seesa


seesa / Lead
raasaayanik tatv
Pb,82.jpg
namoona
raasaayanik chinh: Pb
parmaanu sankhya: 82
raasaayanik shrunkhala: sankramanoparaant dhaatu
Pb-TableImage.png

aavart saarani mein sthiti
Electron shell 082 Lead.svg
electronic dhaancha
anya bhaashaaon mein naam: Lead (angreji)
विद्युत अपघटन द्वारा शुद्ध किया हुआ सीस ; १ घन सेमी से घन के साथ (तुलना के लिए)

sees, seesa ya led (angreji : Lead, sanket : Pb laitin shabd planbam / Plumbum se) ek dhaatu evam tattv hai. kaatne par yeh neelima liye safed hota hai, lekin hava ka sparsh hone par sleti ho jaata hai. ise imaaratein banaane, vidyut koshon, bandook ki goliyaaain aur vajan banaane mein prayukt kiya jaata hai. yeh soldar mein bhi maujood hota hai. yeh sabse ghana sthir tattv hai.

yeh ek post-traanjishn dhaatu hai. iska parmaanu kramaank 82, parmaanu bhaar 207.21, ghanatv 11.36, galanaank 3,27.4 degree sein., kvathanaank 1620digri se. hai. iske chaar sthaayi samasthaanik, dravyamaan 204, 206, 207 aur 208 aur chaar radio aiktiv samasthaanik, dravyamaan 209, 210, 211 aur 214 gyaat hai. aavart saarani ke chaturth samooh ke 'kh' varg ka yeh antim sadasya hai. is samooh ke tatvon mein yeh sabse adhik bhaari aur dhaatvik gunavaala hai. iski sanrachana mein poochhad (shell) aur ek baahya chhed (shell) hai. baahya chhed mein ilektraan hote hain jinmein do ko yeh badi saralata se chhod deta hai. is kaaran iske dvisanyojak lavan adhik sthaayi hote hain. chatu:sanyojak lavan kam sthaayi hote hain aur unki sankhya bhi kam hai.

yeh peetane se fail sakta hai aur taar roop mein bhi ho sakta hai, par kuchh kathinta se. iska rang bhi jaldi badla ja sakta hai. iski chaddarein, naliyaaain aur bandook ki goliyaaain aadi banti hain. seesa doosari dhaatuon ke saath bahut jaldi mil jaata aur kai prakaar ki mishr dhaatueain banaane mein kaam aata hai. chhaape ke type ki dhaatu isi ke yog se banti hai. aayurved mein seesa sapt dhaatuon mein hai aur anya dhaatuon ke samaan yeh bhi rasaushadh ke roop mein vyavahrut hota hai. iska bhasm kai rogon mein diya jaata hai. vaidyak mein seesa aayu, veerya aur kaanti ko badhaanevaala, mehanaashak, ushn tatha kaf ko door karanevaala maana jaata hai.

anukram

itihaas

seesa bahut praacheen kaal se gyaat hai. iska ullekh anek praacheen granthon mein milta hai. iska upayog bhi isa ke poorv se hota aa raha hai. misravaasi is jaante the aur luk ferane mein prayukt karte the. Spain ka seesa nikshep 2000 E. poo. se gyaat tha. yoonaan mein bhi 500 E. poo. se iska utpaadan hota tha. Germany ke raain nadi aur haarts parvat ke aaspaas 700 se 1000 E. ke beech yeh khaanon se nikaala jaata tha. aaj seesa ka sarvaadhik utpaadan sanyukt raajya amareeka ke misisipi mein hota hai. amareeka ke baad Australia (broken hil jila), Mexico, kainaada, Germany, Spain, belajiym, barma, Italy aur France aadi deshon mein yeh paaya jaata hai. saadhaaranataya yeh sona, chaaaindi, taaainbe aur jaste aadi ke saath mila rahata hai.

khanij

svatantr avastha mein yeh naheen paaya jaata. bhoopatal par iski maatra 1 pratishat se kam hi pai gayi hai. iska pramukh khanij gailina (PbS) hai jismein adhiktam 86.6% rahata hai. iske anya khanijon mein serusaait (Cerussite, ledakaarbonet) aingleesaait (Anglesite, led salfet), krokaasaait (Crocoisite, ledakromet), maiseekaut (Massicot, led aaksaaid) kotunaait (Cotunrite, led kloraaid), bulfenaait (Wulfenite, led molibdet), paairomaarafaait (Pyromorphite, led faasfo kloraaid), berisilaait (Barysilite, led siliket) aur stolajaait (Stolzite, led tangastet) hai.

seesa dhaatu ki praapti

seesa khanijon mein kuchh kachare aur kuchh dhaatueain jaise taaainba, jasta, chaaaindi aur sona aadi praaya: sada hi mile rahate hain. kuchh apadravya to utplaavan vidhi se aur kuchh peesane se nikal jaate hain. aise anshat: shuddh khanijon ko pradraavan bhraashtr (melting farnes) mein marjit (purify) karte hain. jo bhraasht prayukt hote hain ve saadhaaranataya teen prakaar ki chulli ya skauch talabhraashtr (Hearth furnace), vaat bhraashtr (Blast furnace) athva paraavartan bhraashtr (Reverberatory furnace) hote hain. bhraashtr ka chunaav khanij ki prakruti par nirbhar karta hai. uchch koti ke khanij ke liye, jiski pisaai maheen hui hai aur jismein anya vastueain praaya: naheen hai, skauch bhraashtr tatha nimn koti ke khanijon ke liye vaatabhraashtr upayukt hota hai. raddi maal aur anya upotpaad ke liye hi paraavartak bhraashtr kaam mein aata hai. bhraashtr mein maarjan ke baad aisi dhaatu praapt hoti hai jismein anya dhaatueain jaise aintimni, aarsenik, taaainba, chaaaindi aur sona aadi mili rahati hai. parishkaar upachaar se anya dhaatueain nikaali jaati hain. ab sil mein dhaalakar dhaatu baajaaron mein bikti hain.

raasaayanik gun

shuddh seesa chaaaindi sa safed hota hai par vaayu mein khula rahane se malin ho jaata hai. seesa komal, bhaari aur drut galaneeya hota hai. 300 degree se. se oopar yeh namya ho jaata hai aur tab vibhinn aakaaron mein parint kiya ja sakta hai. yeh ghaatavardhya 9malleable) hai par ismein tanaav kshamata ka abhaav hota hai. yeh tanya naheen hai. aakseekaran se iske tal par ek aavaran chadh jaata hai jiske kaaran vaayu ka fir koi prabhaav naheen padta. saamaanya taap par yeh jal mein ghulata naheen par aakseejan vaale jal mein ghulakar haaidraaksaaid banaata hai. at: peya jal ke nal ke liye yeh upayukt naheen hai, tanu naaitrik aml aur ushn salfyoorik aml se yeh aakraant hota hai. thandhe salafyoorik aml aur haaidroklorik aml ki koi kriya naheen hoti. mukh ya naak se shareer mein pravisht hokar yeh ikattha hota jaata hai. paryaapt maatra mein ikatthe hone par 'seesa vish' ke lakshan prakat hote hain. prati ghanafut vaayu mein yadi 0.009 migra seesa hai to dhaai varsh ke baad seesa vish ke lakshan prakat hote hain.

seesa ke yaugik

seesa ke anek yaugik bante hain jinmein audyogik drushti se kuchh bade mahatva ke hain.

aaksaaid

seese ke paaainch aaksaaid bante hain jinmein lithaarj (Pbo), ledaperaaksaaid (PbO2) aur raktasindoor (Red lead, Pb3 O4) adhik mahatva ke hain. lithaarj peela ya paandu rang ka gandhaheen choorn hota hai jiska upayog rabar, peint, kaaainch, glej aur inemal ke nirmaan mein hota hai. vidyut baitariyon ke liye iske patt bhi bante hain. kruminaashak aushadhiyon aur petrol ki safaai mein seesa lagta hai. pichhli seesa dhaatu ko paraavartak bhraashtr mein ooainche taap par vaayu dvaara aakseekaran karne se lithaarj praapt hota hai.

raktasindoor chamakeela laal rang ka bhaari choorn hota hai. iska sarvaadhik upayog varnak ke roop mein hota hai. iske lep se lohe aur ispaat ke talon ka sanrakshan hota aur us par moracha naheen lagta hai. sanchaya baitari ke patt mein bhi yeh kaam aata hai. kaaainch aur glej ka nirmaan bhi isse hota hai. raktasindoor ka nirmaan paraavartak bhraashtr mein okseejan ke saath 450 degree-480digri se. ke beech seesa ke tapaane se hota hai. 500 degree se. se oopar taap par yeh lithaarj mein badal jaata hai. ise pees aur chhaanakar peint mein prayukt karte hain. led pairaaksaaid ka upayog diyaasalaai aur ranjakon ke nirmaan mein hota hai. yeh prabal aakseekaarak hota hai. seesa ke shesh do aaksaaid, led sabaaaksaaid (Pb2O) aur led seskvich oksaaid (Pb2O3) vyaapaar ki drushti se mahatva ke naheen hain.

led aiseeted

lithaarj ko aiseetik aml mein ghulaakar garam kar vilyan ko santrupt banaakar thanda karne se led aiseeted ke kristal praapt hote hain. kristal ko Pb (C2 H3 O2)2 3H2O 'seesa sharkara' bhi kehte hain. vaayu mein khula rakhane se kristal prasfutit hote hain. jal aur glisreen mein yeh jald ghul jaata hai. yeh stambh (astringent) hota hai par vishaakt hone ke kaaran iska sevan naheen karaaya jaata. yeh pashu chikitsa, kapde ki raingaai, chheent ki chhapaai, resham ko bhaari banaane aur seesa ke anya yaugikon ke praapt karne mein vyavahrut hota hai. iska ek kshaarak roop bhi hota hai jo jal mein jald ghulata naheen, kaarbanik padaarthon ki safaai aur vishleshan mein yeh rasaayanashaala mein kaam aata hai.

led kaarbonet

seesa ke anek kaarbonet hote hain par sabse adhik mahatva ka kaarbonet jalayojit kshaarak kaarbonet hai jo safeda ke naam se varnak mein bahut badi maatra mein prayukt hota hai. ismein talaachhaadan ki kshamata isi prakaar ke anya varnakon se bahut adhik hai par taaiteniym aaksaaid se kam. ab safeda ka sthaan taaiteniym aaksaaid le raha hai. safeda mein dosh yeh hai ki yeh vaayu ke haaidrojan salfaaid seled salfaaid banane ke kaaran kaala ho jaata hai. taaiteniym aaksaaid mein dosh yeh hai ki yeh mahainga padta hai aur abhi paryaapt maatra mein upalabdh naheen hai. safeda ka upayog peint ke atirikt putti (Putty) cement aur led kaarbonet kaagaj ke nirmaan mein bhi hota hai.

led salfet

seesa ke kisi vileya lavan ke vilyan mein salafyoorik aml athva vileya salfet ka vilyan daalne se avileya seesa salfet ka avakshep praapt hota hai. seesa ke kshaarak salfet bhi hote hain. salfet ka nirmaan badi maatra mein bhraashtr ke okseekaarak vaayumandal mein galanaank tak garam karne se hota hai. yeh safed choorn hota hai. varnak ke atirikt iska upayog sanchaya baitariyon, litho chhapaai aur vastron ka bhaar badhaane mein hota hai.

led salfaaid

yeh kaala avileya choorn hota hai. isi ka praakrutik roop gailina hai. mitti ke baratanon ya posinlen par luk ferane mein yeh kaam aata hai. iske kaale avakshep se vilyan mein seesa lavan ki upasthiti jaani jaati hai.

led kromet

seesa ke vileya lavanon par potaishiym ya sodiym baaikromet ke vilyan ki kriya se led kromet (kromapeet) aur kshaarak seesa kromet (krom naarangi) ka avakshep praapt hota hai. inke upayog peint mein hote hain. led kromet ko prashiyn blue ke saath milaane se krom hara varnak praapt hota hai. led salfet ke milne se led kromet ka rang halka peela ho jaata hai.

led naaitret

seesa ko tanu naaitrik aml mein ghulaane se seesa naaitret praapt hota hai. yeh safed kristaleeya hota hai aur jal mein jald ghul jaata hai. yeh stanbhak hota hai par vishaila hone ke kaaran baahya roop mein hi vyavahrut hota hai. diyaasalaai banaane, kapde ki raingaai, chheent ki chhapaai aur nakkaashi banaane mein yeh kaam aata hai.

led aarsenaait

CC anek aarsenik banaata hai jinmein seesa daai aarsenik (Pb H As O2) sabse adhik mahatva ka hai. kruminaashak aushadhiyon mein yeh kaam aata hai, vishesh roop se ped mein lage keede isi se maare jaate hain. lithaarj par aarsenik aml aur alp naaitrik aml ki kriya se yeh banta hai. kriya sampann ho jaane par utpaad ko chhaanate, dhote aur sukhaate hain.

seesa ke anya lavanon mein led boret [Pb (BO2)2 H2O] peint aur vaarnish mein shoshak ke roop mein aur kaaainch, glej, cheeni bartan porsilen ityaadi par lep chadhaane mein kaam aata hai. seesa kloraaid (PbCl2) maraham banaane aur kreemapeet banaane mein kaam aata hai. seesa tetraaethil Pb (C2 H5)4) bahut vishaila padaarth hai par iska upayog aajkal bahut badi maatra mein petrol ya gaisolin mein pratyaaghaati (anti knock) ke roop mein hota hai. vishaila hone ke kaaran iske vyavahaar mein saavadhaani baratne ki aavashyakta padti hai.

seesa ke upayog

seese ke blaukon ka upayog vikirn se shilding ke liye kiya jaata hai.
seese ke bane 'mubhebal type' (movable type)

seesa bahut badi maatra mein khapata hai. yeh dhaatu mishr dhaatu ke roop mein aur yaugikon ke roop mein vyavahrut hota hai. seesa ki chaadarein, sink, kund, salfyoorik aml nirmaan ke seesakaksh aur kailsiym faasfet urvarak nirmaan ke paatron mein aadi mein astar dene mein kaam aati hai. sankshaarak dravon aur avashisht padaarthon ke parivhan mein iske nal istemaal hote hain. telephone kebal ke dhakane mein, bhoogarbh sthit vaahak naliyon ke nirmaan mein, goalon (shots), gulikaaon, goliyon (bullets), sanchaayak baitariyon ke patton aur panniyon ke nirmaan mein yeh kaam aata hai.

ex-re aur radio aiktiv kirnon se bachaav ke liye iski chaadarein kaam aati hain kyonki in kirnon ko seesa avashoshit kar leta hai (rediyeshan shilding).

iski anek mahatva ki mishr dhaatueain banti hain. alp taaainbe ki upasthiti se sankshaaran-pratirodh, kadaapan aur tanaav saamarthya badh jaata hai. ainteemani ki upasthiti se bhi kathorata, kadaapan aur tanaav saamarthya badh jaata hai. alp telyooriym ke rahane se sankshaaran pratirodh, visheshat: ooainche taap par, bahut badh jaata hai. iski mishr dhaatueain soldar (taaainke ka masaala), beyaring dhaatueain, type, laainotaaip dhaatueain, pyootar (Pewter), britaaniya dhaatu, draavak dhaatu, ainteemani seesa aur nimn taap dravanaank dhaatueain adhik mahatva ki hain. iski mishr dhaatu paaip banaane mein kaam aati hain.

iske lavanon mein sabse adhik maatra mein safeda prayukt hota hai. lithaarj, sees peraaksaaid, sees aiseetet, sees aarsenaait, sees kromet, sees salfet, sees naaitret, sees tetraaethil ityaadi iske anya lavan hain jo vibhinn kaaryon mein paryaapt maatra mein prayukt hote hain.

Bhaarat mein seesa

rajputana gajetiyr ke anusaar Rajasthan ke jaavar kshetr mein san 1382-97 mein hi seesa tatha chaaaindi ki khaanon ka anveshan ho chuka tha kintu pratham baar raajya dvaara is kshetr ka vidhivt poorvekshan san 1872 mein kiya gaya. kuchh sootron se yeh bhi gyaat hua hai ki Ajmer ke sameep taaraagadh pahaadiyon mein seese ke nikshepon mein anek varshon tak kaarya hota raha hai aur san 1857 ke poorv jab in khaanon se utpaadan band hua, yahaaain ka utpaadan saadhe paaainch quintal prati varsh tak pahuainch gaya tha. bhaarateeya bhootaatvik sameeksha ke abhilekhon ke anusaar Bhaarat ke gailena (PbS) ki praapti anek bhaagon jaise Bihar, udeesa, Himachal pradesh evam Tamil Nadu aadi se bhi ho sakti hai. October, 1945 mein jaavar kshetr ke liye poorvekshan prapatr, Rajasthan sarkaar ne mesars metal kaurporeshan ov India li. ko diya. is company ne tabhi se mobiya mogara pahaadiyon mein vistrut khanan kaarya praarambh kar diya.

seesa aur jasta khanij praaya: saath-saath hi paae jaate hain. aur bahudha inke saath alp maatra mein chaaaindi bhi praapt hoti hai.

baahari kadiyaaain

  • seesa (bhaarateeya bhoovaijnyaaanik sarvekshan)