satya

satya (truth) ke alag-alag sandarbhon mein evam alag-alag siddhaanton mein sarvatha bhinn-bhinn arth hain.

anukram

satya ke vibhinn siddhaant

nyaaya darshan mein pramukh roop mein pratyek nirnaya aur anumaan par vichaar hota hai. inmein nirnaya ka sthaan keindreeya hai. nirnaya ka shaabdik prakaashan vaakya hai. jab ham kisi vaakya ko sunate hain, to use sveekaar karte hain ya asveekaar karte hain; sveekaar aur asveekaar mein nishchaya na kar sakane ki avastha sandeh kahalaati hai. pratyek nirnaya satya hone ka daava karta hai. jab ham ise sveekaar karte hain to iske daave ko satya maanate hain; asveekaar karne mein use asatya kehte hain. vishvaas hamaari saadhaaran maanasik avastha hai. jab kisi vishvaas mein truti dikhaai deti hai, to ham iska sthaan kisi anya vishvaas tak jaane ki maanasik kriya hi chintan hai. vishvaas, satya ho ya asatya, kriya ka aadhaar hai, yahi jeevan mein ise mahatvapoorn banaata hai. nyaaya ka kaam nirnaya ya vaakya ke satyaasatya ki jaaainch karna hai; iske liye yeh baat asangat hai ki koi ise vaastav mein satya maanata hai ya naheen.

satya ke sambandh mein do prashn vichaar ke yogya hain - kisi nirnaya ya vaakya ko satya kehne mein hamaara abhipraaya kya hota hai.

satya aur asatya mein bhed karne ka maapak saadhan kya hai? hamaare gyaan ke vishyon mein pramukh ye hain - hamaari apni chetna avasthaaeain, praakrutik padaarth, tatha chetna ke anya kendra, ya doosaron ke man.

main kehta hooain ki mujhe daant mein dard ho raha hai. iska arth kya hai? mera anubhav ek dhaara hai jismein nirantar gati hoti rahati hai. main kehta hooain ki dhaara ka jo bhaag vartamaan mein gyaat hai, du:kh ki anubhooti usamein pramukh paksh hai. mere liye yeh spasht anubhav hai aur main ismein sandeh kar hi naheen sakta. mere liye ise jaaainchane ko doosra maapak na hai, na ho sakta hai. spasht bodh se adhik adhikaar kisi anya anubhav ka naheen.

anuroopata ka siddhaant (Correspondence theory)

anya chetanon ka hamein spasht bodh naheen ho sakta. kuchh log kehte hain ki anuroopata ke aadhaar par ham unke astitv mein vishvaas karte hain. parantu aisa anumaan karne ki yogyata praapt hone se pehle hi bachcha aisa vishvaas karta hai. sambhavat: vah sabhi padaarthon ko apne namoone ka samajhta hai aur peechhe kuchh vastuon ko apne asamaan paakar achetan samajhne lagta hai.

nirnaayon ke satya asatya ka prashn praaya: praakrutik tathyon ke sambandh mein uthata hai. main kehta hooain "mej par pustak padi hai" is vaakya ke yathaarth hone ka arth kya hai?

main khyaal karta hooain ki mujhse alag, baahar, mej aur pustak vidyamaan hain aur unamein ek vishesh sambandh hai. yadi sthiti vaastav mein aisi hi hai to mera vaakya satya hai; aisa na hone ki haalat mein asatya hai. yeh "satya ka anuroopata siddhaant" hai.

anuroopata ka siddhaant vastuvaad se gathit hai aur sarvamaanya sa hai. Bhaarat ke darshan mein pratyaksh ko pratham pramaan ka pad diya gaya hai. pratyaksh "indriya aur uske vishay ke saameepya ka fal hai". yeh saameepya do prakaar se ho sakta hai : ya to padaarth indriya ke paas aae, ya man indriya dwaar se gujarakar padaarth tak pahuainche. doosari ghatna ghatati hai aur man vishay ka roop grahan karta hai. yeh anuroopata siddhaant ka spasht samarthan hai.

anuroopata siddhaant ke anusaar ham apne vichaar aur baahya sthiti mein samaanata dekhte hain. apne vichaaron ka to hamein spasht bodh hota hai, par baahar ki sthiti ko ham kaise jaante hain? ham do vichaaron ko saath rakhakar unki samaanata asamaanata ki baabat kah sakte hain, parantu baahya padaarth to hamaari chetna mein pravisht hi naheen ho sakta. usaki tulana kisi vichaar se kaise kareinge? anuroopataavaad mein yeh maan liya jaata hai ki baahya sthiti ka gyaan hamein pehle se hi hai. yadi pehle hi aisa gyaan ho to nirnaya ke satya asatya hone ka prashn hi naheen uthata. hamaari sthiti aise manushya ki sthiti hai jisne Tajmahal ke chitr dekhe hain, parantu Tajmahal ko naheen dekha aur jaanana chaahata hai ki ve chitr parantu Tajmahal ko naheen dekha aur jaanana chaahata hai ki ve chitr Tajmahal ko vaastavik roop mein dikhaate hain ya naheen.

avirodh ka siddhaant (Coherence theory of truth)

adhyaatmavaad kehta hai ki vastuvaad ke paas is aapatti se bachane ka koi saadhan naheen. satya ke maapak ki khoj swayam anubhav mein karni chaahiye. anubhav mein "aantarik avirodh" satya ki kasauti hai. apne pichhle drushtaant ko fir lein. "pustak mej par padi hai", main yeh kaise jaanta hooain? aankh aisa bataati hai. yeh ek anubhav hai. parantu aaainkh kabhi kabhi dhokha bhi de deti hai. main haath se pustak aur mej ko chhoota hooain. yeh doosra anubhav pehle anubhav ki pushti karta hai. haath se khatakaata hooain to jo shabd sunaai deta hai, vah pustak aur mej se nikla prateet hota hai. teesara anubhav pehle donon anubhavon ki pushti karta hai doosare bhi pustak ko mej par pada dekhte hain. anuroopata satya ka chinh hai, parantu yeh anuroopata vichaar aur baahya padaarth ke daramiyaan naheen, anubhav ke vividh bhaagon ke daramiyaan hoti hai. aakarshananiym ke anusaar pratyek padaarth anya padaarthon se aakrusht hota hai aur unhein kheenchata bhi hai. isi tarah satya gyaan ke sabhi bhaag ek doosare par aashrit hain. jo nirnaya is tarah shesh anubhav se yukt ho sakta hai, vah satya hai; jismein yeh yogyata naheen vah asatya hai.

is vivran se aisa lagta hai ki satya anek satya vaakyon ka samudaaya hai aur is samudaaya mein pratyek satya ki apni svatantr sthiti hai. avirodhavaad is vichaar ko sveekaar naheen karta. satya samudaaya naheen apitu samagr hai jiska tatv aanshik satyon ke roop ko nishchit karta hai. vaastav mein satya ek hi hai, bahuvachan mein satyon ka varnan karna anuchit hai. samooh mein kuchh ekaang alag ho jaae to doosaron ki sthiti mein bhed naheen padta. inton ke dher mein se koi chaar intein utha le jaae, to baaki inton ko ismein aapatti naheen hoti. shareer ke ek ang par chot lage, to saara shareer dukhi hota hai. aanshik satyon mein har ek ansh samagr ko kisi paksh mein darasaata hai aur is vishay mein sabhi anshon ka moolya ek naheen hota. avirodhavaad ke anusaar satyon mein parimaan ka bhed hota hai.

jin vaakyon ko ham satya kehte hain, ve do prakaar ke hote hain- vaigyaanik niyam sambandhi aur tathya sambandhi. "do aur do chaar hote hain," yadi kisi trikon ke bhuj baraabar hon, to uske kon bhi baraabar honge. - yeh vaakya har kaheen aur sada satya hain; desh aur kaal ka bhed unke satya hone se asangat hai. "Bhaarat 1947 E. mein svaadheen hua." 1947 E. se pehle yeh vaakya kaha hi naheen ja sakta tha, parantu ab yeh bhi sada ke liye satya hai.

vyavahaaravaad

satya ka teesara siddhaant "vyavahaaravaad" ya "praigmetijm" ke naam se prasiddh hai. apne aadhunik roop mein yeh amareeka ki den hai. vaastav mein vyavahaaravaad koi siddhaant naheen, ek manovrutti hai jo saamaanya se vishesh ko, sthirta se parivartan ko, chintan se kriya ko adhik mahatva deti hai. is vichaar ke prasaar mein chaalrs peears, William James aur jaan diyooi ka vishesh bhaag hai. peears naiyaamik tha, James manovaigyaanik tha, diyooi ki abhiruchi neeti aur raajaneeti mein thi. peears ne pratyayon ke "arth" ko spasht karne mein vyavahaaravaad ki vidhi ka prayog kiya, James ne "satya ka svaroop nirneet karne mein ise barta, diyooi ne "bhadr" par ise laagoo kiya. is tarah ve nyaaya, saundaryashaastr aur neeti ko anubhavavaad ke nikat le aae.

peears ne nae vichaar ko "praigmetism" ka naam diya. usaki drudh dhaarana thi ki darshan ko vigyaan ke drushtikon aur usaki vidhi ko apanaana chaahiye. darshan ke liye satya gyaan nirpeksh ya samagr ka dosharahit gyaan hai; vigyaan ki drushti mein aisa gyaan maanav buddhi ke liye apraapya hai. hame saapeksh gyaan se santusht hona chaahiye, yahi hamaare liye kaam ki vastu hai. darshan ka pramukh kaam sveekrut maanyataaon ko siddh karna raha hai, vigyaan ke liye aavishkaar pramukh hai. naveen vaigyaanik vidhi mein aagaman aur nigman donon ka samanvaya hota hai. kuchh udaaharanon ki neenv par pratijnyaa ki jaati hai, use satya maankar nishkarsh nikaale jaate hain aur ant mein dekha jaata hai ki anubhav inki pushti karta hai ya naheen. kisi pratijnyaa ki aisi pushti hi usakeesatyata hai. pratyek satya ki sthiti saamayik pratijnyaa ki sthiti hai. praakrutik niyam bhi sthaayi naheen, ve bhi vikaasaadheen hain. aakarshanayim ka kshetr ab pehle se adhik vistrut hai aur bhavishya mein vartamaan se bhi adhik vistrut ho jaaega. niyam bhi aadaton ki tarah pusht hote jaate hain.

James ne amoort satya ko naheen, apitu vishesh vishvaason ke satya ko apne vivechan ka vishay banaaya. uske vichaaraanusaar satya koi sthaayi vastu naheen jise dekhna hi hamaara kaam hai, yeh to kriya mein banta hai. apni pustak "vyavahaaravaad" mein vah kehta hai-

"vyavahaaravaad, mool roop mein, un daarshanik vivaadon ko mitaane ka niyam hai jo iske bina antarahit hote. jagat ek hai ya anek? svaadheen hai ya paraadheen? praakrutik hai ya aadhyaatmik? ye vichaar aise hain jinmein ek ya doosra satya ya asatya ho sakta hai aur aise vichaaron par vivaadon ka koi ant naheen. vyavahaaravaad ki vidhi in vishyon ke sambandh mein yeh hai ki ham pratyek pratyaya ka samaadhaan iske vyaavahaarik parinaamon ke pareekshan se karein. yadi koi pratyaya doosare pratyaya ke sthaan mein satya hota, to isse kisi manushya ke liye vyaavahaarik bhed kya padta? yadi koi vyaavahaarik bhed dikhaai na de to vyavahaar mein donon pakshaantar ek hi hain aur saara vivaad vyarth hai. jab koi vivaad gambhir ho to hamein yeh dikhaai ke yogya hona chaahiye ki donon pakshon mein ek ya doosare ke satya hone par koi vyaavahaarik bhed hota hai".

James se bahut pehle isi bhaav ko prakat karte hue raamaanuj ne kaha tha-"vyavahaar yogyata satyam".

vyavahaaravaad jnyaaanameemaansa mein upayogitaavaad hai : "jo kuchh vishvaas ke sambandh mein apne aapko moolyavaan siddh karta hai, vah satya hai. vyavahaaravaad bina jhijhak ke yeh maan leta hai ki jo vishvaas ek ke liye satya hai, vah doosare ke liye asatya ho sakta hai.

oopar kaha gaya hai ki vyavahaaravaad saamaanya se vishesh ko aur sthirta se parivartan ko adhik mahatva deta hai. diyooi ki shiksha mein ham ise spasht dekhte hain.

raajaneeti mein raajatantr, shishtajanatantr aur prajaatantr shaasanon mein bhed kiya jaata hai. raajatantr aur shishtajanatantr adhik safal hon, to bhi prajaatantr unase achha hai, kyonki yeh vyakti ke moolya ko sveekaar karta hai. neeti mein kuchh niymapaalan ko aur kuchh shreya ki siddhi ko lakshya bataate hain. diyooi ke anusaar donon varg ek hi bhraanti mein pade hain; ve vishesh ko uchit mahatva naheen dete. neeti ko ek naheen anek niyamon ko, ek naheen anek saadhyon ko sveekaar karna chaahiye. uddeshya har haalat mein vartamaan kathinaai ko door karna hota hai; jo kriya ismein adhik se adhik sahaayak ho, vahi us sthiti mein sarvashreshth hai. koi manushya kaheen bhi sthit ho, vah achha manushya hai yadi vah aage badh raha hai, bura manushya hai yadi peechhe hat raha hai. jeevan ka ekamaatr lakshya utthaan ya vruddhi hai; poornata naheen, apitu poornata ki or nirantar gati hai.

yeh gati hi shiksha hai, naitik jeevan aur shiksha ek hi vastu hai. prachalit vichaar ke anusaar shikshaakaal taiyaari ka samay hai; yeh vyakti ko paraadheenata se vimukt karke svaadheen bana deta hai. yadi aisa hi hai, to shikshaakaal ki samaapti par shiksha ki aavashyakta bhi naheen rahati. diyooi kehta hai ki vruddhi ka yatn to jeevan ke ant tak jaari rahana chaahiye, saara jeevan hi shikshaakaal hai. jo kuchh schoolon kaalejon mein padhaaya jaata hai, usamein saahitya aur bhaashaaon ke gyaan ki apeksha vigyaan ko adhik mahatva milna chaahiye. vigyaan mein bhi jo bhaag pustakon se praapt hota hai, usase adhik moolya us bhaag ka hai jo vidyaarthi apni kriya se seekhata hai. manushya ka dimaag ka naheen, kriya ka astr hai.

nishkarsh

vaastav mein anuroopataavaad, avirodhavaad aur vyavahaaravaad ek hi prashn ka uttar naheen. do prashn uttar ki maaaing karte hain - satya se kya abhipret hai? satya aur asatya mein bhed karne ki kasauti kya hai? anuroopataavaad pehle prashn ka uttar deta hai; avirodhavaad aur vyavahaaravaad doosare prashn ka uttar dete hain. James ne kaha hai ki vyavahaar ki drushti mein jab koi vishvaas satya siddh hota hai, to uske liye aavashyak hai ki vah usi prakaar ke satyon se yukt ho sake. yeh dhaarana vyavahaar ko avirodhavaad ke nikat le aati hai. teenon vichaar ek doosare ke viruddh naheen, ek doosare ke poorak hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain