saur mandal

saur mandal
Solar sys.jpg
saur mandal ka mukhya roop - 8 grah, 1 bauna grah, kshudragrah patti tatha ek dhoomaketoo ko darshaata hua (paimaane ke anusaar naheen).
aayu 4.568 arab varsh
sthiti sthaaneeya antarataarakeeya baadal, sthaaneeya bulabula, shikaari-hans bhuja, dugdh mekhala aakaashaganga
tantr dravyamaan 1.0014 saur dravyamaan
niktatam sitaara prauksima sentauri (4.22 prakaash varsh), mitr taara pranaali (4.37 prakaash varsh)
niktatam gyaat graheeya mandal ऍpsiln ऍridaani taara pranaali (10.49 prakaash varsh)
graheeya mandal
baahari arddh pramukh dhuri grah (varun) 4.503 arab keemi (30.10 kha0 i0)
kvipr chattaan ki doori 50 kha0 i0
gyaat taaron ki sankhya 1
grahon ki sankhya 8
gyaat baune grahon ki sankhya 5 (darjanon se adhik ki pushti ka intajaar)
heen grahon ki sankhya 587,527[1]
dhoomaketuon ki sankhya 3,155[2]
pahachaane gaye gole upagrahon ki sankhya 19
gelektik kendra ke liye kaksha
avikaari satah ka gailektik satah ki or jhukaav 60.19° (ecliptic)
gailektik kendra ki doori 27,000±a1,000 ly
kaksheeya gati 220 km/s
kaksheeya avadhi 225–250 Myr
sitaara sambandhit gun
taaron ka vargeekaran G2V
fraust line (khagolashaastr) 2.7 kha0 i0
heleepauj ki doori ~120 kha0 i0
pahaadi kshetr trijya (radius) ~1–2 prakaash varsh


saur mandal mein soorya aur vah khagoleeya pind sammalit hain, jo is mandal mein ek doosare se gurutvaakarshan bal dvaara bandhe hain. kisi taare ke ird gird parikrama karte hui un khagoleeya vastuon ke samooh ko graheeya mandal kaha jaata hai jo anya taare na hon, jaise ki grah, baune grah, praakrutik upagrah, kshudragrah, ulka, dhoomaketu aur khagoleeya dhool.[3][4] hamaare sooraj aur uske graheeya mandal ko milaakar hamaara saur mandal banta hai.[5][6] in pindon mein aath grah, unke 166 gyaat upagrah, paaainch baune grah aur arabon chhote pind shaamil hain. in chhote pindon mein kshudragrah, barfeela kaaipar ghera ke pind, dhoomaketu, ulkaayein aur grahon ke beech ki dhool shaamil hain.

saur mandal ke chaar chhote aantarik grah budh, shukr, pruthvi aur mangal grah jinhein sthaleeya grah kaha jaata hai, mukhyataya patthar aur dhaatu se bane hain. aur ismein kshudragrah ghera, chaar vishaal gas se bane baahari gas daanav grah, kaaipar ghera aur bikhra chakr shaamil hain. kaalpanik aurt baadal bhi sanadi kshetron se lagbhag ek hajaar guna doori se pare maujood ho sakta hai.

soorya se hone wala plaajma ka pravaah (saur hava) saur mandal ko bhedata hai. yeh taare ke beech ke maadhyam mein ek bulabula banaata hai jise heliomandal kehte hain, jo isse baahar fail kar bikhri hui tashtari ke beech tak jaata hai.

anukram

saur parivaar khoj aur anveshan

kuchh ullekhaneeya apavaadon ko chhod kar, maanavata ko saur mandal ka astitv jaanane mein kai hajaar varsh lag gaye. log sochate the ki pruthvi brahmaand ka sthir kendra hai aur aakaash mein ghoomane waali divya ya vaayavya vastuon se spasht roop mein alag hai.

sanrachana aur sanyojan

sauramandal soorya aur usaki parikrama karte grah, kshudragrah aur dhoomaketuon se bana hai. iske kendra mein soorya hai aur sabse baahari seema par varun (grah) hai. varun ke pare yam (pluto) jaise baune graho ke atirikt dhoomaketu bhi aate hai.

खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई हैली धूमकेतु सूर्य ऍरिस (बौना ग्रह)) माकेमाके (बौना ग्रह) हउमेया (बौना ग्रह) यम (बौना ग्रह) सीरीस (बौना ग्रह) अरुण अरुण शनि बृहस्पति मंगल पृथ्वी शुक्र बुध खगोलीय इकाई खगोलीय इकाई बौना ग्रह बौना ग्रह धूमकेतु ग्रह

soorya ke kendra se chuni hui nikaayon ki shrrunkhala.

soorya

soorya athva sooraj saur mandal ke kendra mein sthit ek G shreni ka mukhya-anukram taara hai jiske ird-gird pruthvi aur sauramandal ke anya avayav ghoomate hain. soorya hamaare saur mandal ka sabse bada pind hai, jismein hamaare poore saur mandal ka 99.86% dravyamaan nihit hai aur usaka vyaas lagbhag 13 lakh 90 hajaar kilometer hai, jo pruthvi se lagbhag 109 guna adhik hai.[7] oorja ka yeh shaktishaali bhandaar mukhya roop se haaidrojan aur heeliym gaison ka ek vishaal gola hai. parmaanu vilay ki prakriya dvaara soorya apne kendra mein oorja paida karta hai. soorya se nikli oorja ka chhota sa bhaag hi pruthvi par pahuainchata hai jismein se 15 pratishat antariksh mein paraavartit ho jaata hai, 30 pratishat paani ko bhaap banaane mein kaam aata hai aur bahut si oorja ped-paudhe samudra sokh lete hain.

saur vaayu

sauramandal saur vaayu dvaara banaae gaye ek bade bulabule se ghira hua hai jise heeleeyosfiyr kehte hai. is bulabule ke andar sabhi padaarth soorya dvaara utsarjit hain. atyant zyaada urja vaale kan is bulabule ke andar heeleeyosfeeyar ke baahar se pravesh kar sakte hai.

yeh kisi taare ke baahari vaataavaran dvaara utsarjan kiye gaye aaveshit kanon ki dhaara ko saur vaayu kehte hain. saur vaayu visheshakar atyadhik urja vaale ilektraun aur protaun se bani hoti hai, inki urja kisi taare ke gurutv prabhaav se baahar jaane ke liye paryaapt hoti hai. saur vaayu soorya se har disha mein pravaahit hoti hai jiski gati kuchh sau kilometer prati second hoti hai. soorya ke sandarbh mein ise saur vaayu kehte hai, anya taaron ke sandarbh mein ise brahmaand vaayu kehte hai. yam (bauna grah) se kaafi baahar saur vaayu khagoleeya maadhyam (jo haaidrojan aur hileeyam se bana hua hai) ke prabhaav se dheemi ho jaati hai. yeh prakriya kuchh charanon mein hoti hai. khagoleeya maadhyam aur saare brahmaand mein faila hua hai. yeh ek atyadhik kam ghanatv wala maadhyam hai. saur vaayu super sonik gati se dheemi hokar sab-sonik gati mein aane vaale charan ko tarmeeneshan shauk (Termination Shock) ya samaapti sadama kehte hai. sab-sonik gati par saur vaayu khagoleeya maadhyam ke pravaah ke prabhaav mein aane se dabaav hota hai jisse saur vaayu dhoomaketu ki punchh jaisi aakruti banaati hai jise heeliosith (Helioseath) kehte hai. heeliosith ki baahari satah jahaan heeleeyosfiyr khagoleeya maadhyam se milta hai heeleeyopaaj (Heliopause) kahalaati hai. heeleeopaaj kshetr soorya ke aakaashaganga ke kendra ki parikrama ke dauraan khagoleeya maadhyam mein ek halachal utpann karta hai. yeh khalabali wala kshetr jo heeleeopaaj ke baahar hai bo-shaak (Bow Shock) ya dhanu sadama kahalaata hai.

graheeya mandal

graheeya mandal usi prakriya se bante hain jis se taaron ki srushti hoti hai. aadhunik khagolashaastr mein maana jaata hai ke jab antariksh mein koi anuon ka baadal gurutvaakarshan se simtane lagta hai to vah kisi taare ke ird-gird ek aadigrah chakr (protoplainaiteri disk) bana deta hai. pehle anu jama hokar dhool ke kan bana dete hain, fir kan milkar dale ban jaate hain. gurutvaakarshan ke lagaataar prabhaav se, in dalon mein takaraav aur jamaavade hote rahate hain aur dheere-dheere malabe ke bade-bade tukade ban jaate hain jo vakt se saath-saath grahon, upagrahon aur alag vastuon ka roop dhaaran kar lete hain.[8] jo vastueain badi hoti hain unka gurutvaakarshan taaktavar hota hai aur ve apne-aap ko sikodkar ek gole ka aakaar dhaaran kar leti hain. kisi graheeya mandal ke srujan ke pehle charanon mein yeh grah aur upagrah kabhi-kabhi aapas mein takara bhi jaate hain, jis se kabhi to vah khandit ho jaate hain aur kabhi judkar aur bade ho jaate hain. maana jaata hai ke hamaari pruthvi ke saath ek mangal grah jitni badi vastu ka bhayankar takaraav hua, jis se pruthvi ka bada sa satahi hissa ukhaadkar pruthvi ke ird-gird parikrama grahapath mein chala gaya aur dheere-dheere judkar hamaara chandrama ban gaya.

sthaleeya grah

soorya se unki doori ke kram mein aath grah hain:

budh

maisenjar dvaara prasaarit budh ki pehli uchch rijaulyooshan chhavi (krutrim rang)
budh saur mandal ka soorya se sabse nikat sthit aur aakaar mein sabse chhota grah hai. yam(plooto) ko pehle sabse chhota grah maana jaata tha par ab iska vargeekaran bauna grah ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. yeh soorya ki ek parikrama karne mein 88 din lagaata hai. yeh lohe aur jaste ka bana hua hain. yeh apne parikrama path par 29 meal prati kshan ki gati se chakkaar lagaata hain. budh soorya ke sabse paas ka grah hai aur dravyamaan se aanthave kramaank par hai. budh vyaas se gainimeed aur taaitan chandramaao se chhota hai lekin dravyamaan mein doogana hai.

grahapath : 57,910,000 kimi (0.38 AU) soorya se vyaas : 4880 kimi dravyamaan : 3.30e23 kigra

shukr

praakrutik rango mein shukr.
shukr soorya se doosra grah hai aur chhathanva sabse bada grah hai. iska parikrama path 108¸a200¸a000 kilometer lamba hai. iska vyaas 12¸a103•a6 kilometer hai. shukr ka aakaar aur banaabat lagbhag pruthvi ke baraabar hai. isliye shukr ko pruthvi ki bahan kaha jaata hai.

grahapath :0.72 AU ya 108,200,000 kimi (soorya se). shukr shukr ki grahapath lagbhag poorn vrutt hai. vyaas : 12,103.6 kimi dravyamaan : 4.869e24 kigra

pruthvi

The Earth seen from Apollo 17 with transparent background.png
pruthvi budh aur shukr ke baad surya se teesara grah hai. aatanrik grahon mein se sab se bada, poori maaloom kaayaanaat mein dharati ek lauta grah hai jahaaain par jindagi hai. surya se pruthvi ki ausat doori ko khagoleeya ikaai kehte hain. ye lagbhag 15 karod kilometer hai. ye doori vaasayogya kshetr mein hai. kisi bhi sitaare ke gird ye ek khaas jon hota hai, jis mein jameen ki satah ke upar ka paani taral avastha mein rahata hai. ise neela grah bhi kehte hai॑.

mangal

Mars transparent.png
mangal sauramandal mein soorya se chautha grah hai. pruthvi se iski aabha raktim dikhti hai, jis vajah se ise "laal grah" ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. sauramandal ke grah do tarah ke hote hain - "sthaleeya grah" jinmein jameen hoti hai aur "gaiseeya grah" jinmein adhiktar gas hi gas hai. pruthvi ki tarah, mangal bhi ek sthaleeya dharaatal wala grah hai. iska vaataavaran virl hai. iski satah dekhne par chandrama ke gart aur pruthvi ke jvaalaamukhiyon, ghaatiyon, registaan aur dhruveeya barfeeli chotiyon ki yaad dilaati hai. hamaare sauramandal ka sabse adhik ooaincha parvat, olampas mons mangal par hi sthit hai. saath hi vishaalatam kainyan vailes maireeneris bhi yaheen par sthit hai. apni bhaugolik visheshataaon ke alaava, mangal ka ghoornan kaal aur mausami chakr pruthvi ke samaan hain.
1965 mein merinr 4 ke dvaara ki pehli mangal udaan se pehle tak yeh maana jaata tha ki grah ki satah par taral avastha mein jal ho sakta hai. yeh halke aur gahre rang ke dhabbon ki aavartik soochanaaon par aadhaarit tha vishesh taur par, dhruveeya akshaanshon, jo lambe hone par samudra aur mahaadveepon ki tarah dikhte hain, kaale striations ki vyaakhya kuchh prekshakon dvaara paani ki sinchaai naharon ke roop mein ki gayi hai. in seedhi rekhaaon ki maujoodagi baad mein siddh naheen ho paayi aur ye maana gaya ki ye rekhaayein maatr prakaasheeya bhram ke alaava kuchh aur naheen hain. fir bhi, saur mandal ke sabhi grahon mein hamaari pruthvi ke alaava, mangal grah par jeevan aur paani hone ki sambhaavana sabse adhik hai.

bruhaspati

bruhaspati soorya paanchavaaain aur hamaare sauramandal ka sabse bada grah hai. yeh ek gas daanav hai jiska dravyamaan soorya ke hajaaravein bhaag ke baraabar tatha sauramandal mein maujood anya saat grahon ke kul dravyamaan ka dhaai guna hai. bruhaspati ko shani, yurenas aur nepchoon ke saath ek gaiseeya grah ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. in chaaron grahon ko baahari grahon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. yeh grah praacheen kaal se hi khagolavidon dvaara jaana jaata raha hai tatha yeh kai sanskrutiyon ki pauraanik kathaaon aur dhaarmik vishvaason ke saath juda hua tha. roman sabhyata ne apne devata jupitr ke naam par iska naam rakha tha. jab ise pruthvi se dekha gaya, to yeh chandrama aur shukr ke baad teesara sabse adhik chamakadaar nikaaya ban gaya (mangal grah apni grahapath ke kuchh binduon par bruhaspati ki chamak se mel khaata hai).

shani

shani sauramandal ka ek sadasya grah hai. yeh sooraj se chhate sthaan par hai aur sauramandal mein bruhaspati ke baad sabse bada grah hain. iske kaksheeya paribhraman ka path 14,29,40,000 kilometer hai. shani ke 60 upagrah hain. jismein taaitan sabse bada hai. taaitan bruhaspati ke upagrah ginimed ke baad doosra sabse bada upagrah hai. shani grah ki khoj praacheen kaal mein hi ho gayi thi. gaileeliyo gailili ne san 1610 mein doorabeen ki sahaayata se is grah ko khoja tha. shani grah ki rachana 75% haaidrojan aur 25% heeliym se hui hai. jal, mithen, amoniya aur patthar yahaaain bahut kam maatra mein paae jaate hain. hamaare saur mandal mein chaar grahon ko gas daanav kaha jaata hai, kyonki inmein mitti-patthar ki bajaay adhiktar gas hai aur inka aakaar bahut hi vishaal hai. shani iname se ek hai - baaki teen bruhaspati, Arun (yurenas) aur varun (naiptayoon) hain.

Arun

Arun ya yurenas hamaare saur mandal mein soorya se saatavaaain grah hai. vyaas ke aadhaar par yeh saur mandal ka teesara bada aur dravyamaan ke aadhaar par chautha bada grah hai. dravyamaan mein yeh pruthvi se 14.5 guna adhik bhaari aur akaar mein pruthvi se 63 guna adhik bada hai. ausat roop mein dekha jaae to pruthvi se bahut kam ghana hai - kyonki pruthvi par patthar aur anya bhaari padaarth adhik pratishat mein hain jabki Arun par gas adhik hai. iseeliye pruthvi se tiresath guna bada akaar rakhane ke baad bhi yeh pruthvi se keval saadhe chaudah guna bhaari hai. haalaanki Arun ko bina doorabeen ke aaainkh se bhi dekha ja sakta hai, yeh itna door hai aur itni maadhyam roshani ka prateet hota hai ke praacheen vidvaanon ne kabhi bhi ise grah ka darja naheen diya aur ise ek door timtimaata taara hi samjha.[9] 13 March 1781 mein William harashal ne iski khoj ki ghoshana curry. Arun doorabeen dvaara paae jaane wala pehla grah tha.

varun

varun, naiptayoon ya naipchayoon hamaare saur mandal mein soorya se aathavaaain grah hai. vyaas ke aadhaar par yeh saur mandal ka chautha bada aur dravyamaan ke aadhaar par teesara bada grah hai. varun ka dravyamaan pruthvi se 17 guna adhik hai aur apne padausi grah Arun (yurenas) se thoda adhik hai. khagoleeya ikaai ke hisaab se varun ki grahapath sooraj se 30.1 kha॰ai॰ ki ausat doori par hai, yaani varun pruthvi ke mukaabale mein sooraj se lagbhag tees guna adhik door hai. varun ko sooraj ki ek poori parikrama karne mein 164.79 varsh lagte hain, yaani ek varun varsh 164.79 pruthvi varshon ke baraabar hai.

kshudragrah ghera

hamaare saur mandal ka kshudragrah ghera mangal grah (maars) aur bruhaspati grah (jyoopitr) ki grahapathaon ke beech sthit hai - safed bindueain is ghere mein maujood kshudragrahon ko darshaati hain

kshudragrah ghera ya aistaraued bailt hamaare saur mandal ka ek kshetr hai jo mangal grah (maars) aur bruhaspati grah (jyoopitr) ki grahapathaon ke beech sthit hai aur jismein hajaaron-laakhon kshudragrah (aistaraued) sooraj ki parikrama kar rahe hain. inmein ek 950 kimi ke vyaas wala seerees naam ka bauna grah bhi hai jo apne swayam ke gurutvaakarshak khichaav se gol akaar pa chuka hai. yahaaain teen aur 400 kimi ke vyaas se bade kshudragrah paae ja chuke hain - vaista, pailas aur haaijiaa. poore kshudragrah ghere ke kul dravyamaan mein se aadhe se zyaada inhi chaar vastuon mein nihit hai. baaki vastuon ka akaar bhinn-bhinn hai - kuchh to dasiyon kilometer bade hain aur kuchh dhool ke kan maatr hain.

2008 ke madhya tak, paaainch chhote pindon ko baune grah ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai, seerees kshudragrah ghere mein hai aur varun se pare chaar soorya grahapath - yam (jise pehle navein grah ke roop mein maanyata praapt thi), haumeya, maakemaake aur ऍris.

chhah grahon aur teen baune grahon ki parikrama praakrutik upagrah karte hain, jinhein aam taur par pruthvi ke chandrama ke naam ke aadhaar par "chandrama" hi pukaara jaata hai. pratyek baahari grah ko dhool aur anya kanon se nirmit chhallon dvaara parivrut kiya jaata hai.

sauramandal saaraansh
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soorya bruhaspati shani Arun varun pruthvi shukr
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maaimas haayaperiyn fobe jenas aimalatheeya epeemetheeyas prometheeyas

sandarbh

  1. name=JPLbodies
  2. name=JPLbodies
  3. p. 394, The Universal Book of Astronomy, from the Andromeda Galaxy to the Zone of Avoidance, David J. Dsrling, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2004. ISBN 0471265691.
  4. p. 314, Collins Dictionary of Astronomy, Valerie Illingworth, London: Collins, 2000. ISBN 0-00-710297-6.
  5. p. 382, Collins Dictionary of Astronomy.
  6. p. 420, A Dictionary of Astronomy, Ian Ridpath, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-19-860513-7.
  7. "soorya aur pruthvi ke beech faasala". BBC hindi. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/news/story/2006/10/061007_askus_sun_earth.shtml. abhigman tithi: 9 fravari 2009.
  8. planetary systems, formation of, David Darling, The Internet Encyclopedia of Science
  9. "MIRA's Field Trips to the Stars Internet Education Program". Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy. http://www.mira.org/fts0/planets/101/text/txt001x.htm. abhigman tithi: August 27, 2007.

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