satyajit rai

satyajit rai
SatyajitRay.jpg
too ke set par satyajit rai, 1964
janm 2 May, 1921
janmasthaan Kolkata, Bhaarat
mrutyu 23 April, 1992
Kolkata, Bhaarat
jeevanasaathi bijoya rai
santaan sandeep rai
academy puraskaar
academy maanad puraskaar
1992 jeevanakaal kaaryasampaadan
filmafeyar puraskaar
sarvashreshth nirdeshak puraskaar
1978 shataranj ke khilaadi
sarvashreshth film - sameekshak
1978 shataranj ke khilaadi

satyajit rai (bangaali: shauttojit raay) (2 May 1921–23 April 1992) ek bhaarateeya film nirdeshak the, jinhein 20veen shataabdi ke sarvottam film nirdeshakon mein gina jaata hai.[1] inka janm kala aur saahitya ke jagat mein jaane-maane Kolkata (tab Calcutta) ke ek bangaali parivaar mein hua tha. inki shiksha presideinsi college aur vishv-bhaarati vishvavidyaalaya mein hui. inhone apne kairiyr ki shuruaat peshevar chitrakaar ki tarah ki. fraansisi film nirdeshak jaaain ranvaar se milne par aur London mein itaalavi film laadri di bisiklet (Ladri di biciclette, baaisikl chor) dekhne ke baad film nirdeshan ki or inka rujhaan hua.

rai ne apne jeevan mein 37 filmon ka nirdeshan kiya, jinmein feechar filmein, vrutt chitr aur laghu filmein shaamil hain. inki pehli film pather paanchaali (পaaথaaেaaর পaaাaaঁaaচaaাaaলaaী, path ka geet) ko kaan filmotsav mein mile “asarvottam maanaveeya pralekha” puraskaar ko milaakar kul gyaarah antararaashtreeya puraskaar mile. yeh film aparaajito (অaaপaaরaaাaaজaaিaaত) aur apur sansaar (অaaপaaুaaর সaaংaaসaaাaaর, apu ka sansaar) ke saath inki prasiddh apu trayi mein shaamil hai. rai film nirmaan se sambandhit kai kaam khud hi karte the — patakatha likhna, abhineta dhoondhana, paarshv sangeet likhna, chalachitran, kala nirdeshan, aur prachaar saamagri ki rachana karna. filmein banaane ke atirikt ve kahaaneekaar, prakaashak, chitrakaar aur film aalochak bhi the. rai ko jeevan mein kai puraskaar mile jinmein academy maanad puraskaar aur Bhaarat ratn shaamil hain.

anukram

jeevani

praarambhik jeevan evam shiksha

satyajit rai ke vansh ki kam se kam das peedhiyon pehle tak ki jaankaari maujood hai.[2] inke daada upendrakishor rai chaudhari lekhak, chitrakaar, daarshanik, prakaashak aur apeshevar khagolashaastri the. ye saath hi braahm samaaj ke neta bhi the. upendrakishor ke bete sukumaar rai ne lakeer se hatkar baangla mein betuki kavita likhi. ye yogya chitrakaar aur aalochak bhi the. satyajit rai sukumaar aur suprabha rai ke bete the. inka janm Kolkata mein hua. jab satyajit keval teen varsh ke the to inke pita chal base. inke parivaar ko suprabha ki maamooli tankhvaah par gujaara karna pada. rai ne Kolkata ke presidensi kaalej se arthashaastr padha, lekin inki ruchi hamesha lalit kalaaon mein hi rahi. 1940 mein inki maata ne aagrah kiya ki ye gurudev raveendranaath thaakur dvaara sthaapit vishv-bhaarati vishvavidyaalaya mein aage padhein. rai ko Kolkata ka maahaul pasand tha aur shaantiniketan ke buddhijeevi jagat se ye khaas prabhaavit naheen the.[3] maata ke aagrah aur thaakur ke prati inke aadar bhaav ki vajah se antat: inhonne vishv-bhaarati jaane ka nishchaya kiya. shaantiniketan mein rai poorvi kala se bahut prabhaavit hue. baad mein inhonne sveekaar kiya ki prasiddh chitrakaar nandalaal Bose[4] aur binod bihaari mukharji se inhonne bahut kuchh seekha. mukharji ke jeevan par inhonne baad mein ek vruttachitr the inar I bhi banaaya. ajanta, elora aur elifeinta ki gufaaon ko dekhne ke baad ye bhaarateeya kala ke prashansak ban gaye.[5]

chitrakala

1943 mein paaainch saal ka course poora karne se pehle rai ne shaantiniketan chhod diya aur Kolkata vaapas aa gaye jahaaain unhonne british vigyaapan abhikran di. J. kemar mein naukri shuru ki. inke pad ka naam “alaghu drashtaa” (“ajunior visualiser”) tha aur maheene ke keval assi rupaye ka vetan tha. haalaanki drushti rachana rai ko bahut pasand thi aur unke saath adhiktar achha hi vyavahaar kiya jaata tha, lekin agency ke british aur bhaarateeya karmiyon ke beech kuchh khinchaav rahata tha kyonki british karmiyon ko jyaada vetan milta tha. saath hi rai ko lagta tha ki “aagency ke graahak praay: moorkh hote the”.[6] 1943 ke lagbhag hi ye di. ke. gupta dvaara sthaapit signet press ke saath bhi kaam karne lage. gupta ne rai ko press mein chhapane waali nai kitaabon ke mukhaprushth rachane ko kaha aur poori kalaatmak mukti di. rai ne bahut kitaabon ke mukhaprushth banaae, jinmein jim kaarbet ki main-itars of kumaaooain (Man-eaters of Kumaon, kumaaooain ke narabhakshi) aur Jawahar laal neharu ki diskavari of India (Discovery of India, Bhaarat ki khoj) shaamil hain. inhonne baangla ke jaane-maane upanyaas pather paanchaali (পaaথaaেaaর পaaাaaঁaaচaaাaaলaaী, path ka geet) ke baal sanskaran par bhi kaam kiya, jiska naam tha aam aaaintir bheainpu (আaaম আaaঁaaটaaিaaর ভaaেaaঁaaপaaু, aam ki guthali ki seeti). rai is rachana se bahut prabhaavit hue aur apni pehli film isi upanyaas par banaai. mukhaprushth ki rachana karne ke saath unhonne is kitaab ke andar ke chitr bhi banaaye. inmein se bahut se chitr unki film ke drushyon mein drushtigochar hote hain.[7]

rai ne do nae faunt bhi banaae — “arai roman” aur “arai bijaara”. rai roman ko 1970 mein ek antararaashtreeya pratiyogita mein puraskaar mila. Kolkata mein rai ek kushal chitrakaar maane jaate the. rai apni pustakon ke chitr aur mukhaprushth khud hi banaate the aur filmon ke liye prachaar saamagri ki rachana bhi khud hi karte the.

film nirdeshan

1947 mein chidaanand daasagupta aur anya logon ke saath milkar rai ne Calcutta film sabha shuru ki, jismein unhein kai videshi filmein dekhne ko mileen. inhonne dviteeya vishvayuddh mein Kolkata mein sthaapit amareekan sainikon se dosti kar li jo unhein shahar mein dikhaai ja rahi nai-nai filmon ke baare mein soochana dete the. 1949 mein rai ne door ki rishtedaar aur lambe samay se unki priytama bijoya rai se vivaah kiya. inka ek beta hua, sandeep, jo ab khud film nirdeshak hai. isi saal fraanseesi film nirdeshak jaaain ranvaar Kolkata mein apni film ki shooting karne aae. rai ne dehaat mein upayukt sthaan dhoondhane mein ranvaar ki madad ki. rai ne unhein pather paanchaali par film banaane ka apna vichaar bataaya to ranvaar ne unhein iske liye protsaahit kiya.[8] 1950 mein di. J. kemar ne rai ko agency ke mukhyaalaya London bheja. London mein bitaae teen maheenon mein rai ne 99 filmein dekheen. inmein shaamil thi, vittoriyo de seeka ki navayathaarthavaadi film laadri di bisiklette (Ladri di biciclette, baaisikl chor) jisne unhein andar tak prabhaavit kiya. rai ne baad mein kaha ki ve cinema se baahar aae to film nirdeshak banane ke liye drudhsankalp the.[9]

filmon mein mili safalta se rai ka paarivaarik jeevan mein adhik parivartan naheen aaya. ve apni maaain aur parivaar ke anya sadasyon ke saath hi ek kiraae ke makaan mein rahate rahe.[10] 1960 ke dashak mein rai ne Japan ki yaatra ki aur vahaaain jaane-maane film nirdeshak akeera kurosaava se mile. Bhaarat mein bhi ve aksar shahar ke bhaagam-bhaag vaale maahaul se bachane ke liye daarjeeling ya puri jaisi jagahon par jaakar ekaant mein kathaanak poore karte the.

beemaari evam nidhan

1983 mein film ghare baaire (ঘaaরaaে বaaাaaইaaরaaে) par kaam karte hue rai ko dil ka daura pada jisse unke jeevan ke baaki 9 saalon mein unki kaarya-kshamata bahut kam ho gayi. ghare baaire ka chhaayaankan rai ke bete ki madad se 1984 mein poora hua. 1992 mein hrudaya ki durbalata ke kaaran rai ka svaasthya bahut bigad gaya, jisse vah kabhi Uber naheen paae. mrutyu se kuchh hi hafte pehle unhein sammaanadaayak academy puraskaar diya gaya. 23 April 1992 ko unka dehaant ho gaya. inki mrutyu hone par Kolkata shahar lagbhag thahar gaya aur hajaaron log inke ghar par inhein shraddhaanjali dene aae.[11]

filmein

apu ke varsh (1950–58)

rai ne nishchaya kar rakha tha ki unki pehli film baangla saahitya ki prasiddh bildungsaromaan pather paanchaali par aadhaarit hogi, jise bibhootibhooshan bandyopaadhyaaya ne 1928 mein likha tha. is ardh-aatmakathaatmak upanyaas mein ek bangaali gaanv ke ladke apu ke bade hone ki kahaani hai. rai ne London se Bhaarat lautate hue samudrayaatra ke dauraan is film ki rooparekha taiyaar ki. Bhaarat pahuainchane par rai ne ek karmeedal ekatrit kiya jismein kaimaraamain subrat mitr aur kala nirdeshak bansi chandragupta ke alaava kisi ko filmon ka anubhav naheen tha. abhineta bhi lagbhag sabhi gairapeshevar the. film ka chhaayaankan 1952 mein shuru hua. rai ne apni jamaapoonji is film mein laga di, is aasha mein ki pehle kuchh shot lene par kaheen se paisa mil jaaega, lekin aisa naheen hua. pather paanchaali ka chhaayaankan teen varsh ke lambe samay mein hua — jab bhi rai ya nirmaan prabandhak anil chaudhari kaheen se paison ka jugaad kar paate the, tabhi chhaayaankan ho paata tha. rai ne aise sroton se dhan lene se mana kar diya jo kathaanak mein parivartan karaana chaahate the ya film nirmaata ka nireekshan karna chaahate the. 1955 mein pashchim Bengal sarkaar ne film ke liye kuchh rin diya jisse aakhirkaar film poori hui. sarkaar ne bhi film mein kuchh badlaav karaane chaahe (ve chaahate the ki apu aur usaka parivaar ek “avikaas pariyojanaa” mein shaamil hon aur film sukhaant ho) lekin satyajit rai ne ispar koi dhyaan naheen diya.[12]

pather paanchaali 1955 mein pradarshit hui aur bahut lokapriya rahi. Bhaarat aur anya deshon mein bhi yeh lambe samay tak cinema mein lagi rahi. Bhaarat ke aalochakon ne ise bahut saraaha. the times of India ne likha — “aisaki kisi aur bhaarateeya cinema se tulana karna nirrthak hai. [...] pather paanchaali to shuddh cinema hai.”[13] amareeka mein lindasi Anderson ne film ke baare mein bahut achhi sameeksha likhi.[13] lekin sabhi aalochak film ke baare mein itne utsaahit naheen the. fraaainsva trufo ne kaha — “aganvaaron ko haath se khaana khaate hue dikhaane waali film mujhe naheen dekhni.”[14] new yaurk times ke prabhaavashaali aalochak baujli kraauthar ne bhi pather paanchaali ke baare mein bahut buri sameeksha likhi. iske baavajood yeh film amareeka mein bahut samay tak chali.

rai ki agali film aparaajito ki safalta ke baad inka antararaashtreeya kairiyr poore jor-shor se shuru ho gaya. is film mein ek navayuvak (apu) aur usaki maaain ki aakaankshaaon ke beech aksar hone vaale khinchaav ko dikhaaya gaya hai. mrunaal sen aur ritvik ghatak sahit kai aalochak ise pehli film se behtar maanate hain. aparaajito ko venis filmotsav mein svarn Singh (Golden Lion) se puraskrut kiya gaya. apu trayi poori karne se pehle rai ne do aur filmein banaain — haasyaprad paarash patthar aur jmeendaaron ke patan par aadhaarit jalasaaghar. jalasaaghar ko inki sabse mahattvapoorn krutiyon mein gina jaata hai.[15]

aparaajito banaate hue rai ne trayi banaane ka vichaar naheen kiya tha, lekin venis mein uthe ek prashn ke baad unhein yeh vichaar achha laga.[16] is shrunkhala ki antim kadi apur sansaar 1959 mein bani. rai ne is film mein do nae abhinetaaon, saumitr chatarji aur sharmila Tagore, ko mauka diya. is film mein apu Kolkata ke ek saadhaaran makaan mein gareebi mein rahata hai aur aparna ke saath vivaah kar leta hai, jiske baad inhein kai kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna padta hai. pichhli do filmon ki tarah hi kuchh aalochak ise trayi ki sabse badhiya film maanate hain (Robin vud aur aparna sen).[17] jab ek bangaali aalochak ne apur sansaar ki kathor aalochna ki to rai ne iske pratyuttar mein ek lamba lekh likha.[18]

devi se chaarulata tak (1959–64)

is avadhi mein rai ne kai vishyon par filmein banaain, jinmein shaamil hain, british kaal par aadhaarit devi (দaaেaaবaaী), raveendranaath thaakur par ek vruttachitr, haasyaprad film mahaapurush (মaaহaaাaaপaaুaaরaaুaaষ) aur maulik kathaanak par aadhaarit inki pehli film kanchanajangha (কaaাaaঞaa্aaচaaনaaজaaঙaa্aaঘaaা). isi dauraan inhone kai aisi filmein banaain, jinhein saath milaakar bhaarateeya cinema mein striyon ka sabse gahra chitraankan maana jaata hai.[19]

apur sansaar ke baad rai ki pehli film thi devi, jismein inhonne hindu samaaj mein andhavishvaas ke vishay ko tatola hai. sharmila Tagore ne is film ke mukhya paatr dayaamayi ki bhoomika nibhaai, jise uske sasur kaali ka avataar maanate hain. rai ko chinta thi ki is film ko censor board se shaayad sveekruti naheen mile, ya unhe kuchh drushya kaatne padein, lekin aisa naheen hua. 1961 mein pradhaanamantri Jawahar laal neharu ke aagrah par rai ne gurudev raveendranaath thaakur ki janm shataabdi ke avsar par unke jeevan par ek vruttachitr banaaya. thaakur ke jeevan ka filmaankan bahut kam hi hua tha, isliye rai ko mukhyat: sthir chitron ka prayog karna pada, jismein unke anusaar teen feechar filmon jitna parishram hua.[20] isi saal mein rai ne subhaash mukhopaadhyaaya aur anya lekhakon ke saath milkar bachchon ki patrika sandesh ko punarjeevit kiya. is patrika ki shuruaat inke daada ne shuru ki thi aur bahut samay se rai iske liye dhan jama karte aa rahe the.[21] sandesh ka baangla mein dotarafa matlab hai — ek khabar aur doosra mithaai. patrika ko isi mool vichaar par banaaya gaya — shiksha ke saath-saath manoranjan. rai sheegra hi khud patrika mein chitr banaane lage aur bachchon ke liye kahaaniyaaain aur nibndh likhne lage. aane vaale varshon mein lekhan inki jeevika ka pramukh saadhan ban gaya.

1962 mein rai ne kaaainchanajangha ka nirdeshan kiya, jismein pehli baar inhonne maulik kathaanak par rangeen chhaayaankan kiya. is film mein ek uchch varg ke parivaar ki kahaani hai jo daarjeeling mein ek dopahar bitaate hain aur prayaas karte hain ki sabse chhoti beti ka vivaah London mein padhe ek kamaaoo engineer ke saath ho jaae. shuroo mein is film ko ek vishaal haveli mein chitraankan karne ka vichaar tha, lekin baad mein rai ne nirnaya kiya ki daarjeeling ke vaataavaran aur prakaash va dhundh ke khel ka prayog karke kathaanak ke khinchaav ko pradarshit kiya jaae. rai ne hansi mein ek baar kaha ki unki film ka chhaayaankan kisi bhi roshani mein ho sakta tha, lekin usi samay daarjeeling mein maujood ek vyaavasaayik film dal ek bhi drushya naheen shoot kar paaya kyonki unhone keval dhoop mein hi shooting karni thi.[22]

1964 mein rai ne chaarulata (চaaাaaরaaুaaলaaতaaা) film banaai jise bahut se aalochak inki sabse nishnaat film maanate hai.[23] yeh thaakur ki laghukatha nashtaneed par aadhaarit hai. ismein 19veen shataabdi ki ek akeli stri ki kahaani hai jise apne devar amal se prem hone lagta hai. ise rai ki sarvotkrusht kruti maana jaata hai. rai ne khud kaha ki ismein sabse kam khaamiyaaain hain aur yahi ek film hai jise ve mauka milne par bilkul isi tarah dobaara banaaenge.[24] chaaru ke roop mein maadhavi mukharji ke abhinay aur subrat mitr aur bansi chandragupta ke kaam ko bahut saraaha gaya hai. is kaal ki anya filmein hain: mahanagar, teen kanya, abhiyaan, kaapurush (kaayar) aur mahaapurush.

nai dishaaeain (1965-1982)

chaarulata ke baad ke kaal mein rai ne vividh vishyon par aadhaarit filmein banaain, jinmein shaamil hain, kalpanaakathaaeain, vijnyaaanakathaaeain, guptachar kathaaeain aur aitihaasik naatak. rai ne filmon mein nayi takaneekon par prayog karna aur Bhaarat ke samakaaleen vishyon par dhyaan dena shuru kiya. is kaal ki pehli mukhya film thi naayak (নaaাaaযaa়aaক), jismein ek film abhineta (uttam Kumar) rel mein safar karte hue ek mahila patrakaar (sharmila Tagore) se milta hai. 24 ghante ki ghatnaaon par aadhaarit is film mein is prasiddh abhineta ke manovijnyaaan ka anveshan kiya gaya hai. barlin mein is film ko aalochak puraskaar mila, lekin anya pratikriyaaeain adhik utsaahapoorn naheen raheen.[25]

1967 mein rai ne ek film ka kathaanak likha, jiska naam hona tha the eliyn (The Alien, dooragrahavaasi). yeh inki laghukatha baaainkubaabur bandhu (বaaাaaঁaaকaaুaaবaaাaaবaaুaaর বaaনaa্aaধaaু, baaainku baabu ka dost) par aadhaarit thi jise inhonne sandesh (সaaনaa্aaদaaেaaশ) patrika ke liye 1962 mein likha tha. is amareeka-Bhaarat sah-nirmaan pariyojana ki nirmaata kolambiya pictures naamak company thi. Peter selars aur maarlan braindo ko iski mukhya bhoomikaaon ke liye chuna gaya. rai ko yeh jaanakar aashcharya hua ki unke kathaanak ke prakaashanaadhikaar ko kisi aur ne hadp liya tha. braindo baad mein is pariyojana se nikal gaye aur rai ka bhi is film se moh-bhang ho gaya.[26][27] kolambiya ne 1970 aur 80 ke dashakon mein kai baar is pariyojana ko punarjeevit karne ka prayaas kiya lekin baat kabhi aage naheen badhi. rai ne is pariyojana ki asafalata ke kaaran 1980 ke ek site end saaund (Sight & Sound) praaroop mein ginaae hain aur anya vivran inke aadhikaarik jeevani lekhak endroo raubinsan ne the inar aai (The Inner Eye, antardrushti) mein diye hain. jab 1982 mein E.ti. film pradarshit hui to rai ne apne kathaanak aur is film mein kai samaanataaeain dekheen. rai ka vishvaas tha ki steven Spielberg ki yeh film unke kathaanak ke bina sambhav naheen thi (haalaanki Spielberg iska khandan karte hain).[28] 1969 mein rai ne vyaavasaayik roop se apni sabse safal film banaai — gupi gaain baagha baain (গaaুaaপaaি গaaাaaইaaন বaaাaaঘaaা বaaাaaইaaন, gupi gaae baagha bajaae). yeh sangeetamaya film inke daada dvaara likhi ek kahaani par aadhaarit hai. gaayak goopi aur dholi baagha ko bhooton ka raaja teen varadaan deta hai, jinki madad se ve do padosi deshon mein hone vaale yuddh ko rokate hain. yeh rai ke sabse kharcheele udyamon mein se thi aur iske liye poonji bahut mushkil se mili. rai ko aakhirkaar ise rangeen banaane ka vichaar tyaagana pada.[29] rai ki agali film thi aranyer dinraatri (অaaরaaণaa্aaযaaেaaর দaaিaaনaaরaaাaaতaa্aaরaaি, jungle mein din-raat), jiski sangeet-sanrachana chaarulata se bhi jatil maani jaati hai.[30] ismein chaar aise navayuvakon ki kahaani hai jo chhutti manaane jungle mein jaate hain. ismein simi garevaal ne ek jangali jaati ki aurat ki bhoomika nibhaai hai. aalochak ise bhaarateeya madhyam varg ki maanasikta ki chhavi maanate hain.

iske baad rai ne samasaamayik bangaali vaastavikta par dhyaan dena shuru kiya. Bengal mein us samay naksalavaadi kraanti jor pakad rahi thi. aise samay mein navayuvakon ki maanasikta ko lekar inhonne Calcutta trayi ke naam se jaane waali teen filmein banaain — pratidvandvi (পaa্aaরaaতaaিaaদaa্aaবaaনaa্aaদaa্aaবaaী) (1970), seemaabaddh (সaaীaaমaaাaaবaaদaa্aaধ) (1971) aur janaaranya (জaaনaaঅaaরaaণaa্aaয) (1975). in teenon filmon ki kalpana alag-alag hui lekin inke vishay saath milaakar ek trayi ka roop lete hain. pratidvandvi ek aadarshavaadi navayuvak ki kahaani hai jo samaaj se moh-bhang hone par bhi apne aadarsh naheen tyaagata hai. ismein rai ne katha-varnan ki ek nayi shaili apnaai, jismein inhonne negetiv mein drushya, svapn drushya aur aakasmik flaish-back ka upayog kiya. janaaranya film mein ek navayuvak ki kahaani hai jo jeevika kamaane ke liye bhrasht raahon par chalne lagta hai. seemaabaddh mein ek safal yuvak adhik dhan kamaane ke liye apni naitikta chhod deta hai. rai ne 1970 ke dashak mein apni do lokapriya kahaaniyon — sonaar kella (সaaোaaনaaাaaর কaaেaaলaa্aaলaaা, svarn kila) aur jauya Baba felunaath (জaaযaa় বaaাaaবaaা ফaaেaaলaaুaaনaaাaaথ) — ka filmaankan kiya. donon filmein bachchon aur badon donon mein bahut lokapriya raheen.[31]

rai ne Bangladesh mukti yuddh par bhi ek film banaane ki sochi, lekin baad mein yeh vichaar tyaag diya kyonki unhein raajaneeti se adhik sharanaarthiyon ke palaayan aur haalat ko samajhne mein adhik ruchi thi.[32] 1977 mein rai ne munshi premachand ki kahaani par aadhaarit shataranj ke khilaadi film banaai. yeh urdoo bhaasha ki film 1857 ke bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke ek varsh pehle avadh raajya mein Lucknow shahar mein kendrit hai. ismein Bhaarat ke gulaam banane ke kaaranon par prakaash daala gaya hai. ismein Bollywood ke bahut se sitaaron ne kaam kiya, jinmein pramukh hain — sanjeev Kumar, Saeed jaafri, amajad Khan, shabaana aajmi, Victor bainarji aur richrd etanabaro. 1980 mein rai ne gupi gaain baagha baain ki kahaani ko aage badhaate hue heerak raaj naamak film banaai jismein heere ke raaja ka raajya indira Gandhi ke aapaatakaal ke dauraan ke Bhaarat ki or ingit karta hai.[33] is kaal ki do anya filmein thi — laghu film pikoor daayari (pikoo ki dainandini) ya piku aur ghante-bhar lambi hindi film sadagati.

antim kaal (1983–1992)

rai bahut samay se thaakur ke upanyaas ghare baaire par aadhaarit film banaane ki soch rahe the.[34] beemaari ki vajah se ismein kuchh bhaag utkrusht naheen hain, lekin film ko saraahana bahut mili. 1987 mein unhonne apne pita sukumaar rai ke jeevan par ek vruttachitr banaaya.

rai ki aakhiri teen filmein unki beemaari ke kaaran mukhyat: aantarik sthaanon mein shoot huin aur is kaaran se ek vishisht shaili ka anusaran karti hain. inmein samvaad adhik hai aur inhein rai ki baaki filmon se nimn shreni mein rakha jaata hai. inmein se pehli, ganashatru (গaaণaaশaaতaa্aaরaaু), henarik ibasan ke prakhyaat naatak N enimi of the peepal par aadhaarit hai aur in teenon mein se sabse kamjor maani jaati hai.[35] 1990 ki film shaakha prashaakha (শaaাaaখaaা পaa্aaরaaশaaাaaখaaা) mein rai ne apni puraani gunavatta kuchh vaapis praapt ki.[36] ismein ek boodhe aadmi ki kahaani hai, jisne apna poora jeevan imaandaari se bitaaya hota hai, lekin apne teen beton ke bhrasht aacharan ka pata lagne par use keval apne chauthe, maanasik roop se beemaar, bete ki sangat raas aati hai. rai ki antim film aagantuk (আaaগaaনaa্aaতaaুaaক) ka maahaul halka hai lekin vishay bahut goodh hai. ismein ek bhoola-bisra maama apni bhaanji se achaanak milne aa pahuainchata hai, to uske aane ke vaastavik kaaran par shanka ki jaane lagti hai.

film kaushal

satyajit rai maanate the ki kathaanak likhna nirdeshan ka abhinn ang hai. yeh ek kaaran hai jiski vajah se unhonne praarambh mein baangla ke atirikt kisi bhi bhaasha mein film naheen banaai. anya bhaashaaon mein bani inki donon filmon ke liye inhonne pehle angreji mein kathaanak likha, jise inke paryavekshan mein anuvaadakon ne hindi ya urdoo mein bhaashaantarit kiya. rai ke kala nirdeshak bansi chandragupta ki drushti bhi rai ki tarah hi paini thi. shuruaati filmon par inka prabhaav itna mahattvapoorn tha ki rai kathaanak pehle angreji mein likhte the taaki baangla na jaanane vaale chandragupta use samajh sakein. shuruaati filmon ke chhaayaankan mein subrat mitr ka kaarya bahut saraaha jaata hai aur aalochak maanate hain ki anban hone ke baad jab mitr chale gaye to rai ki filmon ke chitraankan ka star ghat gaya.[25] rai ne mitr ki bahut prashansa ki, lekin rai itni ekaagrata se filmein banaate the ki chaarulata ke baad se rai camera khud hi chalaane lage, jiske kaaran mitr ne 1966 se rai ke liye kaam karna band kar diya. mitr ne bounce-prakaash ka sarvapratham prayog kiya jismein ve prakaash ko kapde par se uchhaal kar vaastavik prateet hone wala prakaash rach lete the. rai ne apne ko fraanseesi nav tarang ke jaaain-luk gaudaar aur fraansva troofo ka bhi rini maanate the, jinke nae takaneeki aur cinema prayogon ka upayog rai ne apni filmon mein kiya.[37]

haalaanki dulaal datta rai ke niyamit film sampaadak the, rai aksar sanpaadan ke nirnaya khud hi lete the aur datta baaki kaam karte the. vaastav mein aarthik kaaranon se aur rai ke kushal niyojan se sanpaadan aksar camere par hi ho jaata tha. shuru mein rai ne apni filmon ke sangeet ke liye liye ravi shankar, vilaayat khaaain aur Ali akbar khaaain jaise bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeetajnyaon ke saath kaam kiya, lekin rai ko lagne laga ki in sangeetajnyaon ko film ki apeksha sangeet ki saadhana mein adhik ruchi hai.[38] saath hi rai ko paashchaatya sangeet ka bhi gyaan tha jiska prayog vah filmon mein karna chaahate the. in kaaranon se teen kanya (তaaিaaন কaaনaa্aaযaaা) ke baad se filmon ka sangeet bhi rai khud hi rachane lage. rai ne vibhinn prushthabhoomi vaale abhinetaaon ke saath kaam kiya, jinmein se kuchh vikhyaat sitaare the, to kuchh ne kabhi film dekhi tak naheen thi.[39] rai ko bachchon ke abhinay ke nirdeshan ke liye bahut saraaha gaya hai, visheshat: apu evam durga (paather paanchaali), ratan (postamaastar) aur mukul (sonaar kella). abhineta ke kaushal aur anubhav ke anusaar rai ka nirdeshan kabhi na ke baraabar hota tha (aagantuk mein utpal datt) to kabhi ve abhinetaaon ko kathaputaliyon ki tarah prayog karte the (aparna ki bhoomika mein sharmila Tagore).[40]

sameeksha evam pratikriya

rai ki krutiyon ko maanavata aur samashti se ot-prot kaha gaya hai. inmein baahari saralata ke peechhe aksar gahari jatilta chhipi hoti hai.[41][42] inki krutiyon ko anyaanya shabdon mein saraaha gaya hai. akira kurosaava ne kaha, “araaya ka cinema na dekhna is jagat mein soorya ya chandrama ko dekhe bina rahane ke samaan hai.” aalochakon ne inki krutiyon ko anya kai kalaakaaron se tulana ki hai — aanton chekhav, jaaain ranvaar, vittoriyo de sika, haavard hauks, motsaart, yahaaain tak ki sheksapiyr ke samatulya paaya gaya hai.[43][44] naaipaul ne shataranj ke khilaadi ke ek drushya ki tulana sheksapiyr ke naatakon se ki hai – “akeval teen sau shabd bole gaye, lekin itne mein hi adbhut ghatanaaeain ho gain!”[45] jin aalochakon ko rai ki filmein suruchipoorn naheen lagateen, ve bhi maanate hain ki rai ek sampoorn sanskruti ki chhavi film par utaarane mein adviteeya the.[46]

rai ki aalochna mukhyat: inki filmon ki gati ko lekar ki jaati hai. aalochak kehte hain ki ye ek “araajasi ghonghe” ki gati se chalti hain.[23] rai ne khud maana ki ve is gati ke baare mein kuchh naheen kar sakte, lekin kurosaava ne inka paksh lete hue kaha, “ainhein dheema naheen kaha ja sakta. ye to vishaal nadi ki tarah shaanti se bahti hain.” iske atirikt kuchh aalochak inki maanavata ko saada aur inke kaaryon ko aadhunikta-virodhi maanate hain aur kehte hain ki inki filmon mein abhivyakti ki nai shailiyaaain naheen nazar aati hain. ve kehte hain ki rai “amaan lete hain ki darshak aisi film mein ruchi rakheinge jo keval charitron par kendrit rahati hai, bajaae aisi film ke jo unke jeevan mein nae mod laati hai.”[47]

rai ki aalochna samaajavaadi vichaaradhaaraaon ke raajanetaaon ne bhi ki hai. inke anusaar rai pichhde samudaayon ke logon ke utthaan ke liye pratibaddh naheen the, balki apni filmon mein gareebi ka saundaryeekaran karte the. ye apni kahaaniyon mein dvandv aur sangharsh ko sulajhaane ke tareeke bhi naheen sujhaate the. 1960 ke dashak mein rai aur mrunaal sen ke beech ek saarvajanik bahas hui. mrunaal sen spasht roop se maarksavaadi the aur unke anusaar rai ne uttam Kumar jaise prasiddh abhineta ke saath film banaakar apne aadarshon ke saath samjhauta kiya. rai ne palatakar javaab diya ki sen apni filmon mein keval bangaali madhyam varg ko hi nishaana banaate hain kyonki is varg ki aalochna karna aasaan hai. 1980 mein saansad evam abhinetri naragis ne rai ki khulkar aalochna ki ki ye “agareebi ki niryaata” kar rahe hain aur inse maaaing ki ki ye aadhunik Bhaarat ko darshaati hui filmein banaaeain.[48]

saahityik krutiyaaain

satyajit rai ki kahaaniyon ke sankalan ka mukhaprushth

rai ne baangla bhaasha ke baal-saahitya mein do lokapriya charitron ki rachana ki — guptachar feluda (ফaaেaaলaaুaaদaaা) aur vaigyaanik profesar shanku. inhonne kai laghu-kathaaeain bhi likheen, jo baarah-baarah kahaaniyon ke sankalan mein prakaashit hoti theen aur sada unke naam mein baarah se sambandhit shabdon ka khel rahata tha. udaaharan ke liye eker pithe dui (এaaকaaেaaর পaaিaaঠaaে দaaুaaই, ek ke oopar do). rai ko paheliyon aur bahuarthi shabdon ke khel se bahut prem tha. ise inki kahaaniyon mein bhi dekha ja sakta hai – feluda ko aksar maamale ki tah tak jaane ke liye paheliyaaain sulajhaani padti hain. sharlak homs aur Doctor Watson ki tarah feluda ki kahaaniyon ka varnan usaka chachera bhaai topase karta hai. professor shanku ki vijnyaaanakathaaeain ek dainandini ke roop mein hain jo shanku ke achaanak gaayab ho jaane ke baad milti hai. rai ne in kahaaniyon mein agyaat aur romaanchak tatvon ko bheetar tak tatola hai, jo unki filmon mein naheen dekhne ko milta hai.[49] inki lagbhag sabhi kahaaniyaaain hindi, angreji aur anya bhaashaaon mein anoodit ho chuki hain.

rai ke lagbhag sabhi kathaanak bhi baangla bhaasha mein saahityik patrika ekashaan (এaaকaaশaaাaaন) mein prakaashit ho chuke hain. rai ne 1982 mein aatmakatha likhi jakhan chhoto chhilm (jab main chhota tha). iske atirikt inhonne filmon ke vishay par kai pustakein likhi hain, jinmein se pramukh hai aavar films, deyar films (Our Films, Their Films, hamaari filmein, unki filmein). 1976 mein prakaashit is pustak mein rai ki likhi aalochanaaon ka sankalan hai. iske pehle bhaag mein bhaarateeya cinema ka vivran hai aur doosra bhaag Hollywood par kendrit hai. rai ne Charlie chaipalin aur akeera kurosaava jaise nirdeshakon aur itaalavi navayathaarthavaad jaise vishyon par vishesh dhyaan diya hai. 1976 mein hi inhonne ek aur pustak prakaashit ki — vishay chalachitr (বaaিaaষaaযaa় চaaলaaচaa্aaচaaিaaতaa্aaর) jismein cinema ke vibhinn pahaluon par inke chintan ka sankshipt vivran hai. iske atirikt inki ek aur pustak ekei bole shooting (এaaকaaেaaই বaaলaaে শaaুaaটaaিaaং, isko shooting kehte hai) (1979) aur filmon par anya nibandh bhi prakaashit hue hain.

rai ne betuki kavitaaon ka ek sankalan todaaya baaaindha ghodaar dim (তaaোaaডaa়aaাaaযaa় বaaাaaঁaaধaaা ঘaaোaaডaa়aaাaaর ডaaিaaম, ghode ke andon ka guchha) bhi likha hai, jismein Louis kairal ki kavita jaibaravauki ka anuvaad bhi shaamil hai. inhonne baangla mein mulla nasaruddeen ki kahaaniyon ka sankalan bhi prakaashit kiya.

sammaan evam puraskaar

rai ko jeevan mein anekon puraskaar aur sammaan mile. oksafrd vishvavidyaalaya ne inhein maanad dauktaret ki upaadhiyaaain pradaan ki. Charlie chaipalin ke baad ye is sammaan ko paane vaale pehle film nirdeshak the. inhein 1985 mein daadaasaahab faalke puraskaar aur 1987 mein fraaains ke lejyon the'onu puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya. mrutyu se kuchh samay pehle inhein sammaanadaayak academy puraskaar aur Bhaarat ka sarvochch sammaan Bhaarat ratn pradaan kiye gaye. maranoparaant sain frainsisko antararaashtreeya filmotsav mein inhein nirdeshan mein jeevan-paryant upalabdhi-svaroop akira kurosaava puraskaar mila jise inki or se sharmila Tagore ne grahan kiya.[50] saamaanya roop se yeh samjha jaata hai ki dil ka daura padne ke baad unhonne jo filmein banaain unamein pehle jaisi ojasvita naheen thi. unka vyaktigat jeevan kabhi media ke nishaane par naheen raha lekin kuchh ka vishvaas hai ki 1960 ke dashak mein film abhinetri maadhavi mukharji se unke sambandh rahe.[51]

dharohar

satyajit rai Bhaarat aur vishvabhar ke bangaali samudaaya ke liye ek saanskrutik prateek hain. bangaali cinema par rai ne amit chhaap chhodi hai. bahut se baangla nirdeshak inke kaarya se prerit hue hain — aparna sen, rituparn ghosh, Gautam ghosh, taarik masood aur tanveer mukammal. bhaarateeya cinema par inke prabhaav ko har shaili ke nirdeshak maanate hain, jinmein buddhadev daasagupta, mrunaal sen[52] aur adoor gopaalakrushnan shaamil hain. Bhaarat ke baahar bhi Martin sorseesi,[53] James aaivari,[54] Abbas kiyaarostaami aur eliya kaajaan jaise nirdeshak bhi inki shaili se prabhaavit hue hain. ira saiks ki film faurti sheds of blu (Forty Sheds of Blue, chaalees tarah ke neele rang) bahut kuchh chaarulata par aadhaarit thi. rai ki krutiyon ke havaale anya kai filmon mein milte hain, jaise sekred ivil (Sacred Evil, paavan dushtata),[55] deepa Mehta ki tatv trayi aur jaaain-luk gaudaar ki kai krutiyaaain.[56]

1993 mein UC Santa krooj ne rai ki filmon aur un par aadhaarit saahitya ka sankalan karna praarambh kiya. 1995 mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne filmon se sambandhit adhyayan ke liye satyajit rai film evam telivijn sansthaan ki sthaapana ki. London filmotsav mein niyamit roop se ek aise nirdeshak ko satyajit rai puraskaar diya jaata hai jisne pehli film mein hi “arai ki drushti ki kala, samvedna aur maanavataa” ko apnaaya ho. 2007 mein, british braudakaasting kaurporeshan ghoshana ki ki unki do feluda kahaaniyon par radio kaaryakram taiyaar kiye jaaeainge.[57]

saanskrutik havaale

amareekan kaartoon dhaaraavaahik the simpsans mein apu nahasapeemaapetilon ke charitra ka naam rai ke sammaan mein rakha gaya tha. rai aur maadhavi mukharji pehle bhaarateeya film vyaktitv the jinki tasveer kisi videshi daakatikt (dominika desh) par chhapi. kai saahityik krutiyon mein rai ki filmon ka havaala diya gaya hai — saul belo ka upanyaas harjog aur J. M. kotaji ka yooth (yauvan). Salman rashadi ke baal-upanyaas haarun end the si of storeej (Harun and the Sea of Stories, haarun aur kahaaniyon ka saagar) mein do machhaliyon ka naam “agupee” aur “abaaghaa” hai.

sandarbh

teeka-tippani

  1. “araaya, satyajit”. Encyclopæadia Britannica. ensaaiklopeediya britainika inkaurporeshan. <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9062818>. abhigman tithi: 1 April, 2007
  2. setan 1971, prushth 36
  3. raubinsan 2003, prushth 46
  4. setan 1971, prushth 70
  5. setan 1971, prushth 71–72
  6. raubinsan 2003, prushth 56–58
  7. raubinsan 2005, prushth 38
  8. raubinsan 2005, prushth 42–44
  9. raubinsan 2005, prushth 48
  10. raubinsan 2003, prushth 5
  11. amitaav ghosh. "Satyajit Ray". doom online. http://www.doononline.net/pages/info_features/features_spotlights/spotlights/aghosh/ray.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  12. setan 1971, prushth 95
  13. a aa setan 1971, prushth 112–15
  14. "Filmi Funda Pather Panchali (1955)". the teligraaf. 20 April, 2005. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1050420/asp/calcutta/story_4634530.asp.
  15. mailkam di.. 36064,00.html "Satyajit Ray: The Music Room". gaardiyn.ko.UK. http://film.guardian.co.uk/Century_Of_Films/Story/0, 36064,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  16. vud 1972, prushth 61
  17. vud 1972
  18. rai ne rai 1993, prushth 13 mein iska varnan kiya hai.
  19. paalopoli S. "Ghost 'World'". metroektiv.com. http://www.metroactive.com/papers/cruz/10.08.03/apu-0341.html. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  20. raubinsan 2003, prushth 277
  21. setan 1971, prushth 189
  22. raubinsan 2003, prushth 142
  23. a aa raubinsan 2003, prushth 157
  24. Antony J. "Charulata". slaant maigajeen. http://www.slantmagazine.com/film/film_review.asp?ID=1080. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  25. a aa daasagupt 1996, prushth 91
  26. nyoomain pi. "Biography for Satyajit Ray". Internet moovi detaabes inkaurporeshan. http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0006249/bio. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  27. "The Unmade Ray". satyajit rai society. http://www.worldofray.com/raysfilmography/unmaderay.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  28. nyoomain J (17 September 2001). "Satyajit Ray Collection receives Packard grant and lecture endowment". UC Santa krooj kareints online. http://www.ucsc.edu/currents/01-02/09-17/ray.html.
  29. setan 1971, prushth 291-297
  30. vud 1972, prushth 13
  31. rashadi 1992
  32. raubinsan 2003, prushth 206
  33. raubinsan 2003, prushth 188-189
  34. raubinsan 2003, prushth 66-67
  35. daasagupt 1996, prushth 134
  36. raubinsan 2003, prushth 353
  37. sen A. "Western Influences on Satyajit Ray". parabaas. http://www.parabaas.com/satyajit/articles/pAbhijit.html. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  38. raubinsan 2003, prushth 315-318
  39. rai 1994, prushth 100
  40. raubinsan 2003, prushth 307
  41. mailkam di. "The universe in his backyard". gaardiyn.ko.UK. http://film.guardian.co.uk/features/featurepages/0,4120,708691,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  42. svaagro M. "An Art Wedded to Truth". the etalaintik manthali. http://satyajitray.ucsc.edu/articles/sragow.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  43. vud 1972
  44. ebart aar. "The Music Room (1958)". sanataaims.com. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19990117/REVIEWS08/401010342/1023. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  45. raubinsan 2003, prushth 246
  46. raubinsan 2005, prushth 13-14
  47. raubinsan 2003, prushth 352-353
  48. raubinsan 2003, prushth 327-328
  49. nandi 1995
  50. "Awards and Tributes". sain frainsisko intaranaishanal film festivl. http://history.sffs.org/awards_tributes/search.php?search_by=6&searchfield=Satyajit+Ray.
  51. raubinsan 2003, prushth 362
  52. mrunaal sen. "Our lives, their lives". little maigajeen. http://www.littlemag.com/2000/mrinal.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  53. kris ingvi. "Martin Scorsese hits DC, hangs with the Hachet". haichet. http://www.gwhatchet.com/media/storage/paper332/news/2002/03/04/Arts/Martin.Scorsese.Hits.Dc.Hangs.With.The.Hachet-195598.shtml?norewrite200607071207&sourcedomain=www.gwhatchet.com. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  54. Sheldon hall. "Ivory, James (1928—)". screen online. http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/id/532213/index.html. abhigman tithi: 2007.
  55. S. ke. jha. "Sacred Ray". teligraaf India. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1060609/asp/etc/story_6319302.asp. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  56. endre haabeeb. "Before and After: Origins and Death in the Work of Jean-Luc Godard". seinsas of cinema. http://archive.sensesofcinema.com/contents/01/16/godard_habib.html. abhigman tithi: 2006.
  57. datt S. "Feluda goes global, via radio". faainainshiyl express. http://www.financialexpress.com/fe_archive_full_story.php?content_id=152924. abhigman tithi: 2007.

granth evam nibandhasoochi

baahari kadiyaaain

satyajit rai ko kala ke kshetr mein Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara san 1965 mein padm bhooshan se sammaanit kiya gaya tha.

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