saur oorja

yooesae ke California ke saan barnaardino mein 354 MW wala SEGS saur kampleks

saur oorja vah urja hai jo seedhe soorya se praapt ki jaati hai. saur oorja hi mausam evam jalavaayu ka parivartan karti hai. yaheen dharati par sabhi prakaar ke jeevan (ped-paudhe aur jeev-jantu) ka sahaara hai.

vaise to saur urja ke vividh prakaar se prayog kiya jaata hai, kintu soorya ki urja ko vidyut urja mein badalne ko hi mukhya roop se saur urja ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. soorya ki urja ko do prakaar se vidut urja mein badla ja sakta hai. pehla prakaash-vidyut sel ki sahaayata se aur doosra kisi taral padaarth ko soorya ki ushma se garm karne ke baad isse vidyut janitr chalaakar

anukram

visheshataaeain

saur oorja : soorya ek divya shakti srotashaant va paryaavaran suhrud prakruti ke kaaran naveekaraneeya saur oorja ko logon ne apni sanskruti va jeevan yaapan ke tareeke ke samaroop paaya hai. vigyaan va sanskruti ke ekeekaran tatha sanskruti va praudyogiki ke upaskaron ke prayog dvaara saur oorja bhavishya ke liye Akshay oorja ka srot saabit hone waali hai.

soorya se seedhe praapt hone waali oorja mein kai khaas visheshataaen hain. jo is srot ko aakarshak banaati hain. inmein iska atyadhik vistaarit hona, apradooshanakaari hona va akshun hona pramukh hain. sampoorn bhaarateeya bhoobhaag par 5000 lakh karod kilovaat ghanta prati varg mee0 ke baraabar saur oorja aati hai jo ki vishv ki sampoorn vidyut khapat se kai gune adhik hai. saaf dhoop vaale (bina dhundh va baadal ke) dinon mein pratidin ka ausat saur-oorja ka sampaat 4 se 7 kilovaat ghanta prati varg meter tak hota hai. desh mein varsh mein lagbhag 250 se 300 din aise hote hain jab soorya ki roshani poore din bhar upalabdh rahati hai.

upayog

saur painel dvaara chaalit computer

saur oorja, jo roshani va ushma donon roopon mein praapt hoti hai, ka upayog kai prakaar se ho sakta hai. saur ushma ka upayog anaaj ko sukhaane, jal ushman, khaana pakaane, prasheetan, jal parishkaran tatha vidyut oorja utpaadan hetu kiya ja sakta hai. photo voltaayik pranaali dvaara soorya ke prakaash ko vidyut mein roopaantarit karke prakaash praapt ki ja sakti hai, prasheelan ka kaarya kiya ja sakta hai, doorabhaash, television, radio aadi chalaae ja sakte hain, tatha pankhe va jal-pamp aadi bhi chalaae ja sakte hain.

jal ka ushman

saur oorja se garam jal ki praapti

saur-ushma par aadhaarit praudyogiki ka upayog ghareloo, vyaapaarik va audyogik istemaal ke liye jal ko garam karne mein kiya ja sakta hai. desh mein pichhle do dashakon se saur jal-ushmak banaae ja rahe hain. lagbhag 4,50,000 vargameetar se adhik kshetrafal ke saur jal ushma sangraahak sansthaapit kiye ja chuke hain jo pratidin 220 lakh liter jal ko 60-70° se0 tak garam karte hain. Bhaarat sarkaar ka apaaramparik oorja srot mantraalaya is oorja ke upayog ko protsaahan dene hetu praudyogiki vikaas, pramaanan, aarthik evam vitteeya protsaahan, jan-prachaar aadi kaaryakram chala raha hai. iske falasvaroop praudyogiki ab lagbhag paripkvata praapt kar chuki hai tatha iski dakshata aur aarthik laagat mein bhi kaafi sudhaar hua hai. vruhad paimaane par kshetr-parikshanon dvaara yeh saabit ho chuka hai ki aavaaseeya bhavanon, restaraaon, hotelon, aspataalon va vibhinn udyogon (khaadya parishkaran, aushadhi, vastr, dibba bandi, aadi) ke liye yeh ek uchit praudyogiki hai.

jab ham saur ushmak se jal garm karte hain to isse uchch aavashyakta vaale samay mein bijli ki bachat hoti hai. 100 liter kshamata ke 1000 ghareloo saur jal-ushmakon se ek megawatt bijli ki bachat hoti hai. saath hi 100 liter ki kshamata ke ek saur ushmak se kaarban daai aaksaaid ke utsarjan mein prativrsh 1.5 tan ki kami hogi. in sanyantron ka jeevan-kaal lagbhag 15-20 varsh ka hai.

saur-paachak (solar kukar) saur ushma dvaara khaana pakaane se vibhinn prakaar ke paramparaagat indhanon ki bachat hoti hai. box paachak, vaashp-paachak va ushma bhandaarak prakaar ke evam bhojan paachak, saamudaayik paachak aadi prakaar ke saur-paachak viksit kiye ja chuke hain. aise bhi box paachak viksit kiye gaye hain jo barasaat ya dhundh ke dinon mein bijli se khaana pakaane hetu prayog kiye ja sakte hain. abatak lagbhag 4,60,000 saur-paachak bikri kiye ja chuke hain.

saur vaayu ushman sooraj ki garmi ke prayog dvaara kataai ke pashchaat krushi utpaadon va anya padaarthon ko sukhaane ke liye upakaran viksit kiye gaye hain. in paddhatiyon ke prayog dvaara khule mein anaajon va anya utpaadon ko sukhaate samay hone vaale nuksaan kam kiye ja sakte hain. chai pattiyon, lakdi, masaale aadi ko sukhaane mein inka vyaapak prayog kiya ja raha hai.

saur sthaapatya kisi bhi aavaaseeya va vyaapaarik bhavan ke liye yeh aavashyak hai ki usamein nivaas karne vaale vyaktiyon ke liye vah sukhakar ho. ``saur-sthaapatya vastut: jalavaayu ke saath saamanjasya rakhane wala sthaapatya hai. bhavan ke antargat bahut si Abhinav vishishtataaon ko samaahit kar jaade va garmi donon rituon mein jalavaayu ke prabhaav ko kam kiya ja sakta hai. iske chalte paramparaagat oorja (bijli va indhan) ki bachat ki ja sakti hai.

aaditya saur kaaryashaalaaeain Bhaarat sarkaar ke apaaramparik oorja srot mantraalaya ke sahayog se desh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein ``aaditya saur kaaryashaalaaeain sthaapit ki ja rahi hain naveekaraneeya oorja upakaranon ki bikri, rakharakhaav, marammat evam tatsambandhi soochana ka prachaar-prasaar inka mukhya kaarya hoga. sarkaar is hetu ekamusht dhan aur do varshon tak kuchh aavarti raashi upalabdh karaati hai. yeh apeksha rakhi gayi hai ki ye kaaryashaalaaeain graahak-suhrud roop se kaarya kareingi evam apne liye dhan swayam jutaaengi.

saur photo voltaayik kaaryakram saur photo voltaayik tareeke se oorja, praapt karne ke liye soorya ki roshani ko semeekandaktar ki bani solaar sel par daal kar bijli paida ki jaati hai. is pranaali mein soorya ki roshani se seedhe bijli praapt kar kai prakaar ke kaarya sampaadit kiye ja sakte hain.

Bhaarat un agrani deshon mein se ek hai jahaaain photo voltaayik pranaali praudyogiki ka samuchit vikaas kiya gaya hai evam is praudyogiki par aadhaarit vidyut utpaadak ikaaiyon dvaara anek prakaar ke kaarya sampann kiye ja rahe hain. desh mein nau companyon dvaara saur selon ka nirmaan kiya ja raha hai evam baais dvaara fotovoltaayik maadyoolon ka. lagbhag 50 companiyaan photo voltaayik pranaaliyon ke abhiklpan, samanvayan va aapoorti ke kaaryakramon se sakriya roop se judi huyi hain. san 1996-99 ke dauraan desh mein 9.5 megawatt ke photo voltaayik maadyool nirmit kiye gaye. abatak lagbhag 600000 vyaktigat fotovoltaayik pranaaliyaan (kul kshamata 40 megawatt) sansthaapit ki ja chuki hain. Bhaarat sarkaar ka apaaramparik oorja srot mantraalaya saur laalaten, saur-gruh, saur saarvajanik prakaash pranaali, jal-pamp, evam graameen kshetron ke liye ekal fotovoltaayik oorja sanyantron ke vikaas, sansthaapana aadi ko protsaahit kar raha hai.

photo voltaayik pranaali maadyoolar prakaar ki hoti hai. inmein kisi prakaar ke jeevaashm urja ki khapat naheen hoti hai tatha inka rakh rakhaav va parichaalan sugam hai. saath hi ye paryaavaran suhrud hain. doorasth sthaanon, registaani ilaakon, pahaadi kshetron, dveepon, jangali ilaakon aadi, jahaaain prachalit grid pranaali dvaara bijli aasaani se naheen pahuainch sakti hai, ke liye yeh pranaali aadarsh hai. ataev photo voltaayik pranaali doorasth durgam sthaanon ki dasha sudhaarane mein atyant upayogi hai.

saur laalaten saur laalaten ek halka dhoya ja sakane waali photo voltaayik tantr hai. iske antargat laalaten, rakh rakhaav rahit baitari, ilektraanik niyantrak pranaali, va 7 vaat ka chhota fluoresent laimp yukt maadyool tatha ek 10 vaat ka photo voltaayik maadyool aata hai. yeh ghar ke andar va ghar ke baahar pratidin 3 se 4 ghante tak prakaash de sakane mein saksham hai. kiraasin aadhaarit laalaten, dhibri, petromaiks aadi ka yeh ek aadarsh vikalp hai. inki tarah na to isse dhuaaain niklata hai, na aag lagne ka khatra hai aur na svaasthya ka. abatak lagbhag 2,50,000 ke upar saur laalatene desh ke graameen ilaakon mein kaaryarat hain.

saur jal-pamp photo voltaayik pranaali dvaara peene va sinchaai ke liye kuon aadi se jal ka pamp kiya jaana Bhaarat ke liye ek atyant upayogi pranaali hai. saamaanya jal pamp pranaali mein 900 vaat ka photo vaaltaayik maadyool, ek motor yukt pamp evam anya aavashyak upakaran hote hain. abatak 4,500 se upar saur jal pamp sansthaapit kiye ja chuke hain.

graameen vidyuteekaran (ekal bijli ghar) fotovoltaayik selon par aadhaarit in bijli gharon se grid star ki bijli graamavaasiyon ko pradaan ki ja sakti hai. in bijli gharon mein anekon saur selon ke samooh, storej baitari evam anya aavashyak niyantrak upakaran hote hain. bijli ko gharon mein vitrit karne ke liye sthaaneeya saur grid ki aavashyakta hoti hai. in sanyantron se grid star ki bijli vyaktigat aavaason, saamudaayik bhavanon va vyaapaarik kendron ko pradaan ki ja sakti hai. inki kshamata 1.25 kilovaat tak hoti hai. abatak lagbhag ek megawatt ki kul kshamata ke aise sanyantr desh ke vibhinn hisson mein lagaae ja chuke hain. inmein uttar pradesh, desh ka uttar poorvi kshetr, lakshadveep, Bengal ka saagar dweep, va andamaan nikobaar dweep samooh pramukh hain.

saarvajanik saur prakaash pranaali graameen ilaakon mein saarvajanik sthaanon evam galiyon, sadkon aadi par prakaash karne ke liye ye uttam prakaash srot hai. ismein 74 vaat ka ek photo voltaayik maadyool, ek 75 ampeeyar-ghanta ki kam rakh-rakhaav waali baitari tatha 11 vaat ka ek fluoresent laimp hota hai. shaam hote hi yeh apne aap jal jaata hai aur praat:kaal bujh jaata hai. desh ke vibhinn bhaagon mein abatak 40,000 se adhik ikaaiyaan lagaayi ja chuki hai.

ghareloo saur pranaali ghareloo saur pranaali ke antargat 2 se 4 balb (ya tube laait) jalaae ja sakte hain, saath hi isse chhota deesi pankha aur ek chhota television 2 se 3 ghante tak chalaae ja sakte hain. is pranaali mein 37 vaat ka photo voltaayik painel va 40 anpiyr-ghanta ki alp rakh-rakhaav waali baitari hoti hai. graameen upayog ke liye is prakaar ki bijli ka srot grid star ki bijli ke mukaabale kaafi achha hai. abatak pahaadi, jangali va registaani ilaakon ke lagbhag 1,00,000 gharon mein yeh pranaali lagaayi ja chuki hai.

antararaashtreeya antariksh station ke saur painel

kamiyaan

saur oorja ki kai pareshaaniyaan bhi hoti hain. vyaapak paimaane par bijli nirmaan ke liye painalon par bhaari nivesh karna padta hai. doosra, duniya mein anek sthaanon par soorya ki roshani kam aati hai, isliye vahaan solar panel kaaragar naheen hain. teesara, solar panel barasaat ke mausam mein jyaada bijli naheen bana paate. fir bhi visheshagyon ka mat hai ki bhavishya mein saur oorja ka adhikaadhik prayog hoga. Bhaarat ke pradhaanamantri ne haal mein silikaun valley ki tarah Bhaarat mein solar valley banaane ki ichha jataai hai.

vishv ke vibhinn deshon mein saur oorja ka vikaas evam vartamaan sthiti

nimnalikhit saarani mein vibhinn deshon mein lage prakaash-vidyut sel ki kshamata (megawatt) mein di gayi hai-

kshetr 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 vruddhi
2013/2012
hissedaari
Niemcy 2899 4170 6120 9914 17 320 25 039 32 643 35 500 8,8% 26,0%
cheen 80 100 140 300 800 3300 8300 18 300 120,5% 13,4%
Właochy 50 120 458 1181 3502 12 803 16 241 17 600 8,4% 12,9%
Japan 1709 1919 2144 2627 3618 4914 6914 13 600 96,7% 9,9%
yooesae 624 831 1169 1616 2534 3966 7312 12 000 64,1% 8,8%
Hiszpania 148 705 3463 3523 3915 4260 4532 5566 22,8% 4,1%
France 44 75 180 335 1054 2660 3692 4632 25,5% 3,4%
Australia 70 83 105 188 571 1408 2408 3255 35,2% 2,4%
Belgia 4 27 108 627 1044 2051 2650 2983 12,6% 2,2%
Wielka Brytania 14 18 23 26 70 976 1655 2900 75,2% 2,1%
yoonaan 7 8 18 55 205 624 1536 2579 67,9% 1,9%
Bhaarat 30 31 71 101 161 481 1176 2319 97,2% 1,7%
Czechy 1 3 64 462 1952 1959 2072 2162 4,3% 1,6%
Korea Połaudniowa 36 81 358 524 656 812 1064 1476 38,7% 1,1%
Canada 21 26 33 95 291 559 827 1210 46,3% 0,9%
bulgaariya 0 0 1 7 35 141 908 1020 12,3% 0,7%
Szwajcaria 30 36 48 74 111 211 410 740 80,5% 0,5%
haulaind 52 53 57 68 88 131 256 650 153,9% 0,5%
Ukraine 0 0 0 0 0 140 326 616 89,0% 0,5%
ostriya 26 28 32 53 96 187 422 580 37,4% 0,4%
Dania 3 3 3 5 7 17 392 532 35,7% 0,4%
Słaowacja 0 0 0 0 148 508 523 524 0,2% 0,4%
israayal 1 2 3 25 70 190 250 420 68,0% 0,3%
Portugal 3 18 68 102 131 144 212 284 34,0% 0,2%
Meksyk 20 21 22 25 31 37 52 100 92,3% 0,1%
Malezja 6 7 9 11 13 14 36 73 102,8% 0,1%
Szwecja 5 6 8 9 11 16 24 43 79,2% 0,0%
Turkey 3 3 4 5 6 7 9 15 66,7% 0,0%
naarve 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 10,0% 0,0%
finlaind 4 4 4 5 7 8 8 8 0,0% 0,0%
vishv 6967 9564 15 981 23 299 40 030 69 871 100 115 136 697 36.5% 100,0%

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain