sataluj nadi

1857 mein Rampur mein satalaj nadi ka drushya

sataluj (punjabi: ਸaaਤaaਲaaੁaaਜ, aaingreji:Sutlej River, urdoo: دaaرaaيaaاaaۓ سaaتaaلaaُaaج) uttari Bhaarat mein bahanevaali ek sadaaneera nadi hai. iska pauraanik naam shatadru hai. jiski lambaai Punjab mein bahne waali paaainchon nadiyon mein sabse adhik hai. yeh Pakistan mein hokar bahti hai.

anukram

udgam

dakshin-pashchim Tibet mein samudra tal se 4,600 meter ki oonchaai par iska udgam maanasarovar ke nikat raakshas taal se hai, jahaan iska sthaaneeya naam logachen khambaav hai.

apavaah

udgam sthal se Himachal pradesh mein pravesh karne se pehle yeh pashchim ki or mudkar Kailash parvat ke dhaal ke paas bahti hai. yahaaain se yeh nadi gahre khaddon se hokar bahti hai aur parvat shreniyon ki kramik oonchaai sataluj ghaati mein chabootaron mein parivrtit ho jaati hai. Himachal pradesh ke pahaadon se apna raasta tay karaate huye yeh nadi Punjab ke naangal mein pravesh karti hai. naangal se kuchh kilometer oopar Himachal pradesh ke bhaakhada mein sataluj par baandh banaaya gaya hai. baandh ke peechhe ek vishaal jalaashaya ka nirmaan kiya gaya hai, jo govind saagar jalaashaya kahalaata hai. bhaakhada naangal pariyojana se panabijli ka utpaadan hota hai, jiski aapoorti Punjab aur aaspaas ke raajyon ko ki jaati hai. Punjab mein pravesh ke baad yeh nadi dakshin-poorv ke ropad jile mein shivaalik pahaadiyon ke beech bahti hai. ropad mein hi yeh pahaad se maidaan mein utarati hai, yahaaain se yeh pashchim ki or teji se mudkar Punjab ke madhya mein bahti hai, jahaan yeh best doaab (uttar) aur maalava (dakshin) ko vibhaajit karti hai. harike mein byaas nadi sataluj mein milti hai, jahaan se yeh dakshin-pashchim ki or mudkar Bhaarat aur Pakistan ke beech seema rekha nirdhaarit karti hai. iske baad yeh Bhaarat ko chhodakar kuchh doori ke liye Pakistan mein faajilka ke pashchim mein bahti hai. bahaavalapur ke nikat pashchim ki or yeh chanaab nadi se milti hai. donon nadiyaan milkar panchanad ka nirmaan karti hai.[1]

naamollekh

rigved ke nadeesookt mein ise shutudri kaha gaya hai.[2]vaidik kaal mein sarasvati nadi 'shutudri' mein hi milti thi. paravarti saahitya mein iska prachalit naam 'shatadru ya shatadroo' (sau shaakhaaon waali) hai. vaalmeeki raamaayan mein kekaya se ayodhya aate samay bharat dvaara shatadru ke paar karne ka varnan hai.[3] mahaabhaarat mein Punjab ki anya nadiyon ke saath hi shatadru ka bhi ullekh hai.[4]shreemadabhaagavat[5] mein iska chandrabhaaga tatha maroodavrudha aadi ke saath ullekh hai-'sushoma shatadrushchandrabhaagaamaroodavrudha vitsta'.vishnu puraan[6] mein shatadru ko himvaan parvat se nissrut kaha gaya hai- 'shatadruchandrabhaagaadya himvatpaadanirgataa:'. vaastav mein sataluj ka srot raavanahnad naamak jheel hai jo maanasarovar ke pashchim mein hai. vartamaan samay mein sataluj 'biyaas' (vipaasa) mein milti hai. kintu 'di mihraan of sindh end itraj trivyootereej' ke lekhak rebarti ka mat hai ki '1790 E. ke pehle sataluj, biyaas mein naheen milti thi. is varsh biyaas aur satalaj donon ke maarg badal gaye aur ve sannikt aakar mil gayi.' shatadru vaidik shutudri ka roopaantar hai tatha iska arth shat dhaaraaon waali nadi kiya ja sakta hai. jisse iski anek upanadiyon ka astitv ingit hota hai. greek lekhakon ne satalaj ko hejeedras kaha hai. kintu inke granthon mein is nadi ka ullekh bahut kam aaya hai. kyonki alaksheindr ki senaaen byaas nadi se hi vaapas chali gayi thi aur unhein byaas ke poorv mein sthit desh ki jaankaari bahut thodi ho saki thi.

yogadaan

Punjab ki samruddhi ke peechhe sataluj ka bhi yogadaan hai. sataluj par bhaakhada par bane baandh se na sirf bijli ki aapoorti hoti hai, balki isse raajya ka bada hissa baadh se bhi bacha rahata hai. naagal baandh ki nahar, sarahind aur best doaab ki nahar, jo ropad se niklati hai, sarahind jaisi sahaayak nahar, Rajasthan nahar aur Bikaner nahar, jo husaineevaala se niklati hai, sabhi sataluj se hi paani praapt karti hain.

sahaayak nadiyaan

sandarbh

  1. Bhaarat jnyaaanakosh, khand-5, prushth-335, prakaashak-popyular prakaashan, I S bi N 81-7154-993-4
  2. rigved 10,75,5, shlok: iman mein gange yamune sarasvati shutudri stoman parushanya asiknyaamayadavrudhe vitstayarjeekeeye shrunuhma sushomaya.
  3. 'hlaadineen doorapaaraan ch pratyak srotastarangineem shatadrumataschheemaannadeemikshvaakunandan:' raamaayan, ayodhya kaand 71, 2 arthaat shreemaan ikshvaakunandan bharat ne prasannata pradaan karne waali, chaude paat waali aur pashchim ki or bahne waali shatadru paar ki.
  4. mahaabhaarat bheeshm parv 9, 15, shlok: 'shatadru-chandrabhaagaan ch yamunaan ch mahaanadeem, drushadvateen vipaashaan ch vipaapaan sthoolavaalukaam'.
  5. sushoma shatadrushchandrabhaagaamaroodavrudha vitsta shreemadabhaagavat 5, 18, 18
  6. vishnu puraan 2, 3, 10