savaai jayasinh

savaai jayasinh
janm vijay Singh (mool janm naam) baad mein jayasinh
aamer
mrutyu Jaipur
mrutyu ka kaaran vruddhaavastha
aavaas aamer, Jaipur, Delhi, Aurangabad, ahamadanagar, daulataabaad, ujjain aadi
raashtreeyata bhaarateeya
anya naam savaai jayasinh (dviteeya)
jaateeyata kachhavaaha rajput
naagarikta bhaarateeya
shiksha paaramparik paddhati se
shiksha praapt ki sanskrut, faarasi, arabi, maraathi, jyotish, khagolashaastr, dharmashaastr, vaidik-karmakaand aadi
vyavasaaya mahaaraaja aamer/ Jaipur
niyokta aamer ke paramparaagat raaja
gruh sthaan aamer/ savaai jayanagar urf Jaipur
padavi 'savaai'/ 'saramade –raaja-A- hind'/ 'raajaraajeshvar'/ 'shreeraajaadhiraaj'
prasiddhi kaaran nagar-niyojan, kootaneeti, raajaneeti, hindutv, parampara-anurakshan, shaasan-vistaar, pustak-prem, vigyaan-prem
dhaarmik maanyata hindu
jeevanasaathi teen pramukh raaniyaaain aur anek raaniyaaain
bachche teen putr- shivsinh, ishvarasinh, maadhosinh (pratham) / do putriyaaain- vichitr kainvar, kishn kainvar

savaai jayasinh ya dviteeya jayasinh (03 November 1688 - 21 sitmbar 1743)[1] athaarahaveen sadi mein Bhaarat mein Rajasthan praant ke nagar/raajya aamer ke sarvaadhik prataapi shaasak the. san 1727 mein aamer se dakshin chh: meal door ek behad sundar, suvyavasthit, suvidhaapoorn aur shilpashaastr ke siddhaanton ke aadhaar par aakalpit naya shahar 'savaai jayanagar', Jaipur basaane vaale nagar-niyojak ke bataur unki khyaati bhaarateeya-itihaas mein amar hai.

british sangrahaalaya mein mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh (dviteeya) ka chitr

kaashi, Delhi, ujjain, Mathura aur Jaipur mein, atulaneeya aur apne samay ki sarvaadhik sateek gananaaon ke liye jaani gayi vedhashaalaaon ke nirmaata, savaai jayasih ek neeti-kushal mahaaraaja aur veer senaapati hi naheen, jaane-maane khagol vaigyaanik aur vidyaavyasani vidvaan bhi the.[2] unka sanskrut , maraathi, Turkey, faarasi, arabi, aadi kai bhaashaaon par gambhir adhikaar tha. bhaarateeya granthon ke alaava ganit, rekhaaganit, khagol aur jyotish mein unhonne anekaanek videshi granthon mein varnit vaigyaanik paddhatiyon ka vidhipoorvak adhyayan kiya tha aur swayam pareekshan ke baad, kuchh ko apnaaya bhi tha. desh-videsh se unhonne bade bade vidvaanon aur khagolashaastr ke vishay-visheshagyon ko Jaipur bulaaya, sammaanit kiya aur yahaaain sammaan de kar basaaya. [3]

savaai ki maukhik-upaadhi

apne pita mahaaraaja Bishan Singh ke asaamayik dehaant ke baad 25 January 1700 ko 11 varsh ki lagbhag baalya-avastha mein ve aamer ki gaddi baithe.[4] aurangajeb ne unhein 'savaai' ki [maukhik] upaadhi di thi - jiska prateekaatmak-arth yahi hai ki ve apne samakaaleenon se 'savaaya' (ya sava-guna adhik buddhimaan aur veer) the. suna jaata hai jab Delhi baadshah aurangajeb ke darbaar mein yuva savaai jayasinh pehle-pahal haajir hue, to pata naheen kyon aurangajeb ne ekaaek baalak jayasinh ke donon haath pakad liye aur poochha "ab bataaiye, aap kya kareinge?" is par pratyutpannamati jayasinh hothon par muskaan liye nihaayat shaant svar se bole, "aalamapanaah ! hamaare yahaan hinduon mein vivaah par ek parampara hai. var, vadhoo ka ek haath apne haath mein lekar is baat ki pratijnyaa karta hai ki vah usaka haath jindagi bhar nahi chhodega, umr bhar usaka saath nibaahega! aaj baadshah salaamat khud mera ek haath naheen, mere donon hi haath jab apne haath mein le chuke hain, fir mujhe kis baat ki paravaah?" aurangajeb ko is chaturaai bhare jabaab ki ummeed na thi, lekin is buddhimttaapoorn haajirjavaabi se vah bahut prasann hua.[5],[6]

yadunaath sarkaar ne apne Jaipur itihaas mein is 'upaadhi' ke baare mein jo shabd likhe hain- avikl roop se ye hain-" The new Rajah also gained the title of Sawai, which means 'one and a quarter', because Aurangzeb was so pleased with this youthful prince's feats before Khelna that he cried out," You are more than a man, you are sawa- i.e.,a hundred and twenty five per cent hero'[7]

kuchh doosare srot batalaate hain 'savaai' ki upaadhi aurangajeb dvaara naheen balki baadshah farrukh siyr [3] dvaara inhein di gayi thi|[8] par yeh baat (jo shaayad kinvadanti ka roop le chuki hai) adhikaansh granthon mein aurangajeb ke saath judi milti hai.

anukram

janm aur maata-pita

jayasinh dviteeya ka janm maargasheersh vadi 7 vi0 san0 1745 i0 [dinaank 4 November, 1688][9] ko raaja vishnusinh ki Rathore raani, Ajmer mein kharava ke thaakur keshareesinh ki putri indrakainvar se 3 November 1688 ko hua tha.[10]

rajputana praant ka ek puraana maanachitr

savaai jayasinh ke shaasan ka sampoorn raajanaitik itihaas

satta ka adhigrahan aur naam-parivartan

raaja vishnusinh ki Kabul mein ravivaar 31 December 1699 (rajab 19, julusi varsh 43) ko mrutyu[11] hone par maargasheersh sudi 7 vi0 san0 1756, January 25, 1700 i0 ko ye aamer ki gaddi par baithe. mrutyu ke praay: dedh maah baad 18 fravari 1700 ko Maharashtra ke shaahi-shivir mein Bishan Singh ke Kabul mein hue nidhan ki khabar pahuainchi, to do din baad (arthaat 20 February,1700 ko) baadshah aurangajeb ne unke sabse bade putr ka naam vijay Singh se badal kar jayasinh karte hue, unhein aamer ki gaddi ka vaaris sveekaar kiya. baadshah ne jayasinh ke chhote bhaai cheema ji ka naam vijyasinh rakha |[12]

yadunaath sarkaar ke anusaar "...July 1698 mein dakshin se lautane ke baad se jayasinh aamer mein hi bane rahe, jab ki baadshah ne inhein haajiri dene ke liye kai 'kade bulaave' bhi bheje| inke pita ke samay se hi Delhi-baadshah inko apni sainik 'seva' mein lene ke liye hetu dakshin mein bulaana chaahate the. parantu raaja vishnusinh apne putr ko dakshin mein naheen bhejana chaahate the. lekin baadshah ke jyaada dabaav dene par i0 1698 mein ye Maharashtra (dakshin) gaye. (vahaan pehli bheint mein baadshah ne inki teevr buddhi dekh kar in ko 'savaai' kaha tha. tabhi se inke naam ke pehle savaai ki upaadhi lag gayi, jo abhi tak Jaipur ke bhootapoorv raajaaon ke naam ke saath judi hui hai.) aath maheene mugl shivir mein rah kar ye vaapis apni rajdhani aamer laut aaye.

aurangajeb aur jayasinh

gaddi par baithane ke turant baad, jaisa oopar likha gaya hai, inhein November 1700 mein dakshin mein apni sena ke saath mugl baadshah ki fauj ke roop mein ladne ke liye bulaaya gaya tha, par kisi na kisi tarah jayasinh baraabar taalamatol karte rahe| vah jab kai shaahi-aadeshon ki avhelna kar chuke, to antat: inhein 'jabaran' le aane ko baadshah ne kuchh harakaare aamer tak bhi bheje| inki anupasthiti se naaraaj baadshah aurangajeb ne in se aamer raaja ka khitaab to naheen chheena, par 13 sitmbar 1701 ko inhein 'padaavanat' karte hue maatr 500 jaat, 100 savaar ka maamooli manasabadaar bana diya. kathin maarg aur varsha se avaruddh raaston se joohjte burahaanapur mein padaav daal kar October 1701 mein inke dakshin mein pahuainchane par inhein aurangajeb ke pote (sena-adhikaari aur putr aalam shaah ke putr) shaah bidrabakht ke paas panhaala ki suraksha ke liye unka sainya-sahayogi niyukt kiya gaya.[13]

savaai jayasinh ki aaranbhik saamarik-safalataaen aur baadshah aurangajeb ke poorvaagrah

tatkaaleen aamer ka pancharanga dhvaj

aurangajeb ke pote shaah bidrabakht ke netrutv mein baadashaahi sena ne 11 May i0 1702 ko khilna ke kile par bhaari hamla kiya. ismein aamer aur mugl sanyukt-sena ki bahut janahaani hui, par usaki deevaaron ko tod kar sabse pehle jayasinh ki kachhavaaha sena hi khilna-durg mein pravisht hui| usaki burj par aamer ka 'pancharanga jhanda' faharaaya gaya. (is samay jayasinh ki umr keval 14 varsh thi). khilna-yuddh mein inka veer aur bharosemand deevaan buddhasinh maara gaya. is khilna-vijay par baadshah aurangajeb dvaara inka manasab badha kar pehle ek hajaar, fir shaah bidrabakht ke anurodh ke baad 2000 (do hajaar jaat) ka kar diya gaya. baadshah ki chh: saal ki 'kathin seva' ka mahaj yeh pratidaan jayasinh ko mila! iske baad jab shaahajaada bidrabakht maalave ka soobedaar hua, tab usane jayasinh ki sevaaon ka sammaan karte un ko vahaaain ka naayab soobedaar bana diya, jise aurangajeb ne tatkaal hi 'naamanjoor' kar diya tatha ek farmaan likha ki aainda kisi hindu bhi ko maamooli faujadaar tak bhi naheen banaaya jaae.'[14]

vidambana hairatangej hai ki jis aurangajeb ne kabhi inhein 'savaai' kah kar sammaan diya vahi baad mein vastut: inse is kadar naaraaj aur poorvaagrahagrast tha ki usane ye apamaanajanak aajnyaa jaari ki- "jayasinh ko masanad par aasan na de kar, neeche jameen par bichhi 'sujani' par baithane ko kaha jaaya!"[15]

isi beech i0 1704 mein do baadashaahi faujadaaron ne sthaaneeya madad le kar thaakur kushal Singh raajaavat se savaai maadhopur mein aaj sthit jhilaaya thikaane ki jaageer chheen kar 13 November 1704 ko jayasinh (aamer raajya) ko saunp di. doosare saal i0 1705 mein shaah bidrabakht ne apni taraf se inke paksh mein fir se koshish karke jayasinh ko maalava ka bhi naayab soobedaar banava diya.[16] par jab tak aurangajeb jeevit raha, mugl kheme mein inka prabhaav maddham sa hi raha |

aurangajeb ki mrutyu ke baad

i0 1707 mein 21 fravari ko aurangajeb ke dehaant ke baad mugl-gaddi ke liye uske beton mein vikt-sangharsh shuroo ho gaya. shaah aajam ne Agra va Delhi par chadhaai ki. us samay tak usane inka manasab 5000 jaat 500 savaar ka kar diya tha. June 18, 1707 i0 ko maujam (muajjim) aur aazam ki senaaon ke beech Agra ke 20 meal dakshin mein jaajoo ka yuddh hua. jayasinh maujam (muajjim) ke saath the tatha inke sage chhote bhaai cheemaaain ji (vijyasinh) aazam ki sena ki taraf. is yuddh mein maujam aur unke putr maare gaye| jaajoo ki ladaai mein aazam ki vijay hui. isi yuddh mein jayasinh tatha akhesinh toradi bhi ghaayal hue | inke kai sardaar- bihaareedaas (daantari), keshareesinh (harasoli), soorasinh (haramaada) aadi maare gaye. yuddh ke aakhri samay mein jayasinh boondi ke raaja apne bahanoi budhasinh haada ke maarafat yuddh mein vijayi aazam se ja mile, parantu usane inka khaas svaagat naheen kiya.[16],[17]

aamer par hamle aur apamaanit jayasinh

jayasinh ke chhote bhaai vijyasinh, baadshah ko khush karne ke liye apni bahan ka vivaah baadshah bahaadurashaah (pratham) se karavaana chaahate the. unhonne iski khabar Delhi bhej di tatha buddhasinh haada ko chhutti jaate samay raaste mein rok kar un se saamod mein yeh vivaah karva diya. naye baadshah bahaadurashaah (pratham) ne iske baad Rajasthan par chadhaai ki. January 1708 i0 mein vah aamer pahuaincha aur use khaalasa kar liya. jayasinh se aamer ki jaageer jabt karke baadshah bahaadurashaah (pratham) dvaara 10 January 1708 ko unke chhote bhaai vijyasinh (cheemaaji) ko anekaanek mahange upahaaron sahit de di gayi. savaai jayasinh ka raajanaitik kad ghata kar ek maamooli 'manasabadaar' ke roop mein kar diya gaya|[18]

baadshah iske baad Ajmer hokar dakshin ke liye apne bhaai kaamabaksh se mukaabala karne ko badha. aamer aur Jodhpur ke donon raaja mandaleshvar ke ilaake tak uske saath hi gaye. jab unhein yeh aasha naheen rahi ki baadshah unke ilaake unhein vaapas lautaaega to unhonne durgaadaas Rathore ki rai se, jab baadshah narbada nadi paar karne ko ravaana hua, 20 April 1708 vaishaakh sudi 13 ko baadashaahi-shivir chhod diya aur ve rajputana ki or vaapas ravaana hokar mevaad Udaipur pahuainche.

yahaaain mahaaraana prataap ke putr aur uttaraadhikaariraana amarasinh ne inka svaagat kiya tatha apni poti jayasinh ko byaahi. yahaaain se teen raajaaon ki 30 hajaar sena ne sanyukt-roop se Jodhpur par hamla karke 8 July 1708 i0 ko use apne adhikaar mein kar liya. raaja atasinh Jodhpur ke jayasinh ne teeka kiya. yahaaain se unhonne Hindustan ke anek raajaaon ko mugalon ke viruddh ekatrit hone sambandhi patra bhi likhe.[17]

joghapur se vijay Singh shaasit aamer par adhikaar karne ko do senaaeain bheji gayeen. ek durgaadaas Rathore ke netrutv mein, jiska saiyadon se kaala dera ke paas yuddh hua. doosari sena mein, mahaaraaja jayasinh ka deevaan raamachandr aur shyaamasinh ke adheen 20 hajaar ghudsavaar the. inka ratanapura ke paas aamer ke faujadaar husain khaaain se yuddh hua, jismein unhonne use paraast karke aamer par apna adhikaar kar liya.[17]

iske baad in donon raajaaon ke viruddh var...... ???? ne mevaat ke faujadaar Sayyed husen Khan, Ahmad Khan faujadaar bairaath sidhaana aur gaaraat Khan faujadaar naaranol ko saanbhar bheja. donon raajaaon ke in faujadaaron se saanbhar mein 3 October i0 1708 ko bheeshan yuddh hua, jismein mugalon ki vijay hui. yuddh ke baad vijay ki khushi mein mugalon ki mehfil ho rahi thi. isi samay Rao sangraamasinh (uniyaara) ke netrutv mein naruka ladaake vahaaain pahuainche aur ek ret ke teebe par chadhe, jiske neeche Sayyed aadi mehfil kar rahe the. narukon ne un par ekaaek bandookon aur teeron se bhayaanak hamla kiya. usamein sab mugl faujadaar maare gaye tatha mugalon ki jeeti hui baaji haath se nikal gayi.

fir jayasinh ne ek patra baadshah ke viruddh durgaadaas ko likha ki "Udaipur mahaaraana se baat ki jaae ...maraathon ko mila kar muglon ke viruddh raajapooton ko vahi karna chaahiye jo 'Hindustan' ke liye gaurav ki baat ho."[17]

baadshah bahaadurashaah jab dakshin se vaapis lauta, to usane yeh jaruri samjha ki kisi tarah Jodhpur aur aamer (Jaipur) donon raajaaon se samjhauta kiya jaae. inhein laane ke liye usane budhasinh haada raaja boondi ko bheja, jinke maarafat 21 June i0 1710 ko ye Ajmer ke paas baadshah ke saamane haajir hue. baadshah ne inke jabt kiye raajya vaapas lauta diye aur in donon ko 4000 jaat 4000 savaar ke manasab bhi diye| us samay tak bhi raajapooton ka mugalon par bilkul vishvaas naheen tha, isliye jab savaai jayasinh Ajmer mein baadshah ke shivir mein gaye tab Ajmer ke tamaam pahaad tatha ghaatiyaaain rajput-sainikon se bhari hui theen. manasab badhne aur ilaake vaapas aane par bhi unhein bahaadurashaah ki neeyat par kabhi bhi poorn vishvaas naheen hua.[17]

jayasinh dvaara chhalapoorvak apne bhaai vijyasinh ki giraftaari

jayasinh ke bhaai vijyasinh ke saath bhi kuchh aisa hua ki (janm chait sudi 6 vi. 1747) niraash hokar ant mein mugal darbaar chhod kar hindaun aa gaye. jayasinh ko bhaai vijyasinh ki taraf se sashastr vidroh khatra to bana hua tha hi. inhonne 1713 i0 mein vijyasinh se samjhauta karne aur 'raajamaata se bheint' karne ke naam par apne sashastr sainikon evam saradaaron samet saangaaner ja kar dhokhe se unako kaid karva diya[19] aur jayagadh kile mein bhej diya. (vaheen ve ant mein maare bhi gaye.) vijyasinh ke is 'hatyaakaand' mein shyaamasinh khangaarot vishesh sahaayak raha.

bahaadur shaah (pratham) ki mrutyu ke baad uske uttaraadhikaari jahaaaindarashaah ne aamer aur maaravaad donon raajaaon ko fir apne paksh mein karna chaaha. usane donon ko 7000 jaat va 7000 savaar ka manasab bhi diya, parantu is baar inhonne mugl-uttaraadhikaari ke aapasi sangharsh mein aurangajeb ke putron se door hi rahane ka faisala kiya. frrukh siyr ke mugl baadshah banane ke baad husain Ali Sayyed ne shyaamasinh khangaarot ko bulavaaya tatha unase baat karke jayasinh ko baadshah se 5000 jaat 4500 savaar ka manasab dilvaaya. jab atasinh ka baadshah ke saath matabhed ho gaya, tab baadshah ne Sayyed husain Ali ko sena lekar Ajmer bheja jahaaain atasinh ne kabja kar liya tha. us samay jayasinh bhi husain Ali Sayyed ke saath the. ant mein atasinh se sandhi hui.[17]

maraathe aur jayasinh

October 1713 i0 mein inhein baadshah frrukh siyr ne maalava ki soobedaari pradaan ki. inhonne vahaaain ki anek bagaavatein dabaai va marahathon ke upadrav bhi kuchale. marahathon ki ek badi sena jab maalave mein ghusi tab inhonne palasood ke paas use badi karaari haar di. maraathi sena ke log bhaag kar palasood mein thahare the. jayasinh ne raat mein hi un par hamla kar diya. inki sena ko dekhte hi ve bhaag nikle va narvada nadi paar kar gaye. unki loot ka sab maal vaheen rah gaya. maalava mein chhatrasaal bundela bhi inke saath the. 1715 i0 mein inko Delhi bula liya gaya. tab inki anupasthiti mein inke dhaabhaai rupaaraam ko inhonne vahaan naayab bana kar rakha. 1717 tak ye maalava ke soobedaar rahe. baadshah frrukh siyr ne bheemasinh haada raaja kota ko boondi ki riyaasat de di thi aur usane boondi par kabja bhi kar liya tha. jayasinh ne prayaas karke baadshah se boondi vaapas raaja budhasinh haada ko dilvaayi.[17]

bharatapur mein vifalta

Delhi se baadshah ne inko bharatapur ke choodaaman jaat par chadhaai karne ki aajnyaa di, jisne Agra ke ilaake mein lootamaar se bada upadrav macha rakha tha. inke saath boondi ke buddhasinh, kota ke bheemasinh, naravar ke gajasinh, durgaadaas Rathore va kai anya manasabadaar bhi niyukt kiye gaye. 15 sitmbar 1716 ko ye apni fauj le kar Mathura ke liye ravaana hue. November mein choodaaman ke prasiddh kile thoon ka ghera shuru kiya. var abdulla Khan Sayyed, jayasinh ke viruddh tha tatha choodaaman ko madad de raha tha. isse inhein is abhiyaan mein safalta naheen mil pai. var abdulla Khan Sayyed ne ant mein beech mein pad kar thoon ka ghera uthava liya. May 1718 mein jayasinh ki vaapasi Delhi hui. choodaaman ke ilaake mein is asafalata ke baavajood baadshah ne inka bada sammaan kiya.[17]

saiyadon aur baadashaahon ke beech talavaarein khinch chuki thi. jayasinh ne baadshah frrukh siyr ko bahut samajhaaya ki saiyadon se yuddh karke unhein hamesha ke liye saaf kar dena chaahiye. us samay unke paas 20 hajaar rajput savaar Delhi mein maujood the tatha boondi ke buddhasinh haada bhi unheen ke saath the. parantu baadshah ki yeh sainya kaaryavaai karne ki himmat naheen hui | vah saiyadon ko kisi tarah khush karne mein laga raha. ant mein saiyadon ne baadshah se jayasinh ko Delhi se jaane ko kahalava diya. jayasinh ne baadshah ko sachet kiya ki unke jaane se baadshah ki jaan ko khatra ho jaaega lekin yeh salaah baadshah ki samajh mein naheen I. 13 fravari 1719 i0 ko jayasinh Delhi se ravaana hue. uske kuchh hi ghanton baad bheenmasinh kota raaja ne budhasinh boondi par aakraman kar diya | unke svaameebhakt sardaar jaitasinh ne badi veerata se kota ki sena ko roka tatha budhasinh ko surakshit vahaaain se nikaal diya. ve bhaag kar savaai jayasinh ke paas pahuainche. 17- 18 April ko Sayyed bhaaiyon, atasinh Jodhpur aur bheemasinh kota ne mil kar Delhi mein baadshah farrookhashiyr ko maar daala.[17]

Sayyed aur jayasinh

jayasinh ne Allahabad ke soobedaar chhabeela Ram aur nijaam se saiyadon ke viruddh bhi patra-vyavahaar kiya. ve chaahate the ki sab mil kar saiyadon ko apadasth kar dein. inhonne chhatrasaal bundela ko bhi yuddh ke liye bulaaya. saiyadon ne kai senaaeain inke viruddh kai taraf se gherane ke liye bhejeen| var abdulla Khan ne 5 July ko naamamaatr ke baadshah rafeeudulla ko saath lekar jayasinh par chadhaai ki aur Mathura hota hua vah Agra pahuaincha, jahaaain saiyadon ke viruddh bagaavat ho rahi thi. jayasinh ne bhi saiyadon se poore taur se mukaabala karne ki taiyaari kar li thi par yuddh mein ravaana hone ke pehle unhonne braahmanon ko bulaakar aamer raajya daan mein de diya aur kesariya baana dhaaran karke ve saiyadon se ladaai ke liye ravaana hue. ye aamer se aage badh kar toda raayasinh tak pahuainch gaye the. par nijaam aur chhabeelaaraam donon hi vaayade ke anusaar inke paksh mein kaayam naheen rahe.[17] jayasinh ko niraasha haath lagi|

Jodhpur mein vivaah

ant mein atasinh jayasinh ko apne saath Jodhpur le gaye jahaaain unhonne apni putri ka jayasinh se vivaah kiya. saiyadon ne jayasinh ko 20 lakh rupaye diye, jisse ve aamer vaapis braahmanon se vaapas khareedein. us samay bhi jayasinh ko atasinh Jodhpur par vishvaas naheen tha isliye ve apne vivaah mein bhi jirhabakhtar pahan kar gaye the.[17]

nijaam aur jayasinh

saiyadon ki do senaaeain jab dakshin mein nijaam se paraast ho gayi, tab husain Ali Khan Sayyed, baadshah mohammad shaah ko saath le kar, ek badi sena ke saath nijaam ko dabaane ke liye ravaana hua. sitmbar 8, 1720 i0 ko todaabheem mein usane husain Ali ko dhokhe se maar daala. ab baadshah ne taiyaari karke Sayyed abdulla Khan par chadhaai ki jo Delhi mein tha. is yuddh ke liye mahaaraana ne jayasinh se poochha ki 'use kya karna chaahiye?' jayasinh ne udaipur ke mahaaraana ko baadshah ki madad karne ke liye patra likha tatha saath mein hi mahaaraana ke alaava Bikaner, kota aur Rao indrasinh naagaur ko bhi baadshah ki madad karne ke liye patra bheje. savaai jayasinh ne khud baadshah mohammad shaah ki madad ke liye Rao jagaraam ke saath ek achhi sena bheji. is sena mein savaai Ram (naruka), gadhi gajasinh, naruka jaavali, jasavantasinh, savaairaam ke putr, prataapasinh kalyanot, buddhasinh kalyanot, gulaab Singh kalyanot, chheetarasinh kalyanot, amarasinh raajaavat, bahaadur Singh khangoraat aur saradaarasinh naruka aadi sardaar the. 3 aur 4 November 1720 ko yuddh hua jismein Sayyed abdulla Khan pakada gaya. vijay ke baad baadshah ne Jaipur ke saradaaron ko apne haath se khilatein Dean.[17]

mohammad shaah aur jayasinh

mohammad shaah ne Delhi pahunchate hi jayasinh ko Delhi aane ka farmaan bheja jismein likha ki unase anek mahatvapoorn samasyaaon par salaah leni hai. usane Delhi pahunchane par baadshah ne apne naye var muhammad ameen Khan ko unke dere par lene bheja. darbaar mein aane par baadshah ne unka bada satkaar kiya aur anek tohafe diye| unke manasab mein 4000 savaar aur badha diye gaye. isi mauke par inhein do karod rupaye inhein inaam/ bakhsheesh mein diye jinko inhonne namrataapoorvak lene se mana kar diya. par baadshah ne savaai jayasinh aur raaja girdhar bahaadur ke anurodh par hiduon par lagaaya jaane wala kathin jajiya kar maaf kar diya. mahaaraana mevaad ne jajiya hatava dene ki safalta par savaai jayasinh ko apni aur se prasann ho kar likhit badhaai bheji.[17]

jayasinh ke mahattv mein vruddhi

saiyadon ke patan ke baad jayasinh ka raajanaitik mahatva teji se badhne laga. Rajasthan, maalava aur bundelakhand ke raaja har museebat mein unase sahaayata aur salaah chaahate the. in ilaakon mein inki rai ke bagair kuchh bhi naheen hota tha. 1735 i0 ke baad to marahathe bhi inki salaah lene tatha inko aadar dene lag gaye.[17]

inhein savaai ke alaava mugl baadashaahon ne jo anya upaadhiyaaain samay samay par Dean ve theen - saramade –raaja-A- hind'/ 'raajaraajeshvar'/ 'shreeraajaadhiraaj aadi |

doosra jaat yuddh

sitmbar 1722 i0 mein jayasinh ko Agra ka soobedaar bana kar jaaton ko dabaane ko bheja gaya. inke saath 50 hajaar sainikon ki badi fauj thi tatha anek manasabadaar bhi inke saath the. shaahi topakhaana bhi inke saath tha. choodaaman jaat ka putr mohakamasinh is samay jaaton ka neta tha. parantu choodaaman ka bhateeja badanasinh jo usase naaraaj tha, jayasinh se aa kar mila. inhonne usaka bada svaagat-satkaar kiya. ek baar fir inhonne thoon ke kile par ghera daala. atasinh joghapur ne ek sena mohakamasinh ki madad ke liye bheji, parantu vah jobaner se aage naheen badhi. vibheeshan ki tarah badanasinh ki salaah se thoon ke kile ka vijay hona nishchit dikh raha tha. tab mohakamasinh niraash hokar gupt maarg se kila chhod kar atar Singh ke paas Jodhpur pahuaincha. kintu jaaton ke thoon sthit kile par savaai jayasinh ka adhikaar ho gaya. inhonne soorajamal ke pita badanasinh ko bharatapur ki jaageer di tatha raaja ke roop mein unke pagadi baaaindhi. June 19, 1723 i0 ko thaakur badanasinh jaat ne 'Jaipur darbaar ki seva karne' va 83 hajaar rupaye bataur saalaana peshakash dena sveekaar karke is aashay ki likhaavat par dastakhat kiye. badanasinh Jaipur ke dashahara darbaar mein har saal aaya karte the. Jaipur mein jahaaain jaat sena sahit deeg ke raaja ka padaav lagta tha, vah sthaan ab bhi baas badanapura kahalaata hai.[17]

mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh ke kaaryakaal ka sanbhavat: sabse bada aur keertivaan kaarya tha - san 1727 mein Jaipur nagar basaana. iski neenv paush vadi 1 vi. san. 1784, i0 ko rakhi gayi. raajaguru samraat jagannaath ne nae nagar ki neenv rakhane ka muhoort nikaala tatha bhoomi pooja karavaai thi. mahaaraaja ki aajnyaa ke anusaar nae nagar ka naksha deevaan vidyaadhar ne banaaya jo bahut pratibhaashaali bangaali braahman tha aur inke lekha-vibhaag ki seva mein naayab-ankekshak tha. san 1733 i0 mein yeh nagar, jiska naam savaai jayasinh ne ' savaai jayanagar' rakha ban kar taiyaar hua.[17]

maalava ki doosari baar soobedaari

jayasinh ko mugl baadshah dvaara maalava ka dubaara soobedaar banaaya gaya. ve 23 October 1729 i0 ko ujjain ke liye ravaana hue. jayasinh apne raajya ki suraksha ke liye vidrohi marahathon se samjhauta karna chaahate the. inke is samjhauta-prastaav ko baadshah ne bhi sveekaar kar liya tha. inki is vijay par saahoo se likha padhi hui. saahoo iske liye taiyaar ho gaya tha, kintu peshava log is samjhaute ke jyaada paksh mein naheen tha. inhonne deepasinh kumbhaani ko saahoo ke paas sataara bheja. lautate samay deepasinh nijaam se bhi mila, parantu sitmbar 1730 i0 mein inke maalava ki soobedaari se hat jaane se vah samjhauta naheen ho saka.[17]

kushattal pancholaas ka yuddh

buddhasinh boondi aur unki kachhavaahi raani ke aapas mein gambhir matabhed paida hone par jayasinh ke sambandh bhi boondi naresh buddhasinh se bahut kharaab ho gaye. ant mein sambandh itne bigde ki jayasinh ne baadshah ko kah kar buddhasinh ke sthaan par karavaad ke saalim Singh haada ke putr dalelasinh ko boondi ka raaja banava diya aur baad mein apni putri bhi use byaah di. isse Rajasthan mein Jaipur aur boondi ke beech lambe samay tak bada du:khad sangharsh chala. is aapasi manamutaav se marahathon ko fir Rajasthan mein hastakshep karne ka avsar mil gaya. jayasinh ko 1730 i0 mein maalava mein ittala mili ki buddhasinh fir se boondi par adhikaar karne ja rahe hain. inhonne ek sena dalelasinh ki madad ko bheji| 6 April 1730 ko kushattal pancholaas mein budhasinh se Jaipur sena ka yuddh hua jismein Jaipur ke paanch raajaavat sardaar fatahasinh saarasop (baravaada) khojooraam (isarada), saanvaladaas (shivaad), achalasinh (naanatodi) aur ghaaseeraam achare maare gaye|. is yuddh mein buddhasinh ko vijay naheen mili. maalava se lautate samay mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh kushattal paancholaas gaye. unhonne vahaaain maare gaye saradaaron ki maatami karke unke putron ko siropaav aadi diye.[17]

teesari baar maalava ki soobedaari

jayasinh December 1732 mein teesari baar maalava praant ke soobedaar bankar ujjain gaye. is baar maalava mein bhi marahathon ka utpaat itna badh gaya tha ki maalava se marahathon ko nikaalne ke inke tamaam prayaas vifal rahe. 1734 i0 mein khaanadaura ek badi sena lekar rajputana hota hua maalava mein marathon ke viruddh aage aaya. jayasinh, abhayasinh (Jodhpur) aadi anek raaja unke saath the. jab yeh vishaal sena raamapura pahuainchi to use marahatha mile. par ve chhutaput ladaaiyon ke baad inhein chhaka kar peechhe se Rajasthan mein ghus gaye. vahaaain unako rokane wala koi naheen tha aur ve maraathe Jaipur raajya mein saaainbhar tak lootpaat karte chale gaye. 1735 i0 mein peshava baajeeraav ki maaain uttar mein teerth karne I. mahaaraaja jayasinh ne usaka bada aadar-satkaar kiya tatha mahaaraana se bhi usaka satkaar karavaaya. Agra mein inke naayab soobedaar ne apne deevaan aayaamal ke bhaai naaraayanadaas ko usaka svaagat karne va poona tak saath jaane ki aajnyaa bheji. January 1737 i0 ko peshava uttar Bhaarat mein aaya uske saath holakar, sindhiya, painvaar aadi sabhi the. Udaipur se aate samay peshava se 25 fravari ko mahaaraaja jayasinh maalapura kshetr ke jhaadli gaaainv mein mile. unhonne unako anek vastueain bheint di. baajeeraav Delhi tak jaakar vaapas laut gaya. baajeeraav peshava ki mrutyu se mahaaraaja jayasinh ko bada du:kh hua. naya peshava baalaaraav bana. 1741 i0 mein jab nae maraatha peshava baala Rao uttar mein chadhaai ki us samay jayasinh Agra ke soobedaar the. inki aur naye peshava baala Rao ki dhaulapur mein bheint hui. inke prayaas se baadshah ne peshava ko maalava ki naayab soobedaari de di.[17]

naadirshaah aur savaai jayasinh

jab naadirshaah Bhaarat mein aaya tab sabhi ko badi shanka khadi ho gayi. peshava, mahaaraana anya raajaaon va bundelon ko mila kar jayasinh, naadirshaah ka sangathit mukaabala karna chaah raha tha. haalaanki 24 February 1739 ko karanaal mein vah (naadirshaah) mugl sena ko buri tarah paraajit kar chuka tha. yeh bhi afavaah thi ki naadirshaah Jaipur hota hua Ajmer jaaega. yeh jayasinh ke liye bhi bada khatra tha. sab chaukanne the, lekin ant mein vah Mathura se hi vaapas apne desh laut gaya.

"naadirshaah ne jab Bhaarat par hamla (February-March 1739) kiya tab Delhi ki sahaayataarth jayasinh naheen gaye. is ka kaaran yeh tha- tab nijaam aur kamaruddeen us samay saamraajya mein uchch padon par the aur naadirshaah ke hamle ke liye ve log inke uttaradaayi hone ka shak kar sakte the, kintu samraat baraabar inmein vishvaas rakh kar inse aavashyak paraamarsh karta raha."[17]

saahitya-rachana aur yagya-parampara

mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh ke darbaar mein sanskrut aur brajabhaasha saahitya, sthaapatya, dharmashaastr, jyotish, khagol, itihaas-lekhan, aadi kshetron mein anek maulik rachanaaen ki gayeen aur sampoorn bhaarateeya maneesha ki is academic-yogadaan se badi unnati hui. anek nae dharmashaastr bhi rache gaye kyon ki inki karmakaand aur dharmashaastr mein badi ruchi va nishtha thi. inke samay ke sabse prasiddh vidvaan pandit jagannaath samraat, pandit pundareek ratnaakar, vidyaadhar chakravarti, shivaanand Goswami, shreekrushn bhatt kaviklaanidhi aadi the.[20] moolat: aandhr se aaye tailang poorvajon ke vanshaj brajanaath bhatt bhi inke samay ke prasiddh kavi vidvaanon mein se the. inhonne 'brahmasootraanabhaanyavrutti' aur 'padmatarangini' ki rachana ki. shreekrushn bhatt kaviklaanidhi ne inke samay mein anek granth likhe jinmein mukhya 'ishvar vilaas[21]- mahaakaavya bhi hai, jismein savaai jayasinh dvaara 'ashvamedh yagya' karavaane ka 'aaainkhon dekha haal' varnit hai.[22] James taud ne likha hai " savaai jayasinh ne bahut-sa dhan kharch kar ke yajnyaashaala banvaai thi aur uske stambhon aur chhat ko chaandi ke pattaron se mandavaaya tha|[23]

pundareek ratnaakar (mrutyu vi. 1776 mein) ne inse vraatyastom yagya chait vadi 3 vi.san. 1771 ko kshipra nadi ke tat par ujjain mein karavaaya. inhonne aur doosare yagya-jaise shraut yagya aadi bhi sampann karavaaye the. inka racha hua 'jayasinh kalpadrum' ek mahatvapoorn granth hai. ratnaakar ke putr sudhaakar paundareek ne jayasinh se purushamedh yagya karavaaya tha tatha 'saahityasaar sangrah' ki rachana ki. inhonne samraat yagya bhi karaaya, jiske purohit inke mahaaraashtreeya braahman guru, jagannaath samraat the. 1734 i0 mein jayasinh ne jo pehla ashvamedh yagya kiya[24], 29 May 1734 ko sampoorn hua.[25] is ashvamedh yagya ke samay, jo raajasi-ghoda chhoda gaya tha, use kuchh kummaniyon ne jalamahal se aage, Jaipur ke ek aur praveshadvaar (jiska naam baad mein joraavar Singh gate rakha gaya) ke paas hi pakad liya aur ant mein jayasinh ke ashv ke saath ja rahe sardaar joraavar Singh ghoda pakadne vaalon se yuddh karke maare gaye.[26]

doosra ashvamedh yagya bade paimaane par jayasinh ne varsh 1742 i0 mein karavaaya. in yajnyaon ke alaava Jaipur mein purushamedh yagya, sarvamedh yagya, som yagya aadi bhi kiye gaye. in yajnyaon ke kaaran desh ke pandit-jagat mein inki badi khyaati hui tatha sampoorn hindu-samaaj ne inki is saanskrutik-pahal ki prashansa ki.[27]

aaspaas ki raajanaitik uthal-puthal ke baavajood Jaipur nagar us samay vibhinn vidyaaon, saahitya aur bhaarateeya-sanskruti ka aagaar ban gaya tha. isi kaaran ise doosari kaashi bhi kaha gaya | Colonel James taud ne bhi maana hai ki "mahaaraaj savaai jayasinh ne Jaipur ko hindoovidyaaon ka sharanasthal bana diya tha. is tarah Bhaarat mein sadiyon se yajnyaaadi ki jo parampara lagbhag band ho chuki thi, unhein mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh ne Jaipur raajya mein fir se praarambh kiya."[28]

savaai jayasinh ka sthaapatya-kala ko yogadaan

Jaipur : shilpashaastr ke aadhaar par nai rajdhani

mahaaraaja savaai jayasih ne ek naya rajdhani-nagar basaane ka vichaar aamer se dakshin mein chh: meal door paush vadi 1 vi. san. 1784 tadanusaar November 29 i0 1727 ko pan0 jagannaath samraat ke maadhyam se shilaanyaas karte hue kriyaanvit kiya. sampoorn nagar-yojana darbaar ke pramukh vaastuvid vidyaadhar chakravarti ki takaneeki salaah se nirmit hui| naksha pehle kapde par amit kaali syaahi se taiyaar kiya gaya. savaai ne taalakatora taalaab banavaaya, maanasaagar jheel mein 'jalamahal' nirmit karavaaya, praacheen kachhaava kile jayagadh ka punaruddhaar kiya, aamer ke jo mahal-bhaag jayasinh (pratham) ne banavaae the, un sab ka vistaar kiya tatha sudarshanagadh ka mahal bhi banavaaya jisko aaj naaharagadh ka kila bhi kehte hain. vividh kala-kaushal vikaas hetu '64 kaarkhaane' arthaat alag-alag vibhaag sthaapit kiye, nagar ke baahar Agra road par inke dvaara apni sisodiya raani ke liye ek greeshmakaaleen baag aur mahal banavaaya gaya. shahar mein kalki ka mandir aur yajnyaastambh ke paas Bhagwan vishnu ka mandir bhi inhonein banavaaya. Mathura mein seetaraamaji ka aur govardhan mein govardhanadhaari ke mandir bhi inhonein hi banavaaye.[29]

aamer mahal ka deevaane-aam : chhaayaakaar: he.she.

nagar ka vaastu-kaushal

nae nagar ko 9 saamaan kshetrafal vaale khandon (chaukadiyon) mein baanta gaya tha, jiske do khand mukhya raajamahal 'chandramahal', vibhinn raajakeeya kaarkhaanon, kuchh khaas mandiron tatha vedhashaala ke liye aarakshit rakhe gaye the. soorajapol daravaaje se chaandapol daravaaje tak sadak ki lambaai do meal aur chaudaai 120 feet rakhi gayi. isi mahaamaarg par madhya mein teen sundar chaupadon ka nirmaan bhi prastaavit kiya gaya jo yahaaain lage hue favvaaron ke liye bhoomigat jalasroton se jude the. shahar ke chautaraf banaaye gaye parakote ki deevaar 20 se 25 foot oonchi tatha 9 feet chaudi rakhi gayi. is parakote mein (shahar mein aane - jaane ke liye) saat sundar praveshadvaaron ka nirmaan bhi kiya gaya. raat ko nagar-suraksha hetu inhein band kar diya jaata tha. sundar raajasi raajamahal, bhavya-paathashaalaaen, badi badi, chaudi aur ek doosare ko samakon par vibhaajit karti ekdam seedhi sadkein, ek si roop-rachana ke aakarshak baajaar, jagah-jagah kalaatmak mandir, (raaja Ram ki ayodhya ke vaastu se prabhaavit) aam-bhavan-sanrachanaaen, sadkon ke kinaare lage ghane chhaayaadaar ped, peene ke paani ka samuchit prabandh, vyarth-jal-nikaasi ki upayukt vyavastha, udyaan, naagrik-suraksha, aadi in sab baaton ka poorv-niyojan savaai jayasinh ne apne nagar-kaushal mein safalataapoorvak kiya.

Jaipur par kendrit sanskrut mahaakaavya

kavishiromani bhatt mathuraanaath shaastri ne san 1947 mein 476 prushthon mein prakaashit apna ek yashasvi kaavya-granth Jaipur-vaibhavam to Jaipur ke nagar-saundarya, darshaneeya sthaanon, devaalayon, maargon, yahaaain ke sammaanit naagrikon, utsavon aur tyohaaron aadi par hi kendrit kiya tha|[30]

khagolashaastr aur savaai jayasinh

Jaipur vedhashaala ka vihangam drushya

Jaipur ke puraane raajamahal' chandr mahal' ke uttar mein Jaipur nareshon ke aaraadhya Dave govindadev ji ka mandir hai, duniya bhar mein jantar mantar ke naam se mashahoor vishaal vedhashaala bhi yaheen maujood hai[31]

patthar ke vishaal yantr aur grah nakshatron ki ganana ke liye bane [32],[33] in ganana-upakaranon ke nirmaata savaai jayasinh ko bachapan se hi ganit aur khagol jyotish mein badi gahari dilchaspi thi[34]

kintu mahaaraaja jayasinh ko khagolavidya mein 'Dixit' karne ka bada shreya pandit jagannaath samraat ko hai. raaja ko ved padhaane ke liye niyukt maraathi sammaanit vidvaan bhaarateeya jyotirvijnyaaan ko yogadaan dete hue samraat jagannaath ne 'siddhaant kaustubh' ki rachana ki tatha yooklid ke rekhaaganit ka arabi se sanskrut mein anuvaad kiya.

savaai jayasinh ne apne guru hi ke anusaran mein yeh anubhav kiya ki nyootan [Newton] aur flemasteed [Flamsteed] aadi dvaara ullekhit Europeeya vaigyaaniko ke peetal ya dhaatu ke khagol-yantron se mausam, taapamaan, ghisaai, aadi kai kaaranon se ganana falaavat mein aksar antar aa jaaya karta hai, isliye inhonne sabse pehle 1724 isvi mein Delhi ki vedhashaala mein dhaatu ko chhod kar choone aur taraashe gaye patthar se bade-bade ganana yantr banavaaye.

fir isi tarah inhonne Jaipur mein 1734 mein aur san 1732 se 1734 ke beech Mathura, banaaras aur ujjain mein bhi apne vaastuvid vidyaadhar ke maargadarshan mein samraat jagannaath dvaara viksit unnat yantron- samraat-yantr (laghu), naadi-valaya-yantr, kaanti-vruksh-yantr, yantraraaj, dakshinodak-bhitti-yantr, unnataansh-yantr, jayaprakaash-yantr, samraat-yantr (deergh), shashataansh yantr, kapaaleevalaya yantr, raashivlaya yantr, chakr yantr, Ram yantr, trigansh yantr aadi se yukt nai vedhashaalaaeain banvaai.[35],[36] Mathura ki vedhashaala nasht ho chuki, kaashi aur ujjain ki vedhashaalaaen nasht hone ke kagaar par hain; ab keval Jaipur aur thodi bahut dillli ki vedhashaala inke vaigyaanik-vyaktitv ka smaran karaati hain|

Jaipur darbaar mein videshi vidvaan

jab inko maaloom hua ki pashchim ke jyotisheegan dvaara khaastaur par Portugal mein pichhle kuchh varshon mein khagolavidya par kaafi kaam hua hai, inhonne Goa ke purtagaali-Governor ke maarfat Portugal ke baadshah ko anek tohafe bheje tatha Governor ke maarfat Portugal se khagol vidvaan Padre Manoel Figueiredo ko Jaipur bulavaaya.[37] jayasinh ne 1727 mein use (Manoel Figueiredo ko) yorop mein is vishay ki saari upalabdh naveenatam pustakein / rachanaaeain tatha doorveekshan yantr (teleeskop) laane bheja. vah jab November 1730 mein vaapis aaya to apne saath khagolajnya Xavier deesilva ko aur kuchh doorabeenein saath laaya. Xavier deesilva Pere de la Hire (1640-1718) ki saarani 'Tabulae Astronomicae' lisban se apne saath laaya tha. inhonne apne vidvaanon ki sahaayata se un saaraniyon ka adhyayan kiya aur vyaavahaarik upayog ke baad unamein trutiyaaain paain| antat: inhonne apne yantron ki ganana se pun: nai saarini banaai, jiska baadshah ke naam par naam jij-A-muhammadashaahi rakha gaya.[38]

inke darbaar mein chandranagar se aaya fraanseesi khagolajnya klaad bodiyr tha. inke darbaar mein Germany se father aintoin gevels paraguir va aadrein stobl bhi aaye the. ek aur hindustaani vidvaan, inke yahaaain kevalaraam tha, jo Gujarat se aaya tha. usane khagol sambandhi aath granth likhe the. usako savaai jayasinh ne 'jyotishraaya' ki upaadhi bhi di.[39]

mahaaraaja savaai jayasinh ne yuddh aur raajaneeti mein ulajhe rahane ke baavajood, nagar-nirmaan aur khagolashaastr mein bada kaam kiya. inhonne bhaarateeya khagolavidya ke saath yoonaan, madhya Asia aur yorop mein jo granth likhe gaye the tatha jo yantr bane the, unako mangava kar unka pareekshan va upayog kiya.

282 saal pehle lakdi, choone, patthar aur dhaatu se nirmit yantron ke maadhyam se aakaasheeya ghatnaaon ke adhyayan ki bhaarateeya vidya ko 'adbhut' maanate hue is smaarak ko vishv dharohar soochi mein shaamil kiya gaya hai| inheen yantron ke ganana ke aadhaar par aaj bhi Jaipur ke sthaaneeya panchaang ka prakaashan hota hai aur har baras aashaadh poornima ko khagolashaastriyon dvaara 'pavan dhaarana' prakriya se aane waali varsha ki bhavishyavaani ki jaati hai.

Bhaarat mein jayasinh se poorv, khagolashaastr mein anek dashakon yahaaain tak ki sadiyon se koi 'bada' ya ullekhaneeya kaarya naheen hua tha, savaai ne is saanskrutik-nirvaat ki poorti ki|[40][41]

kalki ka praacheen mandir

kalki ka taamrachitr (18veen shati mein nirmit)

Jaipur (Rajasthan, Bhaarat) ki 'badi chaupad' se aamer ki or jaane waali sadak siredyodhi baajaar mein havaamahal ke lagbhag saamane Bhagwan kalki ka praacheen mandir avasthit hai. Jaipur ke sansthaapak savaai jayasinh ne puraanon mein varnit katha ke aadhaar par kalki ke mandir ka nirmaan san 1739 E. mein daakshinaat-shikhar-shaili mein karaaya tha. sanskrut vidvaan aachaarya devarshi kalaanaath shaastri ke anusaar, "savaai jayasinh sansaar ke aise pehle mahaaraaja rahe hain, jinhonne jis devata ka abhi tak avataar hua naheen, uske baare mein kalpana kar kalki ki moorti banavaakar mandir mein sthaapit karaayi." savaai jayasinh ke tatkaali darabaari kavi shreekrushn bhatt kaviklaanidhi ne apne ”akalki-kaavya“ mein mandir ke nirmaan aur auchitya ka varnan kiya hai. tadnusaar aisa ullekh hai ki savaai jayasinh ne apne pautr ”akalki prasaada“ (savaai ishvari Singh ke putr) jiski asamaya mrutyu ho gayi thi, usaki smruti mein yeh mandir sthaapit karaaya. yahaaain shvet ashv ki pratima sangamaramar mein utkeern hai jo bahut sundar, aakarshak aur sammohak hai. ashv ke chabootare par lage board par yeh ibaarat ankit hai- ”aashv shri kalki mahaaraaj-maanyata- ashv ke baaeain pair mein jo gaddha sa (ghaav) hai, jo svat: bhar raha hai, uske bharne par hi kalki Bhagwan prakat hogein.“[42]

jayagadh ka durg

anek sthaanon par is durg jayagadh ka varnan kiya ja chuka hai, at: punaraavrutti anaavashyak hogi|[4]

samaaj-sudhaarak ke roop mein savaai jayasinh

savaai jayasinh ne sabhi samaajon ke liye parampara sambandhi sudhaar-kaarya kiye. braahman samaaj mein kai sudhaar karte hue vairaagi saadhuon mein vyaapt vyabhichaar mitaane ke liye inhonne unako punarvivaah kar apni patni saath rakhane (gruhasth aashram mein pravesh) ka vidhaan kiya. baadshah se fakeeron va sanyaasiyon ki mrutyu ke baad, unki sampatti raajya ke paksh mein jabt naheen karne ki aajnyaa jaari karavaai, kintu sanyaasiyon ko 'niji sampatti' rakhane se roka. baadshah se anurodh ke baad hinduon par lagaaya gaya puraana bhayankar tax jajiya kar samaapt karavaaya, braahmanon aur raajapooton ke shaadeebyaah aadi mein haisiyat se baahar ja kar dahej dene aur mrutyubhoj aadi saamaajik avsaron par dhan ki barbaadi rokane ki koshish bhi ki. jagah-jagah dharmashaalaaen, kai sanskrut paathashaalaaen aur vidyaalaya khole, vidhva-vivaah ka paksh liya, stri-hatya, kanya-vadh roka, 'sarvadharm samabhaav' ki bhaavana ko badhaava diya, visheshat: Jaipur mein jain sanpradaaya ko protsaahit kiya, Delhi, Agra, anya sthaanon se bade 2 vyaapaariyon ko la kar Jaipur mein basaaya, desh mein ghoom-ghoom kar vidvaanon ki khoj ki, unhein raaj-sammaan baksha, badi 2 jaageerein Dean aur uttar Bhaarat ke samooche hindu-samaaj ko aise kathin vakt baahari aakraantaaon se mukt rakha, jab raajanaitik uthaapatak, kendra mein prashaasanik araajakata aur anek rajputana raajyon ke beech sar-futtaval apne charam par thi|[43]

shaasan-vyavastha

din pratidin ka shaasan raaja ki aajnyaa se unke deevaan chalaate the. deevaanon ya mantriyon ki sankhya raaja ki marji ke mutaabik parivrtanasheel thi. sena sambandhi saara kaam bakhshi ke adhikaar-kshetr mein tha. jab savaai jayasinh gaddi par baithe tab unke teen deevaan raamachandr, kishnadaas aur bihaareedaas the. vi. san. 1757 mein inhone ek deevaan aur badha kar chaar kar diye the. vi. san. 1773-74 mein aath deevaan the.[17] pehle aamer-darbaar ke lekha-vibhaag mein 'junior oditr' ka kaam kar chuke mahaan vaastuvid vidyaadhar chakravarti inke raajasv mantri (ya desh-deevaan) the|[5]

jayagadh kile mein dhaali gayi top jayabaan jiska pareekshan keval ek baar hua aur jisse chhoda gaya lohe ka gola lagbhag 22 kilometer door chaakasoo ke aaspaas ja kar gira tha! : chhaayaakaar: he.she.

kunvar natavar Singh ne likha hai-"yadi jaaton ka abhyudaya na hua hota, to Jaipur ka raajya yamuna-nadi tak fail gaya hota."[44]

Jaipur ke sena ke kuchh sena-adhikaari

jayasinh ke pramukh senaapatiyon mein kushalasinh raajaavat (jhilaaya), kojooraamati raajaavat (isarada), dalelasinh raajaavat (dhoola), raaval sherasinh naathaavat (saamod), mohanasinh naathaavat (chaumoo), bakhatasinh naathaavat (moreeja), padamasinh chaturabhujot (bagaru), shyaamasinh khangaarot (diggi), keshareesinh naruka (ladaana), joraavarasinh naruka (maanapur-maanchedi), sangraamasinh naruka (uniyaara), gajasinh naruka (jaavali), deepasinh shekhaavat (kaasali), shaardoolasinh shekhaavat (jhunjhunoon), shivsinh shekhaavat (seekar), deepasinh kumbhaani (bhaandaarej) joraavarasinh, shyobrahma (pota) aadi the. [6]

sena do prakaar ki hoti thi jaageeradaaron ki sena, jiske ekatrit hone par savaar aur pyaada aadi ke hisaab se rojaana ka kharch diya jaata tha. khud raajya ki aisi sena bahut chhoti hoti thi jisko maasik tanakhvaah di jaati thi. fauj mein ghudsavaar sena bhi apekshakrut kam hoti thi. mukhya angarakshak, 'risaala' hi hota tha jismein ek hajaar ghudsavaar hote the. baaki paidal sena adhik thi. jayasinh ne apni sena mein todedaar bandookein shaamil kar di thi, jisse unki sena ki maarak-shakti bahut badh gayi thi. yadunaath sarkaar ke shabdon mein- "Jai Singh's regular army did not exceed 40,000 men, which would have cost about 60 lakhs a year, but his strength lay in the large number of artillery and copious supply of munitions, which he was careful to maintain and his rule of arming his foot with matchlocks instead of the traditional Rajput sword and shield - He had the wisdom to recognize early the change which firearms had introduced in Indian warfare and to prepare for himself for the new war by raising the fire-power of his army to the maximum"

inka topakhaana bhi bada prabhaavi tatha shaktishaali tha. jayagadh mein hi topein nirmit ki jaati theen| topein dhaalane ka vah 'yantr' aur saanche abhi bhi jayagadh kile ki faaundri mein maujood hai. jayagadh mein rakhi jo badi top 'jaibaan' hai, uske mukaabale ki deshaj topein desh mein bahut kam hai. (chitr)

sena ki bharti, vetan, rasad aadi aavashyak kaaryon ke liye bakhshi ka (bahut mahatvapoorn pad) hota tha.[17]

Jaipur mein savaai jayasinh smaarak :chhaayaakaar: he.she.

nidhan

inke samakaaleen raajadarabaar ke kavi shreekrushnabhatt ne likha hai ki 'yeh antim dinon mein govindadev ke dhyaan mein leen rahane lag gaye the.'[45]

savaai jayasinh ki mrutyu Jaipur mein mein aashvin sudi 14 vi.san. 1800, sitmbar 21, san 1743 i0 ko vruddhaavastha aur beemaar rahane ke baad hui|[46] unhein gaitor mein agni di gayi. inke sattaais raaniyaan thi, jinmein se teen inki chita ke saath sati huin | un raaniyon ki chhatari Jaipur-aamer maarg par (jalamahal se pehle) hai. [47]

James taud ne likha hai- " chavaalees saal tak raajya karke samvat 1799 (san 1743) mein savaai jayasinh ki Jaipur mein mrutyu ho gayi| usaki teen vivaahit raaniyaaain aur anek up patniyaaain uske shav ke saath jal kar sati huin| usane jis vigyaan ki apne jeevan bhar unnati ki thi, usaki mrutyu ke baad vah (Jaipur se) ekaaek lop ho gayi|...jayasinh ki yajnyaashaala ke rajat-pattaron ko uske vanshaj jagatasinh ne niklava kar, unke sthaan par saadhaaran chaandi ke pattar lagava diye| jayasinh ne jin granthon ka sangrah karne mein jeevan bhar atyadhik parishram aur dhan vyaya kiya tha, uske do hisse kar daale gaye| unke pustakaalaya ka ek bhaag kisi prakaar Jaipur ki ek saadhaaran veshya (rasakapoor) ke adhikaar mein pahuainch gaya! "[48]

smaarak aur smruti-chinh

  • savaai jayasinh ka ek behad sundar smaarak inke putr ishvar Singh ne Jaipur mein brahmapuri ke gaitor mein banavaaya![49]
  • Jaipur ke stechoo circle par bangaali moortikaar Mahendra Kumar das se sangamaramar mein banava kar inki 12 feet oonchi ek aakarshak pratima Rajasthan shaasan ne Jaipur shahar ki 250 veen saalagirh ke avsar par 1978 mein sthaapit ki|[50]. [7]
  • savaai jayasinh ki smruti mein nai Delhi mein ek pramukh sadak hai. [8]
  • isi tarah Jaipur ke baneepaark kshetr ki ek pradhaan sadak 'jayasinh highway' kahalaati hai. [9]
  • khagolashaastr ke yogya vidvaanon ko 'savaai jayasinh sammaan' Jaipur ka bhootapoorv raajagharaana prativrsh deta hai. [10]
  • Bhaarat sarkaar ne inke nirmaan jantar-mantar ko Asiaee khelon ke 'prateek-chinh' ke roop mein sveekaar karte is par ek daak ticket 1984 mein jaari kiya tha. [11] . [12]

uttaraadhikaari

inse inke teen putr the-sabse bade, do ladkon ke pita (22 varsheeya) shivsinh, manjhale ishvarasinh aur sab se chhote maadhosinh |[51]

shivsinh ki mrutyu

shivsinh ki mrutyu ka kaaran 'vansh bhaaskar ' ke khyaat-lekhak ne yeh bataaya hai ki manjhale putr ishvarasinh ke ukasaane par savaai jayasinh ne jhar de kar apni raani ke sahayog se swayam apne teekaai putr ki hatya kar di thi, par yadunaath sarkaar jaise itihaasakaar ise 'gapp' maanate hain aur sveekaar naheen karte| unke anusaar " (apne pita ki anupasthiti mein baadshah dvaara banaaye gaye Agra ke soobedaar) shivsinh ki haije (kaulera) se Mathura mein akaal-mrutyu 1724 isvi mein hui thi, jahaaain vah faujadaar pad par the|"[52] jab ki 19 veen sadi ke ant mein likhe granth veer vinod (jise Udaipur raajya ke shaasak mahaaraana sajjan Singh ne mevaad ke praamaanik itihaas lekhan ka uttaradaayitv kaviraaj shyaamaladaas ko saunpa tha) mein yeh likha gaya hai "maadhosinh ne apne bade bhaai shivsinh ko vish de kar maar daala tha|"[52]

savaai jayasinh in teen putron ke alaava do putriyaan bhi theen pehli - vichitr kanvar, jinka vivaah abhayasinh (Jodhpur) aur chhoti kishn kanvar, jinka vivaah boondi ke raaja dalelasinh ke saath hua.[45]

sandarbh

  1. lieutenant Colonel James taud:' Rajasthan ka itihaas' khand-2 : prakaashak- 'saahityaagaar', Jaipur; anuvaad: keshav thaakur : sanskaran 2012
  2. 'Bhaarat: ek khoj': Jawahar laal neharu [ https://archive.org/details/DiscoveryOfIndia]
  3. dau॰ gyaan prakaash pilaaniya, 'Enlightened Government in Modern India: Heritage of Sawai Jai Singh' (heritej of savaai jayasinh) ISBN 8187359161, 9788187359166
  4. 'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : pradhaan-sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 :[pej 203] prakaashak : Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti, nagar vikaas vyaas (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur
  5. dau॰ gyaan prakaash pilaaniya, 'Enlightened Government in Modern India: Heritage of Sawai Jai Singh (heritej of savaai jayasinh)' ISBN 8187359161, ISBN 9788187359166
  6. 'Rajasthan ka itihaas' : gopeenaath sharma : shivlaal Agrawal end company, Agra
  7. Jadunath Sarkar : 'A History of Jaipur' : Orient BlackSwan : Extracts from chapter ' Sawai Jai Singh's Early Career' Page 149
  8. 'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : pradhaan-sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 [pej 203] prakaashak : Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti, nagar vikaas vyaas (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur
  9. Jadunath Sarkar : ' A History of Jaipur' page 149
  10. 'Jaipur-darshan' prakaashak : pradhaan-sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 [prushth 203] prakaashak : 'Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti', Jaipur nagar vikaas nyaas, (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur Page 203
  11. Akhabarat : Jadunath Sarkar :'A History of Jaipur' : Page 147 :
  12. Jadunath Sarkar : Page 149
  13. Jadunath Sarkar : IBID : Page 150
  14. 'ahakaam-A- aalamagiri' : iyaanatulla) sandarbhadaata : yadunaath sarkaar : vahi: prushth 152
  15. yadunaath sarkaar : vahi prushth 152
  16. a aa yadunaath sarkaar : prushth 153
  17. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j jh nya t th [1]
  18. yadunaath sarkaar : prushth 154
  19. lieutenant Colonel James taud: 'Rajasthan ka itihaas' khand-2 : prakaashak- 'saahityaagaar', Jaipur; anuvaad: keshav thaakur : sanskaran 2012
  20. kavishiromani bhatt mathuraanaath shaastri: 'Jaipur-vaibhavam
  21. kavishiromani bhatt mathuraanaath shaastri: 'Jaipur-vaibhavam
  22. sanskrut ke yug-purush: manjunaath': prushth 1 prakaashak: 'manjunaath smruti sansthaan, si-8, pruthveeraaj road, Jaipur-302001
  23. 'Rajasthan ka itihaas' bhaag-2 : lieutenant Colonel James taud, prushth 119 'saahityaagaar' prakaashan, Jaipur
  24. http://msmsmuseum.com/pages.php?id=4
  25. savaai jayasinh : raajeindr shankar bhatt: national book trast (angreji anuvaad: shailesh Kumar jha) 2005 sanskaran
  26. dau॰ gyaan prakaash pilaaniya, 'Enlightened Government in Modern India: Heritage of Sawai Jai Singh' ('heritej of savaai jayasinh') ISBN 8187359161, ISBN 9788187359166
  27. sanskrut ke yug-purush: manjunaath': prakaashak: 'manjunaath smruti sansthaan, Jaipur-302001
  28. 'Rajasthan ka itihaas' : lieutenant Colonel James taud, 'saahityaagaar' prakaashan, Jaipur
  29. savaai jayasinh : raajeindr shankar bhatt: national book trast (angreji anuvaad: shailesh Kumar jha) 2005 sanskaran
  30. {http://www.sanskrit.nic.in/DigitalBook/J/Jaipurvaibhavam.pdf
  31. |https://hi.wikipedia.org/s/ecr
  32. Michiel Schwarz, (1980) Observatoria : de astronomische instrumenten van Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II in New Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain en Benares, Amsterdam : Westland/Utrecht Hypotheekbank
  33. "Sawai Jai Singh and His Astronomy," by Virendra Nath Sharma, Motilal Banarasi Dass Publishers, Delhi (1995)
  34. http://www.google.co.in/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Jai+Singh+II+(Maharaja+of+Jaipur)%22/prushth 2
  35. http://www.google.co.in/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=inauthor:%22Jai+Singh+II+(Maharaja+of+Jaipur)%22
  36. http://www.indiavisitinformation.com/indian-culture/indian-monument/Jantar-Mantar-in-india.shtml
  37. Sharma, Virendra Nath (1995), Sawai Jai Singh and His Astronomy, Motilal Banarsidass Publications
  38. A B Umasankar Mitra (1995) "Astronomical Observatories of Maharaja Jai Singh". School Science (NCERT) 23 (4): 45–48
  39. A B Umasankar Mitra (1995). "Astronomical Observatories of Maharaja Jai Singh".School Science (NCERT) 23 (4): 45–48
  40. Sharma, Virendra Nath (1995), Sawai Jai Singh and His Astronomy, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., pp. 8–9, ISBN 81-208-1256-5
  41. http://www.uwfox.uwc.edu/users/vsharma/paper.html
  42. 'Jaipur-darshan' sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978
  43. 'Jaipur-darshan' sampaadak : [dau॰ prabhudayaal sharma 'sahrudaya'naatyaachaarya] varsh 1978 [pej 203] prakaashak : Jaipur adhaai shati samaaroh samiti, nagar vikaas vyaas (ab Jaipur vikaas praadhikran) parisar, bhavaani Singh maarg, Jaipur
  44. natavar Singh : hindi anuvaad : raadhaakrushn prakaashan, Delhi se 2006 mein prakaashit charchit pustak 'mahaaraaja soorajamal'(pratham prakaashan : ingleind se moolat: angreji mein)[2]
  45. a aa 'ishvar vilaas' mahaakaavya, Rajasthan praachyavidya pratishthaan, Jodhpur
  46. yadunaath sarkaar : vahi : prushth 192
  47. http://www.pinkcity.com/hi/places-to-visit/queens-canopies/
  48. 'Rajasthan ka itihaas' bhaag-2 : lieutenant Colonel James taud, prushth 119 'saahityaagaar' prakaashan, Jaipur
  49. savaai jayasinh : raajeindr shankar bhatt: national book trast (angreji anuvaad: shailesh Kumar jha) 2005 sanskaran]
  50. https://hi.wikipedia.org/s/nrh
  51. 'Jaipur-darshan'
  52. a aa Jadunath Sarkar : 'A History of Jaipur' : Orient BlackSwan, Page 193
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  • 'Zīaj Jadīad Muhammad Shāahī', M. S. Add. 14370: f. 1. Dept. Oriental MSS., The British Library London, England.

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