 70 pratishat firm ke pashuon ko khila diya jaata hai.[162] isse shaakaahaar ke bahut saare samarthak yeh maanane lage hain ki maans khaana paryaavaran ki drushti se gair jimmedaar hona hai.[163] sure yunivsirti ke food klaaimet research network ne paaya ki apekshaakrut kam sankhya mein charanevaale pashuaon ko paalana aksar laabhadaayak hota hai, iski report kehti hai, kam sankhya mein maveshiyon ka utpaadan paryaavaran ki drushti se achha hai.[164]

The UN khaadya aur kheti sanstha (efaeo) has estimated that direct emissions from meat production account for about 18% of the world's total greenhouse gas emissions. So I want to highlight the fact that among options for mitigating climate change, changing diets is something one should consider.
— raajeindr pachauri,[165] Chairman, intaragavarnameintal penel on klaaimet change

May 2009 mein, gent ko duniya ka pehli aisi jagah [shahar] bataaya gaya jo paryaavaran kaaranon se saptaah mein kam se kam ek baar poori tarah se shaakaahaar hota hai, sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ne saaptaahik maansaviheen din laagoo karne ka faisala kiya. sanyukt raashtra ki report ko maanyata dene ke liye janasevak har saptaah ek din shaakaahaari bhojan kareinge. poster ko sthaaneeya adhikaariyon dvaara shaakaahaari diwas mein bhaag lene ko protsaahit karne ke liye jagah-jagah poster lagaaye gaye aur shaakaahaari restraanon ko chihnit karne ke liye shaakaahaari street maanachitr mudrit kiye gaye. September 2009 mein gent ke schoolon mein saaptaahik vejedaig (shaakaahaari diwas) bhi manaaya jaata hai.[166]

shramikon ki sthiti

peta (PETA) jaise kuchh group in dinon maans udyog mein kaam karanevaale majadooron ki sthiti aur unke saath honevaale vyavahaar ko samaapt karne ke liye shaakaahaar ko badhaava dete hain.[167] ye samooh un adhyayanon ka ullekh karte hue maans udyog mein kaam karne se manovaigyaanik kshati ko darshaate hain, khaaskar factory aur audyogeekrut sthaanon mein aur shikaayat karte hain ki bina paryaapt salaah, prashikshan aur vivranon ki jaankaari diye kathin tatha kashtaprad kaarya saunpakar maans udyog shramikon ke maanaveeya adhikaaron ka ullanghan kar raha hai.[168][169][170][171] haalaanki, tamaam khet majadooron ke kaam ki paristhiti, vishesh roop se asthaayi shramikon ki, kharaab hi bani hui hai aur anya aarthik kshetron ki tulana mein bahut hi neeche hai.[172] kisaanon aur baagaan shramikon mein durghatanaaon sahit keetanaashak vishaaktata se svaasthya ke jokhim badh gaye hain, jinmein badhati mrutyu dar bhi shaamil hai.[173] vaastav mein, antarraashtreeya shram sangathan ke anusaar, duniya ke teen sabse khatarnaak kaamon mein ek hai krushi.[174]

aarthik

shaakaahaar paryaavaran ki hi tarah aarthik shaakaahaar ki avadhaarana hai. ek aarthik shaakaahaari vah hai jo shaakaahaar ka abhyaas ya to jan svaasthya tatha vishv se bhukhamari mitaane ke kisi daarshanik vichaar ke tahat karta hai, is vishvaas se karta hai ki maans ka upabhog aarthik roop se theek naheen hai, vah ek sachet saral jeevan shaili ki rananeeti ke hisse ke roop mein aisa karta hai, ya fir bas aavashyakataavash. varldavaach insteetyut ke anusaar, "audyogik deshon mein maans ki khapat mein bhaari kami aane se unke svaasthya ki dekhbhaal ke bojh mein kami aaegi aur saarvajanik svaasthya mein sudhaar hoga; pashu sanpada ke jhund mein giraavat se charaagaahon aur kheton par se dabaav kam hoga aur krushi sansaadhanon ke aadhaar ko nayepan se bhar dega. choonki janasankhya vruddhi jaari hai, vishv star par maans ki khapat mein kami aane se bhoomi aur jal sansaadhanon ki prati vyakti istemaal mein aa rahi giraavat ko rok kar inka adhik saksham upayog ho sakega, jabki saath hi saath vishv ke deerghakaalik bhookhe logon ko adhik saste mein anaaj mil paayega.[175]

saanskrutik

taaivaan bauddh bhojan

ho sakta hai log shaakaahaar chune kyonki ve ek shaakaahaari rahe hon ya fir ek shaakaahaari saathi, parivaar ke sadasya ya mitr hone ke kaaran ve shaakaahaar chunein.

janasaankhyiki

ling

anusandhaan sangathan yankelovich dvaara 1992 mein karaaye gaye baajaar anusandhaan adhyayan dvaara daava kiya gayaa‍ ki "12.4 million log [US mein], jo khud ko shaakaahaari kehte hain unamein se 68 pratishat mahilaaen hain aur 32 pratishat purush hain."[176]

kam se kam ek adhyayan yeh bataata hai ki shaakaahaari mahilaaon ko bachche hone ki sambhaavana kaheen adhik hoti hai. 1998 mein 6,000 garbhavati mahilaaon par kiye gaye adhyayan mein "paaya gaya ki 100 ladkiyon ke anupaat mein 106 ladke paida hone ka Britain ka raashtreeya ausat hai, jabki shaakaahaari maataaon se 100 ladkiyon ke anupaat mein sirf 85 ladke paida hue.[177] british daayadetik association ke Cathrine kolins ise "asthaayi saankhyikeeya" bataate hue khaarij kar diya hai.[177]

desh-vishesh ki jaankaari

Bhaarat mein istemaal kiya maansaahaari utpaadon (daaen) se shaakaahaari utpaadon (baaen) ko alag lebal.

shaakaahaar ko duniya bhar mein alag alag tareekon se dekha jaata hai. kuchh kshetron mein[which?] yeh vahaan ki sanskruti hain aur yahaan tak ki ise kaanooni samarthan bhi praapt hai, lekin anya mein[which?] aahaar ke baare mein samajh bahut kharaab hai aur yahaan tak ki is baare mein naak-bhaun bhi sikoda jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] bahut saare deshon mein khaadya ka vargeekaran kiya jaata hai jisse shaakaahaariyon ke liye apne bhojan ke saath khaadya padaarthon ki anukoolata ko pehchaanana aasaan ho jaata hai.

Bhaarat mein, baaki duniya ki tulana mein jahaan jyaadaatar shaakaahaari hain donon ko milaakar (2006 ke anusaar 399 million),[178] na keval khaadya padaarthon ki vargeekaran hota hai, balki bahut saare restraaon mein shaakaahaari ya gair-shaakaahaari ka nishaan bhi laga kar vipnan kiya ja raha hai. Bhaarat mein jo log shaakaahaari hain aamtaur par ve doogdh-shaakaahaari hain aur isliye, is baajaar ki aavashyakta ko poora karne ke liye, Bhaarat mein bahusankhyak shaakaahaari restraan ande se sambandhit utpaadon ko chhod kar anya dugdh utpaad muhaiya karaate hain. inki tulana mein, adhikaansh pashchimi shaakaahaari restraan anda aur ande par aadhaarit utpaad muhaiya karaate hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • aahaaron ki soochi
  • jain bhojan
  • maans se mukt din
  • shaakaahaari bhojan
  • shaakaahaari bhojan piraamid
  • shaakaahaari ya shaakaahaari billi ka khaana

nots

• bhaarateeya samraat ashok ne praaniyon ko suraksha pradaan kiye jaane ka aadesh diya tha, uske aajnyaaapatr se ham yeh baat samajh sakte hain, jiske anusaar, “amere raajyaabhishek ke chhabbees varshon baad vibhinn pashuon ko suraksha pradaan kiye jaane yogya ghoshit kiya gayaa—aatota, maina, //aruna//, laal hans, jangali battakh, //nandeemukh, gelaata//, chamagaadad, raani cheentiyaaain, chhote kachhue, asthiheen machhaliyaaain, //vedareyak (vedareyaka)//, //gangaapuputak (gangapuputaka)//, //sankiya (sankiya)//, machhali, kachhuaa, saahi, gilhariyaan, hiran, bail, //okapind//, jangali gadhe, jangali kabootar, paalatoo kabootar tatha aise sabhi chaupaaye, jo na to upayogi hain aur na hi khaane-yogya hain. ve bakariyaan, bhedein aur maada suar, jo apne bachchon ke saath hon ya bachchon ko doodh pila rahi hon, unki bhi raksha ki jaati hai aur isi prakaar pashuon ke chh: maah se kam aayu ke bachchon ki bhi raksha ki jaati hai. murgon ko khassi murgon mein naheen badla jaana chaahiye, chhaal mein chhipne vaale jeevon ko naheen jalaaya jaana chaahiye aur jangalon ko bevajah ya praaniyon ko maarane ke liye jalaaya naheen jaana chaahiye. ek pashu ko doosra pashu naheen khilaaya jaana chaahiye."— paanchave stambh par ashok ka aajnyaaapatr

• maaya tivaara likhti hain ki aayurved kuchh logon ki maaains ki chhoti maatra ki anushansa karta hai, haalaanki, “asthaaneeya logon mein prachalit pashuon ke shikaar aur hatya ke niyam bahut vishisht evam vistrut the. ab jabki shikaar va hatya ke aise niyamon ka paalan naheen kiya jaata, ve “akisi bhi prakaar ke jaanavar, yahaaain tak ki vaat prakaar ke bhi, ke maaains ki bhojan ke roop mein” anushansa naheen karateen.

• kabhi-kabhi ek hi jeevaanu mein pakshiyon dvaara anukoolit va maanavon dvaara anukoolit jeen paae jaate hain. H2N2 aur H3N2 donon hi mahaamaari naslon mein eviyn flu vishaanu ke aaraenae (RNA) khand upasthit the. "ek or jabki 1957 ki mahaamaari ke maanav enflooenja vishaanu (H2N2) aur 1968 ke (H3N2) spasht roop se maanaveeya va pakshiyon ke vishaanuon ke beech punarvinyaas ke maadhyam se utpann hue the, vaheen aisa dikhaai deta hai ki 1918 mein 'spainish flu' ka kaaran banane wala enflooenja vishaanu poornat: pakshiyon se sambandhit kisi srot se vyutpann tha (belshe 2005) Belshe 2005)."

• vesaanto melina (Vesanto Melina), ek british kolambiyaai panjeekrut aahaar-visheshagya aur bikming vejeeteriyn (Becoming Vegetarian) ke lekhak, is baat par bal dete hain ki shaakaahaar aur bhojan-sambandhi vikaaron ke beech koi kaaran va prabhaav sambandh naheen hai, haalaanki jin logon mein bhojan-sambandhi vikaar hon, ve swayam ko shaakaahaari ke roop mein chinhit kar sakte hain, “ataaki unhein khaana na pade”." vastut:, shodh se yeh dekha gaya hai ki shaakaahaari logon ya veegan enoreksik se grast logon (vegan anorexics) aur byulimiya se grast logon (bulimics) ne apni beemaariyon ki shuruaat ho jaane ke baad apne aahaar ka chayan kiya tha. shaakaahaar aur shaakaahaaravaad ke bhojan ke "pratibandhit" paitarn anek uchch-vasa vaale, saghan-oorja vaale khaadya padaarthon, jaise maans, ande, cheej,… aadi ko hataae jaane ko vaidhata pradaan kar sakte hain. haalaanki, enoreksiya (anorexia) ya byulimiya narvosa (bulimia nervosa) se grast vyaktiyon dvaara chuna gaya khaadya-paitarn kisi svaasthyaprad shaakaahaari khuraak se kaheen adhik pratibandhaatmak hota hai, va usamein faliyon, beejon, roochiraaon (avocados) ko hata diya jaata hai, tatha grahan ki jaane waali kailari ki sakal maatra ko seemit kar diya jaata hai.

dhvaj

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  111. Cantor, Norman (2001). In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World It Made. Free Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0684857359.
  112. Craig, WJ; Mangels, AR; American Dietetic, Association (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.". J Am Diet Assoc 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_933_ENU_HTML.htm.
  113. Katherine Dedyna, Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?, Victoria Times Colonist, CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc., 30 January 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
  114. Brenda Davis and Vesanto Melina, Becoming Vegan: The Complete Guide to Adopting a Healthy Plant-Based Diet, Healthy Living Publications, 2002: p. 224.
  115. O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ (1987). "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases". Med J Aust 147 (11–12): 540–2. PMID 3696039. "In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa.".
  116. H.S. singh dvaara junior singha sikh dharm ka vishvakosh 124 ISBN 10: 070692844X / 0-7069-2844-X
  117. Kakshi, S.R. (2007). "12". In S.R. Bakshi, Rashmi Pathak,. Punjab Through the Ages. 4 (1st san॰). New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. pa॰ 241. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8176257389 (Set). http://books.google.com/?id=-dHzlfvHvOsC&pg=PA7&dq=Punjab+Through+the+Ages+By+S.R.+Bakshi,+Rashmi+Pathak,+Rashmi+Pathak+volume+4#v=onepage&q=Punjab%20Through%20the%20Ages%20By%20S.R.%20Bakshi%2C%20Rashmi%20Pathak%2C%20Rashmi%20Pathak%20volume%204.
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  120. t:tinein: antoo: ahinsa.naun-vaayaleins in indiyn tredishn, London 1976, prushth 107-109.
  121. mahaabhaarat 12.257 (not ke anusaar mahaabhaarat 12.257 ka ek aur ginti 12.265 hai); bhagavad geeta 9.26, Bhagwat puraan 7.15.7.
  122. "the hindu : Sci Tech / Speaking Of Science : Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". Hinduonnet.com. 2004-10-21. http://www.hinduonnet.com/seta/2004/10/21/stories/2004102100111600.htm. abhigman tithi: 2010-02-03.
  123. jain stadi circle par "shaakaahaar khud ke liye bahut achha hota hai aur paryaavaran ke liye achha hai.
  124. society ke Colorado shaakaahaari ki website par "aadhyaatmik paranparaaon aur shaakaahaar".
  125. Matthew, vauren: world rileejiyans, 4 sanskaran, belmont: thaumasan/vadsavarth 2004, prushth 180. ISBN 0-534-52762-0
  126. JainUniversity.org par "jain dharm"
  127. mahaavaaga paali - bhesajajakhandahaaka - vinaya pitaaka
  128. a aa the sikhism hom pej par "miskansepshan abaaut iting meet - kameints of sikh skolars,"
  129. sikh aur sikh itihaas sikh dharm dvaara IJ Singh, manohar dauraan ISBN 9788173040580, Delhi, vahaaain shaakaahaar samarthan kiya gaya hai subsects ya aandolanon ki hai jo sikh dharm. mujhe lagta hai ki vahaaain is tarah ke ya sikh dharm mein hathadharmita abhyaas ke liye koi aadhaar hai. nishchit roop se naheen lagta hai ki sikhon mein aadhyaatmikta hai ki ek shaakaahaari upalabdhiyon aasaan hai ya adhik hai. yeh aashcharya ki baat hai ki shaakaahaar dekhne ke tathya yeh hai ki pashu bali umr ke liye ek mahatvapoorn aur adhik moolyavaan hindu vaidik anushthaan kiya gaya tha ke prakaash mein hindu abhyaas ke is tarah ke ek mahatvapoorn pahaloo hai. unke lekhan mein guru naanak spasht tark ke donon pakshon ko asveekaar kar diya - shaakaahaar ya maans khaane ke gun par saadhaaran roop mein aur itni bakavaas - aur na hi usane vichaar hai ki ek gaaya se adhik kisi na kisi tarah pavitra ek ghoda ya ek chikn ki tulana mein kiya gaya tha sveekaar karte hain. unhonne yeh bhi maans aur saag ke beech matabhedon par ek vivaad mein taiyaar kiya jaana mana kar diya, udaaharan ke liye. itihaas hamein bataata hai yeh sandesh dene ki, naanak kurukshetr mein ek mahatvapoorn hindu tyohaar par maans pakaaya. ise pakaaya vah nishchit roop se ise barbaad naheen kiya beet raha hai, lekin shaayad yeh apne anuyaayiyon ke liye kaarya kiya aur khud kha liya. itihaas bilkul spasht hai ki guru Hargobind aur guru gobind Singh nipun the aur avid shikaari hai. khel aur pakaaya prayog achha tha daal karne ke liye, ise door feink ek bhayaanak barbaadi hoti hai.
  130. guru granth saahib, ek vishleshanaatmak adhyayan dvaara ISBN Surindar Singh Kohli Singh Bros. amrutasar: 8172050607 mein vaishnav bhakti seva ki aur vichaaron granth aadi dvaara sveekaar kar liya gaya hai, lekin shaakaahaari aahaar par vaishnav ke aagrah ko asveekaar kar diya gaya hai.
  131. a aa ISBN 978-81-7023-139-4 haalaanki press, Delhi vishvavidyaalaya ke ek itihaas ke sikh logon dvaara dau॰ gopaal Singh sikh, vishv, yeh ajeeb hai ki ab sikh mandir ke liye ek din sanlagn rasoi mein samudaaya aur kaha jaata hai guru rasoi (ya, guru ka langar-) maans vyanjan sabhi seva mein naheen hain. ho sakta hai, yeh apne ja raha hai, shaayad, mahangi, ya aasaan naheen lambe samay ke liye rakhane ke liye ke kaaran hai. ya, shaayad vaishnav parampara bhi majaboot hai band ho hil ke liye.
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  135. Ph.D. (Singh sher darshan ke dvaara sikh dharm gyaani di), shiromani gurudvaara prabandhak samiti. amrutasar ke roop mein ek sach Vaisnavite kabeer bani ek sakht shaakaahaari. maans khaane ke roop mein braahman parampara se door dhata kabeer, itna ki anumati naheen hai, ek (fool GGS 479 snaatakottar ki tod ke roop mein), jabki naanak aise sabhi sandeh samjha andhavishvaas ho jaaega, kabeer Ahinsa ya siddhaant aayojit gair jeevan hai, jo ki foolon ka bhi vistaar ke vinaash. iske vipreet par sikh guruon aur anumati bhi protsaahit kiya, bhojan ke roop mein pashu maans ka upayog karein. naanak aasa ki (yuddh mein is andhavishvaas Ahinsa GGS 472 pg ujaagar kiya gaya hai) aur malar Ke yuddh (GGS snaatakottar. 1288)
  136. http://www.sikhwomen.com par "langar".
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  138. Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). "3 Guru Amar Das". The History of Sikh Gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. pa॰ 38. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8183820751. http://books.google.com/?id=EhGkVkhUuqoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+History+of+Sikh+Gurus+By+Prithi+Pal+Singh#v=onepage&q=.
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  141. ""They Shall Not Hurt Or Destroy" and the Essenes". All-creatures.org. http://www.all-creatures.org/murti/tsnhod-03.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
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  143. "Exodus 20 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre". Mechon-mamre.org. http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0220.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
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  145. pleto, ganaraajya.
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  149. a aa musalmaan shaakhaahari naheen ho sakte hai? 16/05/2008 ko pun:praapt
  150. baava muhaiyaadeen se shaakaahaari koteshan 16/05/2008 liya gaya
  151. "IVU News - Islam and Vegetarianism". Ivu.org. http://www.ivu.org/news/1-96/muslim.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
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  153. "Livestock's long shadow - Environmental issues and options". Fao.org. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
  154. ei=3ZKbSoyJOIP6_AbH17TGCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8#v=onepage&q=&f=false Hamburger per rain forest. Books.google.com. 1999-06-30. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9781566397056. http://books.google.com/?id=Z0s3X_vh1_EC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=one+hamburger+is+50+rain+forrest. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-04.
  155. "Greenhouse gas neutral". Yogaindailylife.org.au. http://www.yogaindailylife.org.au/Articles/Environment/Going-Greenhouse-Gas-Neutral.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-04.
  156. karbi, BBC news 2004 Hungary world 'mast it les meet' http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3559542.stm
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  158. a aa sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Time naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  159. kaurnel vigyaan samaachaar, 7 August 1997 http://www.news.cornell.edu/releases/Aug97/livestock.hrs.html
  160. Olsson, Anna (2008-07-08). "Comment: Lab-grown meat could ease food shortage". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19926635.600-comment-growing-m. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-17.
  161. Ed aayars, "ham kya abhi bhi meet kha sakte hai?"samay, 8 November 1999
  162. paaristhitiki bhojan: bhojan ke roop mein agar pruthvi maamalon (yeh karta hai!) http://www.brook.com/veg/
  163. vhaai iting les meet kud kat global vaurming sanrakshak
  164. "Shun meat, says UN climate chief", BBC, September 7, 2008
  165. "Belgium city plains 'yojana' dej", kris mesan, BBC (BBC), 12 May 2009
  166. "Killing for a Living: How the Meat Industry Exploits Workers". http://www.goveg.com/workerrights.asp. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-16.
  167. "Worker Health and Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry". Hrw.org. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2005/usa0105/4.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
  168. "Food Safety, the Slaughterhouse, and Rights". Ncrlc.com. 2004-03-30. http://www.ncrlc.com/academic-SR-webpages/food_safety.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
  169. http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/contentPages/docs/meatCultureLiteratureReviewV81.pdfpeedeeऍf (618 KB)
  170. "Factory Farming—aMaking People Sick". Hfa.org. http://www.hfa.org/factory/. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
  171. paristhitiyon mein krushi kaarya antarraashtreeya shram sangathan
  172. paristhitiyon mein krushi kaarya barn ghoshana
  173. vishv vikaas report 2008: vikaas ke liye krushi, vishv bank prakaashan dvaara prakaashit prushth 207
  174. varldavauch sansthaan, samaachaar 2 July 1998, sanyukt raajya America bikreesootr vishv maans https://www.worldwatch.org/press/news/1998/07/02
  175. "The gender gap: if you're a vegetarian, odds are you're a woman. Why?". Vegetarian Times. 2005-02-01. Archived from the original on 2012-05-26. http://archive.is/GdBX. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-27.
  176. a aa "'More girl babies' for vegetarians". BBC News. 2000-08-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/869696.stm. abhigman tithi: 2009-08-09.
  177. "The Number of Vegetarians In The World". Raw-food-health.net. http://www.raw-food-health.net/NumberOfVegetarians.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-02-03.

baahari links

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vegetarian ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.


sandarbh truti: "nb" naamak sandarbh-samooh ke liye <ref> taig maujood hain, parantu samooh ke liye koi <references group="nb"/> taig naheen mila. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki koi samaapti </ref> taig gaayab hai.