saur panel

ek fotovoltik maudyool vyaktigat PV (PV) koshikaaon se bana hai. is kristaleeya silikaun maudyool ek elyoomeeniym aur kaanch ke morche par frem hai.
ISS (ISS) par ek PV (PV) maudyool.

ek saur panel (fotovoltik maudyool ya fotovoltik panel) saur selon (baitariyon) ka ek sankulit paraspar sambaddh sanyojan hai, jinhein fotovoltik selon ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai. saur panel ka prayog ek bade fotovoltik pranaali mein ek ghatak ke roop mein vaanijyik aur aavaaseeya anuprayogon ke liye bijli pradaan karne ke liye kiya jaata hai.

kyonki ek ekal saur panel keval ek seemit maatra mein vidyut-shakti ka utpaadan kar sakte hain, kai pratishthaanon mein alag-alag panel hote hain. ise ek fotovoltik shrrunkhala kaha jaata hai. ek fotovoltik sansthaapan mein aamtaur saur painalon ki ek shrunkhala, ek inavartar, baitariyaan aur ant:sanbandh vaayaring hota hai.

fotovoltik pranaaliyon ka prayog on-grid ya of-grid anuprayogon aur antariksh yaan par saur painalon ke liye kiya jaata hai.

anukram

siddhaant aur nirmaan

inhein bhi dekhein: Photovoltaic cell
ek panel mein PV (PV) koshikaaen.

saur panel fotovoltik prabhaav (yeh prakaash-vidyut prabhaav hai) ke maadhyam se vidyut utpaadan karne ke liye soorya se praapt prakaash oorja (fotaun) ka upayog karte hain. ek maudyool ka sanrachanaatmak (bhaar vahan karne vaale) sadasya ya to sheersh parat (adhistar) ya pichhla star (adh:star) ho sakta hai. adhikaansh maudyool vefr-aadhaarit kristaleeya silikaun sel ya kaidamiym telyuraaid ya silikaun aadhaarit ek patali-jhilli waali sel ka prayog karti hain. kristaleeya silikaun, jise aamtaur par fotovoltik (PV) maudyulon mein vefr ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata, silikaun se praapt hota hai, jo aam taur par istemaal kiya jaane wala arddh-chaalak hota hai.

vyaavahaarik anuprayogon mein selon (baitariyon) ka upayog karne ke liye, unhein:

  • vidyuteeya roop se ek-doosare se evam shesh pranaali se sanyojit kiya jaana chaahiye
  • vinirmaan, parivhan, sthaapana aur upayog (vishesh roop se ole, pavan evam himpaat ke viruddh) ke dauraan yaantrik kshati se suraksha pradaan karna chaahiye. yeh vishesh roop se vefr-aadhaarit silikaun baitariyon ke liye mahatvapoorn hoti hai jo bhangur hote hain.
  • nami se suraksha pradaan karna chaahiye, jo dhaatu ke sanparkon se sankshaarit hote hain aur paraspar sanyojit hote hain, (aur patali-jhilli waali selon (baitariyon) ke liye paaradarshi suchaalak oksaaid parat) is prakaar pradarshan aur jeevanakaal mein kami laate hain.

adhikaansh maudyool aamtaur par kathor hote hain, lekin patali jhilliyon waali selon (baitariyon) par aadhaarit kuchh lacheele maudyool upalabdh hote hain.

ek vaanchhit vidyut aautaput voltej praapt karne ke liye shreniyon mein vidyut sanyojan kiye jaate hain aur/ya ek vaanchhit parimaan mein vidyut srot kshamata pradaan karne ke liye samaanaantar roop mein vidyut sanyojan kiye jaate hain.

aanshik chhaayaankan ki sthiti mein selon (baitariyon) ko atyadhik garm hone se bachaane ke liye daayodon ko shaamil kiya jaata hai. choonki sel (baitari) ke taapan (garm karne) se parichaalan sambandhi kaaryakshamata mein kami hoti hai taapan kam se kam karna vaanchhaneeya hai. bahut kam maudyool taapamaan kam karne ke liye kisi design visheshataaon ko apnaate hain, haalaanki sansthaapak maudyool ke peechhe achha sanvaatan pradaan karne ki koshish karte hain.[1]

maudyool ke nae dijaainon mein sankeindrak maudyools shaamil hote hain jismein prakaash ko leinson ya darpanon ki ek shrunkhalaaon ke dvaara chhoti baitariyon ki ek shrunkhalaaon mein sankeindrit kiya jaata hai. yeh pratisparddhaatmak-laagat ke roop mein prati ikaai kshetr (gailiym aarsenaaid ke jaisa) ek bahut uchch-laagat ke saath baitariyon ke upayog ki anumati pradaan karta hai.

nirmaan par nirbhar karte hue, fotovoltik prakaash ki vibhinn kism ki aavruttiyon ko shaamil kar sakta hai aur unase vidyut ka utpaadan kar sakta hai, lekin kabhi-kabhi sampoorn saur varnakram (vishesh roop se, paraabaingani, avarakt aur nimn ya visrit prakaash) ko shaamil naheen kar sakta hai. isliye adhikaansh ghatnaaon mein saur painalon ke liye istemaal kiye jaane par soorya ke prakaash se praapt oorja barbaad ho jaati hai, haalaanki ekaranga prakaash ke dvaara prakaashit karne par ve kaheen adhik uchchatar aavruttiyaan de sakti hain. design sambandhi ek anya avadhaarana prakaash ko vibhinn tarang dairdhya shreniyon mein vibhaajit karna evam aur kiran punj ko upayukt tarang dairdhya shreniyon anusaar nirmit vibhinn baitariyon mein bhejana hai.[2] isse dakshata mein 50% tak ki vruddhi hone ka anumaan hai. iske alaava, avarakt fotovoltik selon ke upayog se raat mein vidyut ke utpaadan ke dvaara kshamata mein vruddhi ho sakti hai.

soorya ke prakaash ki roopaantaran dar (maudyool kshamataaen) vaanijyik utpaadan (saur panel) mein 5-18% tak bhinn ho sakti hai, jo sel roopaantaran se kam ho sakti hain.

kushal saur oorja maudyool mein baajaar ka maujooda neta san power (SunPower) hai, jinke saur painalon ke roopaantaran ka anupaat 19.3% hai,[3] jismein se 20.4% ke saath sainyo (Sanyo) sabse kushal maudyool hai.[4] haalaanki, anya companiyon ki sampoorn kismein (haulo san, gaama solar, nainohauraaijns) ubhar rahi hain jo 18% ke roopaantaran anupaat ke saath fotovoltik maudyulon mein naveenataaen pesh kar rahi hain. in naveen prayogon mein shaamil hain agale evam pichhle kinaaron se vidyut utpaadan aur badhe hue aautaput, haalaanki, inmein se adhikaansh companiyon ne abhi tak apne design yojanaaon se kaarya vyavastha ka utpaadan ab tak naheen kiya hai, evam unamein se adhikaansh abhi bhi takaneek mein sakriya roop se sudhaar kar rahe hain.

kristaleeya silikaun maudyool

vartamaan mein adhikaansh saur maudyool PV (PV) selon se taiyaar kiye jaate hain. unhein ya to ekal kristaleeya ya bahu kristaleeya maudyulon mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai.

patali jhilliyon vaale maudyool

teesari peedhi ke saur sel unnat patali jhilliyon vaale sel hote hain. ve kam laagat par uchch dakshata vaale roopaantaran sambhav karte hain.

kathor patali jhilliyon vaale maudyool

patali jhilliyon vaale maudyulon mein, sel evam maudyool ek hi nirmaan pranaali mein taiyaar kiye jaate hain.

sel ko ek kaanch ke adh:star ya adhistar par taiyaar kiya jaata hai, evam vidyuteeya sanyojan yathaavat, ek tathaakathit "ekaashm ekeekaran", taiyaar kiye jaate hain. adh:star ya adhistar ke aage ya peechhe ke falak par sanputak ki parat chadhaai jaati hai, jo aamtaur par kaanch ki ek pattar hoti hai.

is shreni mein mukhya sel takaneek CdTe, ya a-Si, ya a-Si+UC-Si agraanukram, ya CIGS (ya char) hain. aakaaraheen (akristaleeya) silikaun mein soorya ke prakaash se roopaantaran karne ki dar 6-12% hoti hai.

lacheele patali jhilli vaale maudyool

lacheele patali jhilli vaale maudyool ka nirmaan ek hi utpaadan pranaali mein ek lacheele adh: star (sabastret) par prakaash dvaara sahaj prabhaavit hone vaale parat evam anya aavashyak parat lagaakar kiya jaata hai.

agar adh: star (sabsatret) ek ooshmaarodhi (jaise ki ek pauliyestar ya paulimaaid jhilli hoti hai) to ekaashm ekeekaran ka prayog kiya ja sakta hai.

agar yeh taap ya vidyut ka ek chaalak hota hai to vidyut sanyojan ke liye ek-doosare takaneek ka istemaal kiya jaana chaahiye.

selon ke agr bhaag (aam taur par ETFE ya FEP) ke oopar ek paaradarshi rangaheen floro pauleemar aur doosare bhaag mein antim adh: star (sabsatret) ke bandh ke liye upayukt pauleemar ki parat lagaakar maudyulon mein sammilit kiya jaata hai. vaanijyik roop se ek maatr upalabdh (megawatt parimaanon mein) lacheela maudyool aakaaraheen (akristaleeya) silikaun tripl jankshan (yooneesolar se) ka upayog karta hai.

tathaakathit mishrit ardhachaalak praudyogiki ke aadhaar par nirmit ulte roopaantarit bahu jankshan (IMM) waali saur sel (baitariyaan) July 2008 mein hi vyaavasaayik ban rahi hain. Michigan vishvavidyaalaya ki saur baitari chaalit car, jisne July 2008 mein uttari ameriki saur chunauti jeeti, ne I M M (IMM) ki patali jhilli waali lacheeli saur selon (baitariyon) ka istemaal kiya.

aavaaseeya aur vaanijyik kaaryon ki aavashyakataaen alag-alag hain jismein ki aavaaseeya jaroorate saral hoti hain aur unhein paik kiya ja sakta hai jisse ki saur sel mein praudyogiki ki pragati ho, anya aadhaar rekha upakaran jaise ki baitari, inavartar aur voltej sanvedan hastaantaran svich ko aavaaseeya istemaal ke liye abhi bhi susanbaddh evam ikaaiyon mein vargeekrut karne ki jarurat hai. seva ke aakaar ke aadhaar par vaanijyik upayog fotovoltik sel kshetr mein seemit ho jaaega aur adhik jatil aur paravalayik paraavartak tatha saur sankeindrak pramukh praudyogiki bante ja rahe hain.

vaishvik lacheela aur patali jhilli wala fotovoltik (PV) baajaar ke dvaara, samagr pi.vi. udyog mein saavadhaani ke baavajood, 2019 mein 35% se adhik ke si A ji aar (CAGR) ka anubhav kiye jaane ki aasha hai, jo intaratekapeera dvaara kiye gaye nae adhyayan ke anusaar 32GW se adhik ho jaaega.[5]

maudyool ant:sthaapit electronics

inhein bhi dekhein: Microinverter

kai companiyon ne pi vi (PV) maudyulon mein electronics ko ant:sthaapit karna shuroo kar diya hai. yeh vyaktigat roop se pratyek maudyool ke liye adhiktam power point traiking (emapeepeeti) aur maudyool star par nigraani ke liye pradarshan deta ki maap evam galati ka pata lagaana sambhav banaata hai. inmein se kuchh pranaaliyaan vidyut optimaaijrs ka upayog karaati hain. yeh ek disht dhaara se doosari disht dhaara mein parivrtit karne waali praudyogiki hai jiska vikaas saur fotovoltik pranaali se adhik se adhik bijli praapt karne ke liye kiya gaya hai.

maudyool ka pradarshan aur jeevan avadhi

aam taur par maudyool ke pradarshan ka nirdhaaran maanak pareekshan sthitiyon (esateesi) ke adheen kiya jaata hai: vidyutchumbakeeya oorja ka utsarjan 1,000 vaat prati varg meter (W/m²), 1.5 vaayu dravyamaan (AM) ka spectrum aur maudyool taapamaan 25 degree celcius.

vidyuteeya visheshataaon mein saanketik shakti (PMAX, jise W mein maapa jaata hai), khuli paripth voltata (VOC), laghu paripth dhaara (ISC, jise aimpiyr mein maapa jaata hai), adhiktam shakti voltata (VMPP), adhiktam shakti dhaara (IMPP) evam maudyool dakshata (%) shaamil hain .

kWp mein, kW kilovaat hai aur p ka arth "peek" jaise ki peek pradarshan hai. haalaanki "pi" peek pradarshan naheen karta hai balki esateesi ke anusaar adhiktam adhiktam utpaadan karta hai.[6]

saur painalon ko kai varshon tak taap, thand, baarish aur olon ka saamana karna padega. kai kristaleeya silikaun maudyool nirmaata vaaranti ki peshakash karte hain jo 10 varshon ke liye 90% ki nirdhaarit shakti utpaadan ke saath aur 25 varshon tak 80% ki nirdhaarit shakti utpaadan ke saath vidyut utpaadan ki guaranty deta hai.[7][8]

utpaadan

2009 mein 7.5 geega vaat (GW) ke sansthaapan poore kar liye gaye. aaiemaes research ka anumaan hai ki PV (PV) maudyool ke pot ladaan ki sankhyaaen bahut adhik thi. teji se falate-foolate Europeeya baajaaron jaise ki Germany Italy, France aur check ganaraajya mein 2010 ke pratham timaahi mein sampoorn ho chuke sansthaapanon ki aavashyakta-poorti karne ke liye record parimaan mein maudyulon ke bhejane ke kaaran pot ladaanon ki sankhyaaen sansthaapanon se adhik ho gayi.[9]

sheersh das

ek geega vaat (GW) se adhik maudyulon ko bhejane aur udyog ke sabse bade aapoortikrta banaane ke liye apne sabhi kristaleeya pratidvandviyon se aage nikalte hue, patali jhilli ke agrani nirmaata first solar ne 2009 mein pi. vi. maudyool aapoortikrtaaon ki soochi mein sheersh sthaan praapt kiya.[9]

2009 sheersh das aapoortikrta rahe hain:[9]

  1. first solar
  2. sanatek
  3. sharp[10]
  4. yingali
  5. trina solar
  6. san power kaurporeshan
  7. kyon sera kaurporeshan
  8. kanediyn solar inkaurporet[11]
  9. solar world eji
  10. sainyo ilektrik[12]

moolya

inhein bhi dekhein: Grid parity

ausat moolya jaankaari teen moolya vargon mein vibhaajit hai: chhote parimaanon mein khareedne vaale kreta (kilovaat shreni mein vaarshik roop se sabhi aakaaron vaale maudyool), maadhyam-shreni ke kreta (aam taur par 10 megawatt peek tak vaarshik roop se), evam bade parimaanon mein khareedne vaale kreta (svat: spasht - evam nimnatam moolyon tak pahunch).lambi avadhi tak - aur keval lambi avadhi mein, selon evam maudyulon ke moolya mein ek vyavasthit kami hai. udaaharan ke liye 1998 mein yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya tha ki prati vaat maatra laagat lagbhag 4.50 dollar thi, jo 1970 mein 150 dollar ki laagat se 33 guna kam thi.[13][14]

aaraemaaai (RMI), baileins of system (bi O S) tatvon ke baad, gair-maaikroinavartar saur painalon ki gair maudyool laagat (jaise ki vaayaring, parivrtak, racking vyavasthaaen evam vibhinn ghatak) sansthaapanon ki kul laagaton ke lagbhag aadhe hisson ki poorti karte hain. iske alaava, maanakeekrut karne waali praudyogikiyaan saur painalon ko adhik se adhik protsaahan aur badle mein, bikri ki kifaayat ke adhik se adhik angeekaran ko protsaahit kar sakte hain.

aalanban pranaaliyaan

traikars

saur traikars prati panel utpaadit oorja ki maatra mein vruddhi karte hain.

sthaapit kiye hue raik

jab soorya aakaash mein ek taraf se doosari taraf jaata hai to sthaapit kiye hue raik painalon ko ek hi sthaan mein sanbhaal kar rakhate hain.

sthaapit kiye hue raik kon ko nirdhaarit karte hain jis par panel ko sanbhaal kar rakha jaata hai. sansthaapan ke akshaansh ke samaan kon ka jhukaav aam baat hai.

maanak

fotovoltik painalon mein aamtaur par prayukt hone vaale maanak hain:

  • aaiisi 61215 (kristaleeya silikaun pradarshan), 61,646 (patali jhilli ka pradarshan) aur 61,730 (sabhi maudyool, suraksha)
  • ISO 9488 saur oorja - shabdaavali.
  • yooel 1703
  • seei (CE) nishaan
  • vidyut suraksha pareekshak (iesati) shrrunkhala (EST-460, EST-22V, EST-22h, EST-110).

fotovoltik maudyulon ke saath upakaran

bijli ke jin upakaranon mein saur panel shaamil hote hain ve hain:

  • saur sel phone: sharp ne ghoshana ki ki usaki pehli saur-chaalit sel phone 2009 ki garmiyon mein jaari kiya jaaega.[15]
  • saur laimp
  • saur notabuk: I yunika pratham saur chaalit notabuk, meet gaai (Meet Gyy) banaane ja rahi hai.[16]
  • saur-panpit lejar
  • saur vaahan
  • saur vimaan

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/e' not found.

  • nirmaan ekeekrut fotovoltik (BIPV).
  • safaai ghatna (maars eksaploreshan rovar fenomenan)
  • vitrit inavartar nirmaan
  • oorja ki ghareloo khapat; niji gharon ke liye oorja sambandhi aavashyakta ki aapoorti karta hai jiski jarurat apne swayam ke PV saur panel sthaapit karne ki soch rakhane vaale kisi bhi vyakti ko ho sakti hai
  • ooshmaarodhi chamak
  • micro-inavartar
  • moor ka niyam
  • fotovoltik vidya jaise anuprayog
  • fotovoltik shrrunkhala
  • fotovoltik sel
  • fotovoltik pranaali
  • fotovoltik companiyon ki soochi
  • smart grid
  • saur path
  • saur vaahan
  • adhistar
  • yoovi mein giraavat

sandarbh

  1. http://www.kpsec.freeuk.com/components/diode.htm
  2. esateeo (STO): bahut uchch kushal saur sel
  3. http://www.sunpowercorp.com/Products-and-Services/~/media/Downloads/for_products_services/spwr_315ewh_com_en.ashxtj
  4. http://us.sanyo.com/dynamic/product/Downloads/solarPower_HIT_Double_195_Data_Sheet-13054720.pdf
  5. "Global flexible and thin-film PV market expected to reach US$58b in 2019,reports by IntertechPira study". Globalsolartechnology. 2009-09-11. http://globalsolartechnology.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3981&Itemid=9.
  6. http://www.solarworld.de/Solar-ABC.123.0.html?&L=1
  7. http://www.ibersolar.com/admin/uploads/archivos/425/E-FV069.pdf
  8. http://www.cti-solar.com/userfiles/file/brochlet%20CTI-SOLAR%20vers%20EN.pdf
  9. a aa i http://www.pvmarketresearch.com/press-details.php?id=18
  10. http://www.sharp-solar.com/index.html?
  11. http://www.canadian-solar.com
  12. http://solar.sanyo.com/
  13. Harnessing Light. National Research Council. 1998. pp. 162. http://books.google.com/books?id=FJEuCAXw8B8C&lpg=PA162&dq=%22solar%20panel%20cost%20per%20watt%22&pg=PA162#v=onepage&q=&f=true.
  14. Paula Mints (24 September 2009). "Module Pricing: Rational, Or Just Plain Nuts?". Photovoltaics World Magazine. http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/09/module-pricing-rational-or-just-plain-nuts?cmpid=WNL-Friday-September25-2009.
  15. http://setenergy.org/2009/04/21/transition-from-coal-to-solar-powered-cell-phones-this-summer/
  16. http://www.pcworld.com/article/164943/meet_gyy_the_first_solar_powered_netbook.html

baahari links