saudi arab

اaaلaaمaaمaaلaaكaaة اaaلaaعaaرaaبaaيaaة اaaلaaسaaعaaوaaدaaيaaة
al-Mamlaka al-ʻaArabiyya as-Suʻaūadiyya

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

saudi arab raajashaahi
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: "Allah ke siva koi Bhagwan naheen hai, muhammad Allah ka sandeshavaahak hai"
There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of Allah(the Kalimah)
raashtragaan: "aas al malik"
"deerghaayu hon raaja"
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
riyaad
24°a39′aN 46°a46′aE / 24.65°aN 46.767°aE / 24.65; 46.767
raajabhaasha(eain) arabi
nivaasi saudi, saudi arebiyn
sarkaar islaamik poorn raajashaahi
- raaja abdullaah bin abdul ajeej
- pehle shaahi Rajkumar sultaan bin abdul ajeej
- doosare shaahi Rajkumar naayaf bin abdul ajeej
vidhaan mandal mantri parishad
(saudi arab ke Rajkumar dvaara niyukt)
gathan
- pehla saudi raajya sthaapana 1744
- doosra saudi raajya sthaapana 1824
- teesara saudi raajya ghoshana 8 January 1926
- maanyata 20 May 1927
- raajashaahi ekeekaran 23 September 1932
kshetrafal
- kul 2,149,690 varg kilometer (14vaan)
829,996 varg meal
- jal (%) naganya
janasankhya
- 2007 janaganana 27,601,038 (46vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $593.385 billion (-)
- prati vyakti $23,834 (-)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Straight Line Steady.svg 0.836[1]
bahut uchch · 34vaaain
mudra riyaal (esaeaar)
samay mandal eesati (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) (aakalan naheen) (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3)
doorabhaash koot 966
Internet teeeladi .sa
janasankhya ke anumaan mein 5,576,076 aapravaasi shaamil.

saudi arab madhyapoorv me sthit ek sunni muslim desh hai. yeh ek islaami raajatantr hai jiski sthaapana 1750 ke aaspaas saud dvaara ki gayi thi. yahaaain ki dharati reteeli hai tatha jalavaayu ushnakatibandheeya marusthal. yeh vishv ke agrani tel niryaatak deshon mein gina jaata hai. saudi arab ke pashchim ki or laal saagar hai aur uske paar misr. dakshin ki or omaan aur yaman hain aur unke dakshin mein hind mahaasaagar. uttar mein Iraq aur jaurdan ki seema lagti hai jabki poorab mein faaras ki khaadi aur Kuwait tatha sanyukt arab ameeraat. isaraayal-filisteen ka kshetr iske uttar ki disha mein hai aur arabon ne iske itihaas ko bahut prabhaavit kiya hai.

yahaaain islaam ke pravartak muhammad saahab ka janm hua tha aur yahaaain islaam ke do sabse pavitra sthal makka aur madeena avasthit hain. islaam mein haj ka sthaan makka bataaya gaya hai aur duniya ke saare musalmaan makka ki or hi namaaj ada karte hain. yahaaain ke musalmaan mukhyat: sunni hain aur islaam ki raajanaitik rajdhani ke is desh se baahar rahane ke baavajood is desh ke logon ne islaam dharm par apni amit chhaap chhodi hai.

anukram

itihaas

praacheen kaal mein dilman sabhyata sumer tatha misr ki praacheen sabhyata ke samakaaleen thi. san 3500-2500 isaapoorv ke madhya mein kuchh arabon ka bebeeloniya-aseeriya ke ilaake mein aagaman arabon ke itihaas ki pehli mahatvapoorn ghatna maani jaati hai. saataveen sadi tak arabon ka itihaas kabeelon ke jhagadon aur chhitput roop se videshi prabhutv ki kahaani lagti hai.

islaam ka udaya

613 isvi ke aaspaas ek arabi dafaatar ne logon mein ek divya gyaan ka prachaar kiya. aapka kehna tha ki aapko iska gyaan Allah ke farishte jibraail ne diya aur pratyek insaan ko unheen tareekon ko apanaana chaahiye. aapka ka naam muhammad (s0) tha aur unki beevi ka naam khaadeeja tha. logon ko unki baat par ya to yakeen naheen aaya ya saadhaaran si lagi. par gareebon ko ye baat bahut pasand I ki kisi ka shoshan naheen karna chaahiye jo yeh karega use kayaamat ke din narak ka praapti hogi. logon ke beech samaanata ke bhaav ki baat daliton aur nichle tabakon mein lokapriyta milne lagi. fir dheere dheere aur log bhi unke anuyaayi banane lage. unki badhti khyaati dekhkar makka ke kabeelon ko apni lokapriyta aur satta kho dene ka bhaya hua aur unhonne muhammad (s0) ko san 622 (hijri) mein makka chhodne ko vivsh kar diya. vo madeena chale aae jahaaain logon,khaaskar sanbhraant kul ke log aur yahoodiyon se unhein samarthan mila. iske baad unke anucharon ki sankhya aur shakti badhati gayi. muhammad (s0) ne makka par chadhaai kar di aur vahaaain ke pradhaan ne haar maan li. unke 'sandesh' se aur log prabhaavit hone lage aur unki prabhusatta mein vishvaas karne lage. uske baad muhammad ne apne netrutv mein kai aise sainik abhiyaan bhi chalaae jinmein unka virodh karne vaalon ko hara diya gaya. san 632 mein muhammad saahab ki mrutyu tak lagbhag saara arab praayadveep muhammad saahab ke sandesh ko kubool kar chuka tha. in logon ko muslim kaha jaane laga.

muhammad saahab ki mrutyu ke baad arabon ki raajanaitik shakti mein bahut vruddhi hui. san 700 isvi tak Iran, misr, iraak tatha madhyapoorv mein islaam ki saamarik vijay sthaapit ho gayi thi. arab in ilaakon mein chhitput roop se bas bhi gaye the. islaam ki raajanaitik satta khilaaft ke haath rahi. aarambh mein to islaam ka kendra damishk raha aur fir makka par aathaveen sadi ke madhya tak bagdaad islaam ki raajanaitik rajdhani bana. islaam ke raajanaitik vaaris arab hi rahe par kai aur nasl/jaati ke log bhi dheere dheere ismein milne lage. solahaveen sadi mein usmaanon ne makka par adhikaar kar liya aur islaam ki raajanaitik shakti turkon ke haath chali gayi aur san 1922 tak unheen ke haathon rahi.

bhoogol

saudi arab aur padosi desh

saudi arab arab praayadveep ke 80 pratishat ilaakon mein faila hua hai. iski 25°a00′aauttar, 45°a00′ poorv deshaantar ke aaspaas faila hua hai. iski omaan aur sanyukt arab ameeraat se lagi seema ab tak nirdhaarit naheen ki ja saki hai par ise praay: vishv ka 14 vaaain sabse bada desh maana jaata hai. yahaaain ki bhoomi mukhyat: reteeli hai aur yahaaain bahut kam varsha hoti hai. yeh desh ushnakatibandheeya maroobhoomi ka pradesh hai. desh ki 1% bhoomi hi krushi ke yogya hai.

prashaasan

praant rajdhani ameer
al-riyaaj praant al-riyaaj al-ameer Salman bin abd al ajeej aal saood
makkaah al-mukarrama praant makkaah al-mukarrama al-ameer khaalid alafaisal bin abd al ajeej aal saood
al-madeenaah al-munavvaraah praant al-madeenaah al-munavvaraah al-ameer abd al ajeej ban maajid bin abd al ajeej aal saood
al-kseem praant buraidaah alanameer faisal ban bandar bin abd al ajeej aal saood
asha​-sharkeeyaah praant al-dammaam al-ameer muhammad bin fed bin abd al ajeej aal saood
haail praant haail al-ameer saood bin abd alamahasan bin abd al ajeej aal saood
jaajaan praant jaajaan al-ameer muhammad bin naasir bin abd al ajeej aal saood
aseer praant abaha al-ameer faisal bin khaalid bin abd al ajeej aal saood
al-baaha praant al-baaha al-ameer muhammad bin saood bin abd al ajeej aal saood
tabook praant tabook al-ameer fed bin sultaan bin abd al ajeej aal saood
najaraan praant najaraan al-ameer musail bin abd Allah bin abd al ajeej aal saood
al-jauf praant sakaaka al-ameer fed ban badr bin abd al ajeej aal saood
al-hudood al-shamaaleeya praant araar al-ameer abd Allah bin abd al ajeej ban musaaid aal saood

inhein bhi dekhein

  1. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 July 2014.